Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules Publications (50)


Quantitative Biology - Biomolecules Publications

Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. Read More

Trapping nanoscopic objects to observe their dynamic behaviour for extended periods of time is an ongoing quest. Particularly, sub-100nm transparent objects are hard to catch and most techniques rely on immobilisation or transient diffusion through a confocal laser focus. We present an Anti-Brownian ELectrokinetic trap (pioneered by A. Read More

We show how active transport of ions can be interpreted as an entropy facilitated process. In this interpretation, the pore geometry through which substrates are transported can give rise to a driving force. This gives a direct link between the geometry and the changes in Gibbs energy required. Read More

Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation with fluorescence detection has emerged as a powerful method for the study of interacting systems of macromolecules. It combines picomolar sensitivity with high hydrodynamic resolution, and can be carried out with photoswitchable fluorophores for multi-component discrimination, to determine the stoichiometry, affinity, and shape of macromolecular complexes with dissociation equilibrium constants from picomolar to micromolar. A popular approach for data interpretation is the determination of the binding affinity by isotherms of weight-average sedimentation coefficients sw. Read More

Understanding the operation of biological molecular motors, nanoscale machines that transduce electrochemical energy into mechanical work, is enhanced by bottom-up strategies to synthesize novel motors. Read More

Circular polarization spectroscopy has proven to be an indispensable tool in photosynthesis research and (bio)-molecular research in general. Oxygenic photosystems typically display an asymmetric Cotton effect around the chlorophyll absorbance maximum with a signal $\leq 1 \%$. In vegetation, these signals are the direct result of the chirality of the supramolecular aggregates. Read More

Monitoring the kinetics and conformational dynamics of single enzymes is crucial in order to better understand their biological functions as these motions and structural dynamics are usually unsynchronized among the molecules. Detecting the enzyme-reactant interactions and associated conformational changes of the enzyme on a single molecule basis, however, remain as a challenge with established optical techniques due to the commonly required labeling of the reactants or the enzyme itself. The labeling process is usually non-trivial and the labels themselves might skew the physical properties of the enzyme. Read More

Hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations are widely used in enzyme simulation. Over ten convergence studies of QM/MM methods have revealed over the past several years that key energetic and structural properties approach asymptotic limits with only very large (ca. 500-1000 atom) QM regions. Read More

Assuming that mutation and fixation processes are reversible Markov processes, we prove that the equilibrium ensemble of sequences obeys a Boltzmann distribution with $\exp(4N_e m (1 - 1/(2N)))$, where $m$ is a Malthusian fitness and $N_e$ and $N$ are the effective and actual population sizes. Combining this finding with the knowledge of protein folding, we derive a correspondence between protein fitness and folding free energy, i.e. Read More

The probability distribution of sequences with maximum entropy that satisfies a given amino acid composition at each site and a given pairwise amino acid frequency at each site pair is a Boltzmann distribution with $\exp(-\psi_N)$, where the total interaction $\psi_N$ is represented as the sum of one body and pairwise interactions. A protein folding theory based on the random energy model (REM) indicates that the equilibrium ensemble of natural protein sequences is a canonical ensemble characterized by $\exp(-\Delta G_{ND}/k_B T_s)$ or by $\exp(- G_{N}/k_B T_s)$ if an amino acid composition is kept constant, meaning $\psi_N = \Delta G_{ND}/k_B T_s +$ constant, where $\Delta G_{ND} \equiv G_N - G_D$, $G_N$ and $G_D$ are the native and denatured free energies, and $T_s$ is the effective temperature of natural selection. Here, we examine interaction changes ($\Delta \psi_N$) due to single nucleotide nonsynonymous mutations, and have found that the variance of their $\Delta \psi_N$ over all sites hardly depends on the $\psi_N$ of each homologous sequence, indicating that the variance of $\Delta G_N (= k_B T_s \Delta \psi_N)$ is nearly constant irrespective of protein families. Read More

Extensive molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the interactions between proteins and poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) can be described in terms of the surface composition of the proteins. PEG molecules accumulate around non-polar residues while avoiding polar ones. A solvent-accessible-surface-area model of protein adsorption on PEGylated nanoparticles accurately fits a large set of data on the composition of the protein corona recently obtained by label-free proteomic mass spectrometry. Read More

Interaction with divalent cations is of paramount importance for RNA structural stability and function. We here report a detailed molecular dynamics study of all the possible binding sites for Mg$^{2+}$ on a RNA duplex, including both direct (inner sphere) and indirect (outer sphere) binding. In order to tackle sampling issues, we develop a modified version of bias-exchange metadynamics which allows us to simultaneously compute affinities with previously unreported statistical accuracy. Read More

