Quantitative Biology - Molecular Networks Publications (50)

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Quantitative Biology - Molecular Networks Publications

Partially-observed Boolean dynamical systems (POBDS) are a general class of nonlinear models with application in estimation and control of Boolean processes based on noisy and incomplete measurements. The optimal minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithms for POBDS state estimation, namely, the Boolean Kalman filter (BKF) and Boolean Kalman smoother (BKS), are intractable in the case of large systems, due to computational and memory requirements. To address this, we propose approximate MMSE filtering and smoothing algorithms based on the auxiliary particle filter (APF) method from sequential Monte-Carlo theory. Read More


The learning rate is an information-theoretical quantity for bipartite Markov chains describing two coupled subsystems. It is defined as the rate at which transitions in the downstream subsystem tend to increase the mutual information between the two subsystems, and is bounded by the dissipation arising from these transitions. Its physical interpretation, however, is unclear, although it has been used as a metric for the sensing performance of the downstream subsystem. Read More


The stochastic dynamics of networks of biochemical reactions in living cells are typically modelled using chemical master equations (CMEs). The stationary distributions of CMEs are seldom solvable analytically, and few methods exist that yield numerical estimates with computable error bounds. Here, we present two such methods based on mathematical programming techniques. Read More


Assuming a steady-state condition within a cell, metabolic fluxes satisfy an under-determined linear system of stoichiometric equations. Characterizing the space of fluxes that satisfy such equa- tions along with given bounds (and possibly additional relevant constraints) is considered of utmost importance for the understanding of cellular metabolism. Extreme values for each individual flux can be computed with Linear Programming (as Flux Balance Analysis), and their marginal distribu- tions can be approximately computed with Monte-Carlo sampling. Read More


Signal transduction within biological cells is governed by networks of interacting proteins. Communication between these proteins is mediated by signaling molecules which bind to receptors and induce stochastic transitions between different conformational states. Signaling is typically a cooperative process which requires the occurrence of multiple binding events so that reaction rates have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of signaling molecule. Read More


Inverse problems in statistical physics are motivated by the challenges of `big data' in different fields, in particular high-throughput experiments in biology. In inverse problems, the usual procedure of statistical physics needs to be reversed: Instead of calculating observables on the basis of model parameters, we seek to infer parameters of a model based on observations. In this review, we focus on the inverse Ising problem and closely related problems, namely how to infer the interactions between spins given observed spin correlations, magnetisations, or other data. Read More


The study of Chemical Reaction Networks (CRN's) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results \cite{Feinberg:def_01:87, Anderson:product_dist:10} identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. Read More


Chemical reaction networks with generalized mass-action kinetics lead to power-law dynamical systems. As a simple example, we consider the Lotka reactions and the resulting planar ODE. We characterize the parameters (positive coefficients and real exponents) for which the unique positive equilibrium is a center. Read More


Improved understanding of molecular systems has only emphasised the sophistication of networks within the cell. Simultaneously, the advance of nucleic acid nanotechnology, a platform within which reactions can be exquisitely controlled, has made the development of artificial architectures and devices possible. Vital to this progress has been a solid foundation in the thermodynamics of molecular systems. Read More


The sampling of scale-free networks in Molecular Biology is usually achieved by growing networks from a seed using recursive algorithms with elementary moves which include the addition and deletion of nodes and bonds. These algorithms include the Barabasi-Albert algorithm. Later algorithms, such as the Duplication-Divergence algorithm, the Sol\'e algorithm and the iSite algorithm, were inspired by biological processes underlying the evolution of protein networks, and the networks they produce differ essentially from networks grown by the Barabasi-Albert algorithm. Read More


Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play multiple roles in tumor biology [1]. Interestingly, reports from multiple groups suggest that miRNA targets may be coupled through competitive stoichiometric sequestration [2]. Specifically, computational models predicted [3, 4] and experimental assays confirmed [5, 6] that miRNA activity is dependent on miRNA target abundance, and consequently, changes to the abundance of some miRNA targets lead to changes to the regulation and abundance of their other targets. Read More


Computational techniques are required for narrowing down the vast space of possibilities to plausible prebiotic scenarios, since precise information on the molecular composition, the dominant reaction chemistry, and the conditions for that era are scarce. The exploration of large chemical reaction networks is a central aspect in this endeavour. While quantum chemical methods can accurately predict the structures and reactivities of small molecules, they are not efficient enough to cope with large-scale reaction systems. Read More


