Physics - Medical Physics Publications (50)

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Physics - Medical Physics Publications

Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where color MPI techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Read More


An instability of a liquid droplet traversed by an energetic ion is explored. This instability is brought about by the predicted shock wave induced by the ion. An observation of multifragmentation of small droplets traversed by ions with high linear energy transfer is suggested to demonstrate the existence of shock waves. Read More


Repeated computed tomography (CT) scans are required in some clinical applications such as image-guided radiotherapy and follow-up observations over a time period. To optimize the radiation dose utility, a normal-dose (or full-dose) CT scan is often first performed to set up reference, followed by a series of low-dose scans. Using the previous normal-dose scan to improve follow-up low-dose scans reconstruction has drawn great interests recently, such as the previous normal-dose induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM) regularization method. Read More


Muon Spin Rotation is employed, for the first time, to investigate the spin dynamics of ferritin proteins isolated from the brain of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient and of a healthy control, using a reference sample of horse spleen ferritin. A model based on the N\'eel theory of superparamagnetism is developed in order to interpret the spin relaxation rate of the muons stopping in the core of the protein. In light of this model, our preliminary observations show that ferritins from the healthy control are filled with a mineral compatible with ferrihydrite, while ferritins from the AD patient contain a crystalline phase with a larger magnetocrystalline anisotropy, possibly magnetite or maghemite. Read More


Parametric imaging is a compartmental approach that processes nuclear imaging data to estimate the spatial distribution of the kinetic parameters governing tracer flow. The present paper proposes a novel and efficient computational method for parametric imaging which is potentially applicable to several compartmental models of diverse complexity and which is effective in the determination of the parametric maps of all kinetic coefficients. We consider applications to [{18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG--PET) data and analyze the two--compartment catenary model describing the standard FDG metabolization by an homogeneous tissue and the three--compartment non--catenary model representing the renal physiology. Read More


We propose and demonstrate an ultrasonic communication link using spatial degrees of freedom to increase data rates for deeply implantable medical devices. Low attenuation and millimeter wavelengths make ultrasound an ideal communication medium for miniaturized low-power implants. While small spectral bandwidth has drastically limited achievable data rates in conventional ultrasonic implants, large spatial bandwidth can be exploited by using multiple transducers in a multiple-input/multiple-output system to provide spatial multiplexing gain without additional power, larger bandwidth, or complicated packaging. Read More


There is mounting evidence of a link between the properties of electroencephalograms (EEGs) of depressive patients and the outcome of pharmacotherapy. The goal of this study was to develop an EEG biomarker of antidepressant treatment response which would require only a single EEG measurement. We recorded resting, 21-channel EEG in 17 inpatients suffering from bipolar depression in eyes closed and eyes open conditions. Read More


Previous research on unstable footwear has suggested that it may induce plantar mechanical noise during walking. The purpose of this study was to explore whether unstable footwear could be considered as a noise-based training gear to exercise body center of mass (CoM) motion during walking or not. Ground reaction forces were collected among 24 healthy young women walking at speeds between 3 and 6 km h-1 with control running shoes and unstable rocker-bottom shoes. Read More


Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG allows volitional modulation of BOLD activity of target brain regions and investigation of related electrophysiological activity. We applied this approach to study correlations between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm. Healthy volunteers in the experimental group (EG, n=15) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the target region consisting of the mediodorsal (MD) and anterior (AN) thalamic nuclei using the rtfMRI-nf during retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. Read More


A new concept of permanent magnet systems for guiding superparamagnetic particles on arbitrary trajectories is proposed. The basic concept is to use one magnet system with a strong and homogeneous (dipolar) magnetic field to magnetize and orient the particles. A second constantly graded field (quadrupolar) is superimposed to the first to generate a force. Read More


Diffusion MRI measurements using hyperpolarized gases are generally acquired during patient breath hold, which yields a compromise between achievable image resolution, lung coverage and number of b-values. In this work, we propose a novel method that accelerates the acquisition of MR diffusion data by undersampling in both spatial and b-value dimensions, thanks to incorporating knowledge about the signal decay into the reconstruction (SIDER). SIDER is compared to total variation (TV) reconstruction by assessing their effect on both the recovery of ventilation images and estimated mean alveolar dimensions (MAD). Read More