Efficient replication and assembly of virus particles are integral to the establishment of infection. In addition to the primary role of the capsid protein (CP) in encapsidating the RNA progeny, experimental evidence on positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses suggests that the CP also regulates RNA synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that replication of Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is controlled by the cooperative interaction between STMV CP and the helper virus (HV) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase. Read More

In this paper, we introduce multiscale persistent functions for biomolecular structure characterization. The essential idea is to combine our multiscale rigidity functions with persistent homology analysis, so as to construct a series of multiscale persistent functions, particularly multiscale persistent entropies, for structure characterization. To clarify the fundamental idea of our method, the multiscale persistent entropy model is discussed in great detail. Read More

Nowadays different experimental techniques, such as single molecule or relaxation experiments, can provide dynamic properties of biomolecular systems, but the amount of detail obtainable with these methods is often limited in terms of time or spatial resolution. Here we use state-of-the-art computational techniques, namely atomistic molecular dynamics and Markov state models, to provide insight into the rapid dynamics of short RNA oligonucleotides, in order to elucidate the kinetics of stacking interactions. Analysis of multiple microsecond-long simulations indicates that the main relaxation modes of such molecules can consist of transitions between alternative folded states, rather than between random coils and native structures. Read More

We obtain a closed form of generating functions of RNA substructure using hermitian matrix model with the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind, which turns out to be the hypergeometric function. To match the experimental findings of the statistical behavior, we regard the substructure as a grand canonical ensemble and find its fugacity value. We also suggest a hierarchical picture based on the planar structure so that the non-planar structure such as pseudoknot are included. Read More

We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of a DNA-bound factor which can dimerise to form a molecular slip-link. Our slip-links mimic the behaviour of cohesin-like molecules, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which organize the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable non-equilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favour of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. Read More

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glycoproteins in the brain central to learning and memory. The effects of glycosylation on the structure and dynamics of NMDARs are largely unknown. In this work, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations of GluN1 and GluN2B ligand binding domains (LBDs) of NMDARs to investigate these effects. Read More

Background: Guanine quadruplexes (GQs) play vital roles in many cellular processes and are of much interest as drug targets. In contrast to the availability of many structural studies, there is still limited knowledge on GQ folding. Scope of review: We review recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of the folding of GQs, with an emphasis paid to the human telomeric DNA GQ. Read More

Theoretical analysis, which maps single molecule time trajectories of a molecular motor onto unicyclic Markov processes, allows us to evaluate the heat dissipated from the motor and to elucidate its dependence on the mean velocity and diffusivity. Unlike passive Brownian particles in equilibrium, the velocity and diffusion constant of molecular motors are closely inter-related to each other. In particular, our study makes it clear that the increase of diffusivity with the heat production is a natural outcome of active particles, which is reminiscent of the recent experimental premise that the diffusion of an exothermic enzyme is enhanced by the heat released from its own catalytic turnover. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Pittsburgh, 2University of Pittsburgh, 3The College of New Jersey, 4University of Pittsburgh, 5University of Pittsburgh

Computational approaches to drug discovery can reduce the time and cost associated with experimental assays and enable the screening of novel chemotypes. Structure-based drug design methods rely on scoring functions to rank and predict binding affinities and poses. The ever-expanding amount of protein-ligand binding and structural data enables the use of deep machine learning techniques for protein-ligand scoring. Read More

Geometric, topological and graph theory modeling and analysis of biomolecules are of essential importance in the conceptualization of molecular structure, function, dynamics, and transport. On the one hand, geometric modeling provides molecular surface and structural representation, and offers the basis for molecular visualization, which is crucial for the understanding of molecular structure and interactions. On the other hand, it bridges the gap between molecular structural data and theoretical/mathematical models. Read More

Affiliations: 1School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, 2School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, 3School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino

We propose a new approach for modelling the process of RNA folding as a graph transformation guided by the global value of free energy. Since the folding process evolves towards a configuration in which the free energy is minimal, the global behaviour resembles the one of a self-adaptive system. Each RNA configuration is a graph and the evolution of configurations is constrained by precise rules that can be described by a graph grammar. Read More

We propose to combine a mean field approach with all atom molecular dynamics into a multistage algorithm that can model protein folding and dynamics over very long time periods yet with atomic level precision. As an example we investigate an isolated monomeric Myc oncoprotein that has been implicated in carcinomas including those in colon, breast and lungs. Under physiological conditions a monomeric Myc is presumed to be an example of intrinsically disordered proteins, that pose a serious challenge to existing modelling techniques. Read More