Genetic oscillators are present in the cells of many organisms and control several biological processes. The common feature of such oscillators is the presence of a protein which represses the transcription of its own gene. Recently, it has been shown that for many genes transcription is not a continuous process, but that it proceeds in bursts. Read More


The major biochemical networks of the living cell, the network of interacting genes and the network of biochemical reactions, are highly interdependent, however, they have been studied mostly as separate systems so far. In the last years an appropriate theoretical framework for studying interdependent networks has been developed in the context of statistical physics. Here we study the interdependent network of gene regulation and metabolism of the model organism Escherichia coli using the theoretical framework of interdependent networks. Read More


Networks can model real-world systems in a variety of domains. Network alignment (NA) aims to find a node mapping that conserves similar regions between compared networks. NA is applicable to many fields, including computational biology, where NA can guide the transfer of biological knowledge from well- to poorly-studied species across aligned network regions. Read More


Astrocytes affect neural transmission by a tight control via glutamate transporters on glutamate concentrations in direct vicinity to the synaptic cleft and by extracellular glutamate. Their relevance for information representation has been supported by in-vivo studies in ferret and mouse primary visual cortex. In ferret blocking glutamate transport pharmacologically broadened tuning curves and enhanced the response at preferred orientation. Read More


Many biochemical reactions involve a stream of chemical reactants (ligand molecules) flowing over a surface to which other reactants (receptors) are confined. Scientists measure rate constants associated with these reactions in an optical biosensor: an instrument in which ligand molecules are convected through a flow cell, over a surface on which receptors are immobilized. In applications such as DNA damage repair multiple simultaneous reactions occur on the surface of the biosensor. Read More


P-values are being computed for increasingly complicated statistics but lacking evaluations on their quality. Meanwhile, accurate p-values enable significance comparison across batches of hypothesis tests and consequently unified false discover rate (FDR) control. This article discusses two related questions in this setting. Read More


We introduce an in silico model for the initial spread of an aberrant phenotype with Warburg-like overflow metabolism within a healthy homeostatic tissue in contact with a nutrient reservoir (the blood), aimed at characterizing the role of the microenvironment for aberrant growth. Accounting for cellular metabolic activity, competition for nutrients, spatial diffusion and their feedbacks on aberrant replication and death rates, we obtain a phase portrait where distinct asymptotic whole-tissue states are found upon varying the tissue-blood turnover rate and the level of blood-borne primary nutrient. Over a broad range of parameters, the spreading dynamics is bistable as random fluctuations can impact the final state of the tissue. Read More


Cancer complexome comprises a heterogeneous and multifactorial milieu that varies in cytology, physiology, signaling mechanisms and response to therapy. The combined framework of network theory and spectral graph theory along with the multilayer anal- ysis provides a comprehensive approach to analyze the proteomic data of seven different cancers, namely, breast, oral, ovarian, cervical, lung, colon and prostate. Our analysis demonstrates that the protein-protein interaction networks of the normal and the cancerous tissues associated with the seven cancers have overall similar structural and spectral properties. Read More


Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are key molecular determinants of T cell fate and effector function. A number of inflammatory diseases are characterized by an altered balance of T cell phenotypes and cytokine secretion. STATs, therefore, represent viable therapeutic targets in numerous pathologies. Read More


Competition to bind microRNAs induces an effective positive crosstalk between their targets, therefore known as `competing endogenous RNAs' or ceRNAs. While such an effect is known to play a significant role in specific conditions, estimating its strength from data and, experimentally, in physiological conditions appears to be far from simple. Here we show that the susceptibility of ceRNAs to different types of perturbations affecting their competitors (and hence their tendency to crosstalk) can be encoded in quantities as intuitive and as simple to measure as correlation functions. Read More


About half of human cancers show normal TP53 gene and aberrant overexpression of Mdm2 and/or MdmX. This fact promotes a promising cancer therapeutic strategy which targeting the interactions between p53 and Mdm2/MdmX. For developing the inhibitors to disrupt the p53-Mdm2/MdmX interactions, we systematically investigate structural and interaction characteristics of p53 and inhibitors with Mdm2 and MdmX from atomistic level by exploiting stochastic molecular dynamics simulations. Read More


