Physics - Medical Physics Publications (50)

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Physics - Medical Physics Publications

Aims. Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. Read More


Hand-crafted features extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRIs) have shown strong predictive abilities in characterization of breast lesions. However, heterogeneity across medical image datasets hinders the generalizability of these features. One of the sources of the heterogeneity is the variation of MR scanner magnet strength, which has a strong influence on image quality, leading to variations in the extracted image features. Read More


Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality that is not yet adopted by clinical practice. Most of the working MPI prototypes including commercial-grade research MPI scanners utilize cylindrical bores that limit the access to the scanner and the imaging volume. Recently a single-sided or an asymmetric device that is based on a field-free point (FFP) coplanar coil topology has been introduced that shows promise in alleviating access constraint issues. Read More


To synthesize diffusion MR measurements from Monte-Carlo simulation using tissue models with sizes comparable to those of scan voxels. Larger regions enable restricting structures to be modeled in greater detail and improve accuracy and precision in synthesized diffusion-weighted measurements. We employ a localized intersection checking algorithm during substrate construction and dynamical simulation. Read More


Recent work in CT imaging has seen increased interest in the use of total variation (TV) and related penalties to regularize problems involving reconstruction from undersampled or incomplete data. Superiorization is a recently proposed heuristic which provides an automatic procedure to "superiorize" an iterative reconstruction algorithm with respect to a chosen objective function, such as TV. Under certain conditions, the superiorized algorithm is guaranteed to find a solution that is as satisfactory as any found by the original algorithm with respect to satisfying the constraints of the problem; this solution is also expected to be superior with respect to the chosen objective. Read More


The fiber g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon. It has a limited dynamic range in healthy white matter, as it is optimized for speed of signal conduction, cellular energetics, and spatial constraints. In vivo imaging of the g-ratio in health and disease would greatly increase our knowledge of the nervous system and our ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat disease. Read More


In the first paper of this series, we showed that the ratio c of individual dose to ambient dose did not change with time in Date City, Fukushima Prefecture, after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The purpose of the present paper, the second in a series, is to estimate the lifetime doses of the Date City residents, based on continuous glass badge monitoring data, extrapolated by means of the ambient-dose-rate reduction function obtained from the airborne monitoring data. As a result, we found that the mean additional lifetime dose of residents living in Date City is not expected to exceed 18 mSv. Read More


Experiments have revealed a nontrivial cancer-inhibiting capability of liquid media treated by the plasma jet capable of forming thinly stratified self-organized patterns at a plasma-liquid interface. A pronounced cancer depressing activity towards at least two kinds of human cancer cells, namely breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human glioblastoma U87 cancer lines, was demonstrated. After a short treatment at the thinly stratified self-organized plasma-liquid interface pattern, the cancer inhibiting media demonstrate well pronounced depression and apoptosis activities towards tumor cells, not achievable without interfacial stratification of plasma jet to thin (of several um) current filaments, which therefore play a pivotal (yet still not completely clear) role in building up the cancer inhibition properties. Read More


The monitoring of sleep patterns without patient's inconvenience or involvement of a medical specialist is a clinical question of significant importance. To this end, we propose an automatic sleep stage monitoring system based on an affordable, unobtrusive, discreet, and long-term wearable in-ear sensor for recording the Electroencephalogram (ear-EEG). The selected features for sleep pattern classification from a single ear-EEG channel include the spectral edge frequency (SEF) and multi- scale fuzzy entropy (MSFE), a structural complexity feature. Read More


It is well recognized that the relative position of the center of mass (pCOM) with respect to the base of support (BOS) is a determining factor in the maintenance of balance. However, during gait the dynamic nature of the BOS is not well defined and in most studies is completely ignored. Prior work tends to focus on the variability in the position of the center of mass (COM) with respect to the laboratory reference frame to attempt to quantify dynamic balance. Read More