A global optimization method called Greedy Neighborhood Search (GNS) and a novel conformational sampling method using a spherical distribution is proposed to find the minimum energy conformation of a protein-like heteropolymer model called AB model. The AB model consists of hydrophobic (A) and hydrophilic (B) monomers analogous to the real proteins. The AB model in three-dimensional space is represented by simple bead-rod chain system which is identical to the one-bead protein model. Read More

Context-free and context-sensitive formal grammars are often regarded as more appropriate to model proteins than regular level models such as finite state automata and Hidden Markov Models. In theory, the claim is well founded in the fact that many biologically relevant interactions between residues of protein sequences have a character of nested or crossed dependencies. In practice, there is hardly any evidence that grammars of higher expressiveness have an edge over old good HMMs in typical applications including recognition and classification of protein sequences. Read More

The pathogenesis and progression of many tumors, including hematologic malignancies is highly dependent on enhanced lipogenesis. De novo fatty-acid synthesis permits accelerated proliferation of tumor cells by providing structural components to build the membranes. It may also lead to alterations of physicochemical properties of the formed membranes, which can have an impact on signaling or even increase resistance to drugs in cancer cells. Read More

Characterization of B-cell protein epitope and developing critical parameters for its identification is one of the long standing interests. Using Layers algorithm, we introduced the concept of anchor residues to identify epitope. We have shown that majority of the epitope is composed of anchor residues and have significant bias in epitope for these residues. Read More

Single molecule detection, sequencing and conformational mapping of aptamers are important for improving medical and biosensing technologies and for better understanding of biological processes at the molecular level. We obtain vibrational signals of single aptamers immobilized on gold substrates using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). We compare topographic and optical signals and investigate the fluctuations of the position-dependent TERS spectra. Read More

In this work we show that there is a direct relationship between a graph's topology and the free energy of a spin system on the graph. We develop a method of separating topological and enthalpic contributions to the free energy, and find that considering the topology is sufficient to qualitatively compare the free energies of different graph systems at high temperature, even when the energetics are not fully known. This method was applied to the metal lattice system with defects, and we found that it partially explains why point defects are more stable than high-dimensional defects. Read More

Self-assembly of protein monomers into distinct membrane protein oligomers provides a general mechanism for diversity in the molecular architectures, and resulting biological functions, of membrane proteins. We develop a general physical framework describing the thermodynamic competition between different oligomeric states of membrane proteins. Using the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance as a model system, we show how the dominant oligomeric states of membrane proteins emerge from the interplay of protein concentration in the cell membrane, protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations, and direct monomer-monomer interactions. Read More

We propose to develop mean field theory in combination with Glauber algorithm, to model and interpret protein dynamics and structure formation in small to wide angle x-ray scattering (S/WAXS) experiments. We develop the methodology by analysing the Engrailed homeodomain protein as an example. We demonstrate how to interpret S/WAXS data with a good precision and over an extended temperature range. Read More

The notion that transcription factors bind DNA only through specific, consensus binding sites has been recently questioned. In a pioneering study by Pugh and Venters no specific consensus motif for the positioning of the human pre-initiation complex (PIC) has been identified. Here, we reveal that nonconsensus, statistical, DNA triplet code provides specificity for the positioning of the human PIC. Read More

In 3-D reconstruction problems, the image data obtained from cryo electron microscopy is the projection of many heterogeneous instances of the object under study (e.g., a virus). Read More

Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. Read More

Recent computational efforts have shown that the current potential energy models used in molecular dynamics are not accurate enough to describe the conformational ensemble of RNA oligomers and suggest that molecular dynamics should be complemented with experimental data. We here propose a scheme based on the maximum entropy principle to combine simulations with bulk experiments. In the proposed scheme the noise arising from both the measurements and the forward models used to back calculate the experimental observables is explicitly taken into account. Read More

In this paper we propose a straightforward operational definition of variants of disordered proteins, taking the human proteome as a case study. The focus is on a distinction between mostly unstructured proteins and proteins which contain long unstructured regions accommodated in an overall folded structure. In particular we distinguish: i) Not disordered proteins (NDPs), that either have all their residues ordered or do not have disordered segments longer than 30 residues nor more than 30% of disordered residues; ii) Proteins with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRPs), that have at least one disordered domain longer than 30 residues, but disordered in less than 30% of their residues; iii) Proteins that are intrinsically disordered (IDPs), that have both at least one disordered segment longer than 30 residues and that are disordered on more than 30% of their residues; iv) Proteins with fragmented disorder (FRAG_IDPs), that do not have a disordered fragment longer than 30 residues but that, nevertheless, have at least 30% or more of their residues predicted as disordered. Read More