While all organisms on Earth descend from a common ancestor, there is no consensus on whether the origin of this ancestral self-replicator was a one-off event or whether it was only the final survivor of multiple origins. Here we use the digital evolution system Avida to study the origin of self-replicating computer programs. By using a computational system, we avoid many of the uncertainties inherent in any biochemical system of self-replicators (while running the risk of ignoring a fundamental aspect of biochemistry). Read More


We introduce diffusively coupled networks where the dynamical system at each vertex is planar Hamiltonian. The problems we address are synchronisation and an analogue of diffusion-driven Turing instability for time-dependent homogeneous states. As a consequence of the underlying Hamiltonian structure there exist unusual behaviours compared with networks of coupled limit cycle oscillators or activator-inhibitor systems. Read More


We prove a sample path Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for a class of jump processes whose rates are not uniformly Lipschitz continuous in phase space. Building on it we further establish the corresponding Wentzell-Freidlin (W-F) (infinite time horizon) asymptotic theory. These results apply to jump Markov processes that model the dynamics of chemical reaction networks under mass action kinetics, on a microscopic scale. Read More


Background: The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) endows epithelial-looking cells with enhanced migratory ability during embryonic development and tissue repair. EMT can also be co-opted by cancer cells to acquire metastatic potential and drug-resistance. Recent research has argued that epithelial (E) cells can undergo either a partial EMT to attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype that typically displays collective migration, or a complete EMT to adopt a mesenchymal (M) phenotype that shows individual migration. Read More


Genetic and environmental perturbation experiments have been used to study microbes in a bid to gain insight into transcriptional regulation, adaptive evolution, and other cellular dynamics. These studies have potential in enabling rational strain design. Unfortunately, experimentally determined intracellular flux distribution are often inconsistent or incomparable due to different experimental conditions and methodologies. Read More


The cell has the ability to convert an extracellular biochemical change into the expression of genetic information through a chain of intracellular cycle reactions with information conversion. Here, we show that an individual reaction cycle can be regarded as a kind of Szilard engine. Accordingly, the work done at the individual cycle level can be calculated by measuring the amount of information transmitted. Read More


In order to function reliably, synthetic molecular circuits require mechanisms that allow them to adapt to environmental disturbances. Least mean squares (LMS) schemes, such as commonly encountered in signal processing and control, provide a powerful means to accomplish that goal. In this paper we show how the traditional LMS algorithm can be implemented at the molecular level using only a few elementary biomolecular reactions. Read More


Complex diseases can be modeled as damage to intracellular networks that results in abnormal cell behaviors. Network-based dynamic models such as Boolean models have been employed to model a variety of biological systems including those corresponding to disease. Previous work designed compensatory interactions to stabilize an attractor of a Boolean network after single node damage. Read More


We introduce a general framework for biological systems, called MESSI systems, that describe Modifications of type Enzyme-Substrate or Swap with Intermediates, and we prove general results based on the network structure. Many post-translational modification networks are MESSI systems. For example: the motifs in Feliu-Wiuf'12, sequential distributive multisite phosphorylation networks, sequential processive multisite phosphorylation networks, most of the examples in Angeli et al. Read More


Circadian clocks must be able to entrain to time-varying signals to keep their oscillations in phase with the day-night rhythm. On the other hand, they must also exhibit input compensation: their period must remain about one day in different constant environments. The post-translational oscillator of the Kai system can be entrained by transient or oscillatory changes in the ATP fraction, yet is insensitive to constant changes in this fraction. Read More


We introduce a tensor-based algebraic clustering method to extract sparse, low-dimensional structure from multidimensional arrays of experimental data. Our methodology is applicable to high dimensional data structures that arise across the sciences. Specifically we introduce a new way to cluster data subject to multi-indexed structural constraints via integer programming. Read More


Gene expression levels carry information about signals that have functional significance for the organism. Using the gap gene network in the fruit fly embryo as an example, we show how this information can be decoded, building a dictionary that translates expression levels into a map of implied positions. The optimal decoder makes use of graded variations in absolute expression level, resulting in positional estimates that are precise to ~1% of the embryo's length. Read More


We construct a model of cell reprogramming (the conversion of fully differentiated cells to a state of pluripotency, known as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) which builds on key elements of cell biology viz. cell cycles and cell lineages. Although reprogramming has been demonstrated experimentally, much of the underlying processes governing cell fate decisions remain unknown. Read More