This paper presents a monotonicity-based spatiotemporal conductivity imaging method for continuous regional lung monitoring using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The EIT data (i.e. Read More


The present study shows that the performance of CNN is not significantly different from the best classical methods and human doctors for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of NSCLC from PET/CT images. Because CNN does not need tumor segmentation or feature calculation, it is more convenient and more objective than the classical methods. However, CNN does not make use of the import diagnostic features, which have been proved more discriminative than the texture features for classifying small-sized lymph nodes. Read More


There is a need for affordable, widely deployable maternal-fetal ECG monitors to improve maternal and fetal health during pregnancy and delivery. Based on the diffusion-based channel selection, here we present the mathematical formalism and clinical validation of an algorithm capable of accurate separation of maternal and fetal ECG from a two channel signal acquired over maternal abdomen. Read More


-Purpose: A neural network estimator to process x-ray spectral measurements from photon counting detectors with pileup. The estimator is used with an expansion of the attenuation coefficient as a linear combination of functions of energy multiplied by coefficients that depend on the material composition at points within the object [R.E. Read More


Given the potential X-ray radiation risk to the patient, low-dose CT has attracted a considerable interest in the medical imaging field. The current main stream low-dose CT methods include vendor-specific sinogram domain filtration and iterative reconstruction, but they need to access original raw data whose formats are not transparent to most users. Due to the difficulty of modeling the statistical characteristics in the image domain, the existing methods for directly processing reconstructed images cannot eliminate image noise very well while keeping structural details. Read More


The health of cells found in the inner retinal layers of the human eye is crucial to understand the onset of diseases of the retina such as macular degeneration and retinopathy. A challenge is to periodically image these cells in human eyes to detect abnormalities well before physiological and pathological changes occur. However, in vivo imaging of many of these cells is still elusive despite the phenomenal advances in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Adaptive Optics systems. Read More


Purpose: To develop generic optimization strategies for image reconstruction using graphical processing units (GPUs) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to exemplarily report about our experience with a highly accelerated implementation of the non-linear inversion algorithm (NLINV) for dynamic MRI with high frame rates. Methods: The NLINV algorithm is optimized and ported to run on an a multi-GPU single-node server. The algorithm is mapped to multiple GPUs by decomposing the data domain along the channel dimension. Read More


Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI measures using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue parameters is performed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required for reasonable scanning time. Read More


Protontherapy is hadrontherapy fastest-growing modality and a pillar in the battle against cancer. Hadrontherapy superiority lies in its inverted depth-dose profile, hence tumour-confined irradiation. Protons, however, lack distinct radiobiological advantages over photons or electrons. Read More


Multi-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy is an important tool for studying molecular structures, interactions and dynamics in bio-engineering. The data acquisition time, however, is relatively long and non-uniform sampling can be applied to reduce this time. To obtain the full spectrum,a reconstruction method with Vandermonde factorization is proposed. Read More


Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28x28x20 mm3 (length x breadth x thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25x25x20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25x25x10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4x4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. Read More


The purpose of this work is to construct a simple, efficient and accurate well-balanced numerical scheme for one-dimensional (1D) blood flow in large arteries with varying geometrical and mechanical properties. As the steady states at rest are not relevant for blood flow, we construct two well-balanced hydrostatic reconstruction techniques designed to preserve low-Shapiro number steady states that may occur in large network simulations. The Shapiro number S h = u/c is the equivalent of the Froude number for shallow water equations and the Mach number for compressible Euler equations. Read More


A new approach to three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) is presented. By embedding OSL-active particles into a transparent silicone matrix (PDMS), the well-established dosimetric properties of an OSL material are exploited in a 3D-OSL dosimeter. By investigating prototype dosimeters in standard cuvettes in combination with small test samples for OSL readers, it is shown that a sufficient transparency of the 3D-OSL material can be combined with an OSL response giving an estimated >10. Read More


Artifacts in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) are analyzed to establish an optimal design criterion for QSM inversion algorithms. The magnetic field data is decomposed into two parts, dipole compatible and incompatible parts. The dipole compatible part generates the desired non-streaking solution. Read More