Inverse statistical approaches to determine protein structure and function from Multiple Sequence Alignments (MSA) are emerging as powerful tools in computational biology. However the underlying assumptions of the relationship between the inferred effective Potts Hamiltonian and real protein structure and energetics remain untested so far. Here we use lattice protein model (LP) to benchmark those inverse statistical approaches. Read More

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) govern a daunting number of physiological processes. For such proteins, molecular mechanisms governing their interactions with proteins involved in signal transduction pathways remain unclear. Using the folded, calcium-loaded calmodulin (CaM) interaction with the calcineurin regulatory IDP as a prototype for IDP-mediated signal transduction events, we uncover the interplay of IDP structure and electrostatic interactions in determining the kinetics of protein-protein association. Read More

Bacterial mobility is powered by rotation of helical flagellar filaments driven by rotary motors. Flagellin isolated from {\it Salmonella Typhimurium} SJW1660 strain, which differs by a point mutation from the wild-type strain, assembles into straight filaments in which flagellin monomers are arranged into left-handed helix. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and osmotic stress methods, we investigated the high-resolution structure of SJW1660 flagellar filaments as well as intermolecular forces that govern their assembly into dense hexagonal bundle. Read More

Single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-electron microscopy (EM) is a technique in which the 3D structure of a molecule needs to be determined from its contrast transfer function (CTF) affected, noisy 2D projection images taken at unknown viewing directions. One of the main challenges in cryo-EM is the typically low signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the acquired images. 2D classification of images, followed by class averaging, improves the SNR of the resulting averages, and is used for selecting particles from micrographs and for inspecting the particle images. Read More

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) perform a broad range of biological functions. Their relevance has motivated intense research activity seeking to characterize their sequence/structure/function relationships. However, the conformational plasticity of these molecules hampers the application of traditional structural approaches, and new tools and concepts are being developed to address the challenges they pose. Read More

Recently developed deep learning techniques have significantly improved the accuracy of various speech and image recognition systems. In this paper we adapt some of these techniques for protein secondary structure prediction. We first train a series of deep neural networks to predict eight-class secondary structure labels given a protein's amino acid sequence information and find that using recent methods for regularization, such as dropout and weight-norm constraining, leads to measurable gains in accuracy. Read More

Summary: We introduce RBPBind, a web-based tool for the quantitative prediction of RNA-protein interactions. Given a user-specified RNA and a protein selected from a set of several common RNA-binding proteins, RBPBind computes the binding curve and effective binding constant of the reaction in question. The server also computes the probability that, at a given concentration of protein, a protein molecule will bind to any particular nucleotide along the RNA. Read More

We demonstrate that with two small modifications, the popular dielectric continuum model is capable of predicting, with high accuracy, ion solvation thermodynamics in numerous polar solvents, and ion solvation free energies in water--co-solvent mixtures. The first modification involves perturbing the macroscopic dielectric-flux interface condition at the solute--solvent interface with a nonlinear function of the local electric field, giving what we have called a solvation-layer interface condition (SLIC). The second modification is a simple treatment of the microscopic interface potential (static potential). Read More

Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Read More

Experiments have revealed that membrane proteins can form two-dimensional clusters with regular translational and orientational protein arrangements, which may allow cells to modulate protein function. However, the physical mechanisms yielding supramolecular organization and collective function of membrane proteins remain largely unknown. Here we show that bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between membrane proteins can yield regular and distinctive lattice architectures of protein clusters, and may provide a link between lattice architecture and lattice function. Read More

Membrane proteins deform the surrounding lipid bilayer, which can lead to membrane-mediated interactions between neighboring proteins. Using the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) as a model system, we demonstrate how the observed differences in protein structure can affect membrane-mediated interactions and cooperativity among membrane proteins. We find that distinct oligomeric states of MscL lead to distinct gateway states for the clustering of MscL, and predict signatures of MscL structure and spatial organization in the cooperative gating of MscL. Read More

In multi-resolution simulations, different system components are simultaneously modelled at different levels of resolution, these being smoothly coupled together. In the case of enzyme systems, computationally expensive atomistic detail is needed in the active site to capture the chemistry of substrate binding. Global properties of the rest of the protein also play an essential role, determining the structure and fluctuations of the binding site; however, these can be modelled on a coarser level. Read More