A number of disordered systems exhibit local anisotropy in the fractal or multifractal correlation and in the resulting scaling behavior, which contain wealth of information on the system. Here, we demonstrate that the spatial dielectric fluctuations in a random medium like biological tissue exhibit such multifractal anisotropy, leaving its unique signature in the wavelength variation of the light scattering Mueller matrix and manifesting as an intriguing spectral diattenuation effect. We have thus developed an inverse analysis method for the quantification of the multifractal anisotropy from the scattering Mueller matrix. Read More


Cerebral autoregulation refers to regulation mechanisms that aim to maintain cerebral blood flow approximately constant. It is often assessed by autoregulation index (ARI), which uses arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity time series to produce a ten-scale index of autoregulation performance (0 denoting the absence of and 9 the strongest autoregulation). Unfortunately, data are rarely free from various artefacts. Read More


We previously demonstrated near-field speckle scanning based X-ray imaging to be an easy-to-implement phase sensing method capable of providing both high sensitivity and high resolution. Yet, this performance combination could only be achieved at the cost of a significant number of sample exposures and of extensive data acquisition time, thus tempering its implementation for tomography applications. Herein, we show ways of drastically lowering the number of exposures for the speckle scanning method to become attractive for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Read More


Balance, gait and postural control are some of the key factors in determining the overall stability of an individual. Several highend and costly solutions exist to perform movement analysis in clinical settings. OpenSim is a tool which uses 39 marker positions, obtained from such highend solutions like VICON or equivalent multicamera setup, for the analysis of inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics. Read More


The technique of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Read More


The innovation process is always required to produce more advanced technology and increasing productivity. PDM (Probes Distance Meter) comes as a technological innovation in measurement, PDM is a digital distance measuring instrument uses a pair of probes. PDM consists of ultrasonic transducers, a microcontroller, and screen which shows the measurement result. Read More


We develop a framework to uncover and analyze dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive data sets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat EEG recordings. Read More


Purpose: To assess the technical feasibility of whole-brain diffusional variance decomposition (DIVIDE) based on q-space trajectory encoding (QTE) at clinical MRI systems with varying performance. DIVIDE is used to separate diffusional heterogeneity into components that arise due to isotropic and anisotropic tissue structures. Methods: We designed imaging protocols for DIVIDE using numerically optimized gradient waveforms for diffusion encoding. Read More


PURPOSE: Establishing and obtaining consistent quantitative indices of retinal thickness from a variety of clinically used Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography scanners. DESIGN: Retinal images from five Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography scanners were used to determine total retinal thickness with scanner-specific correction factors establishing consistency of thickness measurement across devices. PARTICIPANTS: 55 Fovea-centered Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography volumes from eleven subjects were analyzed, obtained from Cirrus HD-OCT, RS-3000, Heidelberg Spectralis, RTVue and Topcon2000, seven subjects with retinal diseases and four normal controls. Read More


Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs) offer a superior, sub-micrometer spatial resolution that allows for single particle track detection. However, when assessing particle fluence from the measured track positions, discrimination of actual fluence patterns from stochastic fluctuations is necessary due to spatial randomness in particle arrival. This work quantifies the spatial limits of fluence-based dosimetry of (heavy) charged particles and presents the use of tools to detect deviation from homogenous (true) fluence in measured data. Read More


Increasing imaging speed is of utmost importance in in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) MRI we can simultaneously acquire several slices of an object, which allows for higher undersampling factors compared to single- or conventional multi-slice measurements by exploiting axial coil sensitivity information. In this thesis, we give a short introduction to the physical principles of MRI, cover the basics of a FLASH based SMS MRI sequence and perform tests to verify its accuracy: We check the fidelity of the slice distance as well as the flip angle and confirm the square-root-like signal-to-noise ratio benefit of SMS compared to conventional multi-slice experiments. Read More


This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized, or hyperpolarized, $^3$He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping, and surveys applications of polarized $^3$He. Several recent developments are emphasized for each method. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and Rb/K mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. Read More