Aims. Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. Read More


Hand-crafted features extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRIs) have shown strong predictive abilities in characterization of breast lesions. However, heterogeneity across medical image datasets hinders the generalizability of these features. One of the sources of the heterogeneity is the variation of MR scanner magnet strength, which has a strong influence on image quality, leading to variations in the extracted image features. Read More


Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality that is not yet adopted by clinical practice. Most of the working MPI prototypes including commercial-grade research MPI scanners utilize cylindrical bores that limit the access to the scanner and the imaging volume. Recently a single-sided or an asymmetric device that is based on a field-free point (FFP) coplanar coil topology has been introduced that shows promise in alleviating access constraint issues. Read More


To synthesize diffusion MR measurements from Monte-Carlo simulation using tissue models with sizes comparable to those of scan voxels. Larger regions enable restricting structures to be modeled in greater detail and improve accuracy and precision in synthesized diffusion-weighted measurements. We employ a localized intersection checking algorithm during substrate construction and dynamical simulation. Read More


Recent work in CT imaging has seen increased interest in the use of total variation (TV) and related penalties to regularize problems involving reconstruction from undersampled or incomplete data. Superiorization is a recently proposed heuristic which provides an automatic procedure to "superiorize" an iterative reconstruction algorithm with respect to a chosen objective function, such as TV. Under certain conditions, the superiorized algorithm is guaranteed to find a solution that is as satisfactory as any found by the original algorithm with respect to satisfying the constraints of the problem; this solution is also expected to be superior with respect to the chosen objective. Read More


The fiber g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon. It has a limited dynamic range in healthy white matter, as it is optimized for speed of signal conduction, cellular energetics, and spatial constraints. In vivo imaging of the g-ratio in health and disease would greatly increase our knowledge of the nervous system and our ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat disease. Read More


In the first paper of this series, we showed that the ratio c of individual dose to ambient dose did not change with time in Date City, Fukushima Prefecture, after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The purpose of the present paper, the second in a series, is to estimate the lifetime doses of the Date City residents, based on continuous glass badge monitoring data, extrapolated by means of the ambient-dose-rate reduction function obtained from the airborne monitoring data. As a result, we found that the mean additional lifetime dose of residents living in Date City is not expected to exceed 18 mSv. Read More


Experiments have revealed a nontrivial cancer-inhibiting capability of liquid media treated by the plasma jet capable of forming thinly stratified self-organized patterns at a plasma-liquid interface. A pronounced cancer depressing activity towards at least two kinds of human cancer cells, namely breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human glioblastoma U87 cancer lines, was demonstrated. After a short treatment at the thinly stratified self-organized plasma-liquid interface pattern, the cancer inhibiting media demonstrate well pronounced depression and apoptosis activities towards tumor cells, not achievable without interfacial stratification of plasma jet to thin (of several um) current filaments, which therefore play a pivotal (yet still not completely clear) role in building up the cancer inhibition properties. Read More


The monitoring of sleep patterns without patient's inconvenience or involvement of a medical specialist is a clinical question of significant importance. To this end, we propose an automatic sleep stage monitoring system based on an affordable, unobtrusive, discreet, and long-term wearable in-ear sensor for recording the Electroencephalogram (ear-EEG). The selected features for sleep pattern classification from a single ear-EEG channel include the spectral edge frequency (SEF) and multi- scale fuzzy entropy (MSFE), a structural complexity feature. Read More


It is well recognized that the relative position of the center of mass (pCOM) with respect to the base of support (BOS) is a determining factor in the maintenance of balance. However, during gait the dynamic nature of the BOS is not well defined and in most studies is completely ignored. Prior work tends to focus on the variability in the position of the center of mass (COM) with respect to the laboratory reference frame to attempt to quantify dynamic balance. Read More


A number of disordered systems exhibit local anisotropy in the fractal or multifractal correlation and in the resulting scaling behavior, which contain wealth of information on the system. Here, we demonstrate that the spatial dielectric fluctuations in a random medium like biological tissue exhibit such multifractal anisotropy, leaving its unique signature in the wavelength variation of the light scattering Mueller matrix and manifesting as an intriguing spectral diattenuation effect. We have thus developed an inverse analysis method for the quantification of the multifractal anisotropy from the scattering Mueller matrix. Read More