The properties and fundamental limits of chemical computers have recently attracted significant interest as a model of computation, an unifying principle of cellular organisation and in the context of bio-engineering. As of yet, research in this topic is based on case-studies. There exists no generally accepted criterion to distinguish between chemical processes that compute and those that do not. Read More


Reconstructing the causal network in a complex dynamical system plays a crucial role in many applications, from sub-cellular biology to economic systems. Here we focus on inferring gene regulation networks (GRNs) from perturbation or gene deletion experiments. Despite their scientific merit, such perturbation experiments are not often used for such inference due to their costly experimental procedure, requiring significant resources to complete the measurement of every single experiment. Read More


We investigate the influence of intrinsic noise on stable states of a one-dimensional dynamical system that shows in its deterministic version a saddle-node bifurcation between monostable and bistable behaviour. The system is a modified version of the Schl\"ogl model, which is a chemical reaction system with only one type of molecule. The strength of the intrinsic noise is varied without changing the deterministic description by introducing bursts in the autocatalytic production step. Read More


Revealing how a biological network is organized to realize its function is one of the main topics in systems biology. The functional backbone network, defined as the primary structure of the biological network, is of great importance in maintaining the main function of the biological network. We propose a new algorithm, the tinker algorithm, to determine this core structure and apply it in the cell-cycle system. Read More


Motivation: Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge. Results: We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Read More


The dominant paradigm in origin of life research is that of an RNA world. However, despite experimental progress towards the spontaneous formation of RNA, the RNA world hypothesis still has its problems. Here, we introduce a novel computational model of chemical reaction networks based on RNA secondary structure and analyze the existence of autocatalytic sub-networks in random instances of this model, by combining two well-established computational tools. Read More


The principal pacemaker of the circadian clock of the cyanobacterium S. elongatus is a protein phosphorylation cycle consisting of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. KaiC forms a homohexamer, with each monomer consisting of two domains, CI and CII. Read More


Signal processing in biological systems is delicately executed by specialised networks, which are modular assemblies of network motifs. The motifs are independently functional circuits found in enormous numbers in any living cell. A very common network motif is the feed-forward loop (FFL), which regulates a downstream node by an upstream one in a direct and an indirect way within the network. Read More


RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental cellular process that inhibits gene expression through cleavage and destruction of target mRNA. It is responsible for a number of important intracellular functions, from being the first line of immune defence against pathogens to regulating development and morphogenesis. In this paper we consider a mathematical model of RNAi with particular emphasis on time delays associated with two aspects of primed amplification: binding of siRNA to aberrant RNA, and binding of siRNA to mRNA, both of which result in the expanded production of dsRNA responsible for RNA silencing. Read More


2016Dec
Affiliations: 1School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China, 2School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China, 3School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China

Fission yeast G2/M transition is regulated by a biochemical reaction networks which contains four components: Cdc13, Cdc2, Wee1, and Cdc25. This circuit is characterized by the ultrasensitive responses of Wee1 or Cdc25 to Cdc13/Cdc2 activity, and the bistability of Cdc2 activation. Previous work has shown that this bistability is governed by phosphorylation energy. Read More


Gene expression is a noisy process that leads to regime shift between alternative steady states among individual living cells, inducing phenotypic variability. The effects of white noise on the regime shift in bistable systems have been well characterized, however little is known about such effects of colored noise (noise with non-zero correlation time). Here, we show that noise correlation time, by considering a genetic circuit of autoactivation, can have significant effect on the regime shift in gene expression. Read More


The pathogenesis and progression of many tumors, including hematologic malignancies is highly dependent on enhanced lipogenesis. De novo fatty-acid synthesis permits accelerated proliferation of tumor cells by providing structural components to build the membranes. It may also lead to alterations of physicochemical properties of the formed membranes, which can have an impact on signaling or even increase resistance to drugs in cancer cells. Read More


We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. Read More


The modeling of complex reaction-diffusion processes in, for instance, cellular biochemical networks or self-assembling soft matter can be tremendously sped up by employing a multiscale algorithm which combines the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method with explicit stochastic Brownian, Langevin, or deterministic Molecular Dynamics to treat reactants at the microscopic scale [A. Vijaykumar, P.G. Read More