The article demonstrates some less known principles of image build-up in diffractive microscopy and their usage in analysis unravelling the smallest localized information about the original object - an electromagnetic centroid. In fluorescence, the electromagnetic centroid is naturally at the position of the fluorophore. The usage of an information-entropic variable - a point divergence gain - is demonstrated for finding the most localized position of the object's representation, generally of the size of a voxel (3D pixel). Read More


Developments in metamaterials and related structures such as metasurfaces have opened up new possibilities in designing materials and devices with unique properties. The main progress related to electromagnetic waves applications was done in optical and microwave spectra. Here we report about a new hybrid metasurface structure, comprising a two-dimensional metamaterial surface and a very high permittivity dielectric substrate that was designed to enhance the performance of an ultra-high field MRI scanner. Read More


Several successful iterative approaches have recently been proposed for parallel-imaging reconstructions of variable-density (VD) acquisitions, but they often induce substantial computational burden for non-Cartesian data. Here we propose a generalized variable-FOV PILS reconstruction 3D VD Cartesian and non-Cartesian data. The proposed method separates k-space into non-intersecting annuli based on sampling density, and sets the 3D reconstruction FOV for each annulus based on the respective sampling density. Read More


In this paper we utilized the concept of stable phase synchronization topography - synchrostates - over the scalp derived from EEG recording for formulating brain connectivity network in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically-growing children. A synchronization index is adapted for forming the edges of the connectivity graph capturing the stability of each of the synchrostates. Such network is formed for 11 ASD and 12 control group children. Read More


In this paper, we have developed a new measure of understanding the temporal evolution of phase synchronization for EEG signals using cross-electrode information. From this measure it is found that there exists a small number of well-defined phase-synchronized states, each of which is stable for few milliseconds during the execution of a face perception task. We termed these quasi-stable states as synchrostates. Read More


In this paper, an efficient control strategy for physiological interaction based anaesthetic drug infusion model is explored using the fractional order (FO) proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. The dynamic model is composed of several human organs by considering the brain response to the anaesthetic drug as output and the drug infusion rate as the control input. Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is employed to obtain the optimal set of parameters for PID/FOPID controller structures. Read More


In this paper, we propose a novel statistical index for the early diagnosis of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) using the time delay phase-space reconstruction (PSR) technique, from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Patients with two classes of fatal VA - with preceding ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and with no VPBs have been analysed using extensive simulations. Three subclasses of VA with VPBs viz. Read More


Ultrasound imaging is developing an open-source ecosystem, especially for software frameworks. Little exists on the open-hardware side. Hence a focus was put on producing easy-to-use technological (hardware and software) kit to allow anyone - scientists, academics, hackers, makers to have a experimental setup for ultrasound imaging at a low cost, at home, with no specific equipment required. Read More


Phase synchronisation in multichannel EEG is known as the manifestation of functional brain connectivity. Traditional phase synchronisation studies are mostly based on time average synchrony measures hence do not preserve the temporal evolution of the phase difference. Here we propose a new method to show the existence of a small set of unique phase synchronised patterns or "states" in multi-channel EEG recordings, each "state" being stable of the order of ms, from typical and pathological subjects during face perception tasks. Read More


During production of malt from barley seeds, cell walls and starch granules in the endosperm are degraded. Although this modification process is important for malt quality, the modification patterns of individual barley seeds have yet to be reported. The use of destructive microscopy methods have previously limited the investigations to ensemble averages. Read More


We propose an arterial network model based on 1D blood hemodynamic equations to study the behavior of different vascular surgical bypass grafts in case of an arterial occlusive pathology: an obliteration or stenosis of the iliac artery. We investigate the performances of three different bypass grafts (Aorto-Femoral, Axillo-Femoral and cross-over Femoral) depending on the degree of obliteration of the stenosis. Numerical simulations show that all bypass grafts are efficient since we retrieve in all cases the normal hemodynamics in the stenosed region while ensuring at the same time a global healthy circulation. Read More