Cerebral autoregulation refers to regulation mechanisms that aim to maintain cerebral blood flow approximately constant. It is often assessed by autoregulation index (ARI), which uses arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity time series to produce a ten-scale index of autoregulation performance (0 denoting the absence of and 9 the strongest autoregulation). Unfortunately, data are rarely free from various artefacts. Read More


We previously demonstrated near-field speckle scanning based X-ray imaging to be an easy-to-implement phase sensing method capable of providing both high sensitivity and high resolution. Yet, this performance combination could only be achieved at the cost of a significant number of sample exposures and of extensive data acquisition time, thus tempering its implementation for tomography applications. Herein, we show ways of drastically lowering the number of exposures for the speckle scanning method to become attractive for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Read More


Balance, gait and postural control are some of the key factors in determining the overall stability of an individual. Several highend and costly solutions exist to perform movement analysis in clinical settings. OpenSim is a tool which uses 39 marker positions, obtained from such highend solutions like VICON or equivalent multicamera setup, for the analysis of inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics. Read More


The technique of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Read More


The innovation process is always required to produce more advanced technology and increasing productivity. PDM (Probes Distance Meter) comes as a technological innovation in measurement, PDM is a digital distance measuring instrument uses a pair of probes. PDM consists of ultrasonic transducers, a microcontroller, and screen which shows the measurement result. Read More


We develop a framework to uncover and analyze dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive data sets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat EEG recordings. Read More


Purpose: To assess the technical feasibility of whole-brain diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE) based on q-space trajectory encoding (QTE) at clinical MRI systems with varying performance. DIVIDE is used to separate diffusional heterogeneity into components that arise due to isotropic and anisotropic tissue structures. Methods: We designed imaging protocols for DIVIDE using numerically optimized gradient waveforms for diffusion encoding. Read More


PURPOSE: Establishing and obtaining consistent quantitative indices of retinal thickness from a variety of clinically used Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography scanners. DESIGN: Retinal images from five Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography scanners were used to determine total retinal thickness with scanner-specific correction factors establishing consistency of thickness measurement across devices. PARTICIPANTS: 55 Fovea-centered Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography volumes from eleven subjects were analyzed, obtained from Cirrus HD-OCT, RS-3000, Heidelberg Spectralis, RTVue and Topcon2000, seven subjects with retinal diseases and four normal controls. Read More


Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs) offer a superior, sub-micrometer spatial resolution that allows for single particle track detection. However, when assessing particle fluence from the measured track positions, discrimination of actual fluence patterns from stochastic fluctuations is necessary due to spatial randomness in particle arrival. This work quantifies the spatial limits of fluence-based dosimetry of (heavy) charged particles and presents the use of tools to detect deviation from homogenous (true) fluence in measured data. Read More


Increasing imaging speed is of utmost importance in in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) MRI we can simultaneously acquire several slices of an object, which allows for higher undersampling factors compared to single- or conventional multi-slice measurements by exploiting axial coil sensitivity information. In this thesis, we give a short introduction to the physical principles of MRI, cover the basics of a FLASH based SMS MRI sequence and perform tests to verify its accuracy: We check the fidelity of the slice distance as well as the flip angle and confirm the square-root-like signal-to-noise ratio benefit of SMS compared to conventional multi-slice experiments. Read More


This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized, or hyperpolarized, $^3$He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping, and surveys applications of polarized $^3$He. Several recent developments are emphasized for each method. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and Rb/K mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. Read More


The article demonstrates some less known principles of image build-up in diffractive microscopy and their usage in analysis unravelling the smallest localized information about the original object - an electromagnetic centroid. In fluorescence, the electromagnetic centroid is naturally at the position of the fluorophore. The usage of an information-entropic variable - a point divergence gain - is demonstrated for finding the most localized position of the object's representation, generally of the size of a voxel (3D pixel). Read More


Developments in metamaterials and related structures such as metasurfaces have opened up new possibilities in designing materials and devices with unique properties. The main progress related to electromagnetic waves applications was done in optical and microwave spectra. Here we report about a new hybrid metasurface structure, comprising a two-dimensional metamaterial surface and a very high permittivity dielectric substrate that was designed to enhance the performance of an ultra-high field MRI scanner. Read More