Purpose: To introduce and evaluate the use of stable distributions as a means of describing the behavior of charged particle pencil beams in a medium, with specific emphasis on proton beam scanning (PBS). Methods: The proton pencil beams of a clinically commissioned proton treatment facility are replicated in a Monte Carlo simulation system (FLUKA). For each available energy the beam deposition in water medium is characterized by the dose deposition. Read More


In this paper different types of ECG automatic delineation approaches were overviewed. A combination of these approaches was used to create sampling rate independent filtration algorithm for automatic ECG delineation that is capable of distinguishing different morphologies of T and P waves and QRS complexes. Created filtration algorithm was compared with algorithme \`a trous. Read More


Magnetic resonance imaging technique known as DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) allows measurement of water diffusivity on a pixel basis for evaluating pathology throughout the body and is now routinely incorporated into many body MRI protocols, mainly in oncology. Indeed water molecules motion reflects the interactions with other molecules, membranes, cells, and in general the interactions with the environment. Microstructural changes as e. Read More


We present the theoretical investigation of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the heating agent of photothermal therapy. In our model, the SWNT is modeled by rigid tube surrounded by cancer cells. In this model, we neglect the angle dependence of temperature and assume that the length of SWNT is much longer than the radius of tube. Read More


3D image reconstruction from a set of X-ray projections is an important image reconstruction problem, with applications in medical imaging, industrial inspection and airport security. The innovation of X-ray emitter arrays allows for a novel type of X-ray scanners with multiple simultaneously emitting sources. However, two or more sources emitting at the same time can yield measurements from overlapping rays, imposing a new type of image reconstruction problem based on nonlinear constraints. Read More


Reliability theory is used to assess the sensitivity of a passive flexion and active flexion of the human lower leg Finite Element (FE) models with Total Knee Replacement (TKR) to the variability in the input parameters of the respective FE models. The sensitivity of the active flexion simulating the stair ascent of the human lower leg FE model with TKR was presented before in [1,2] whereas now in this paper a comparison is made with the passive flexion of the human lower leg FE model with TKR. First, with the Monte Carlo Simulation Technique (MCST), a number of randomly generated input data of the FE model(s) are obtained based on the normal standard deviations of the respective input parameters. Read More


We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, \textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$}, as the anode array. \textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0. Read More


Physiologically, the thoracic (THO) and abdominal (ABD) movement signals, captured using wearable piezo-electric bands, provide information about various types of apnea, including central sleep apnea (CSA) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the use of piezo-electric wearables in detecting sleep apnea events has been seldom explored in the literature. This study explored the possibility of identifying sleep apnea events, including OSA and CSA, by solely analyzing {one or both the THO and ABD signals. Read More


Over the past few decades, magnetic resonance imaging has been utilized as a powerful imaging modality to evaluate the structure and function of various organs in the human body,such as the brain. Additionally, diffusion and perfusion MR imaging have been increasingly used in neurovascular clinical applications. In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the mobility of water molecules is explored in order to obtain information about the microscopic behavior of the tissues. Read More


In outside the body HIFU treatment that focused ultrasound beams hit severely with cancer tissue layer especially the soft one, at the time of passage of the body different layers as long as they want to reach tumor, put their own way components under mechanical and even thermal influence and they can cause skin lesions. To reduce this effect a specific mechanical model can be used that means body tissue is considered as a mechanical model, it is affected when passing sound mechanical waves through it and each layer has an average heat. Gradually sound intensity decreases through every layer passage, finally in one direction a decreased intensity sound reach tumor tissue. Read More


To develop an efficient motion-compensated reconstruction technique for free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows high-quality images to be reconstructed from multiple undersampled single-shot acquisitions. The proposed method is a joint image reconstruction and motion correction method consisting of several steps, including a non-rigid motion extraction and a motion-compensated reconstruction. The reconstruction includes a denoising with the Beltrami regularization, which offers an ideal compromise between feature preservation and staircasing reduction. Read More


The radiotherapy of malignant diseases has reached much progress during the past decade. Thus, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and VMAT (Rapidarc) now belong to the standard modalities of tumor treatment with high energy radiation in clinical practice. In recent time, the particle therapy (protons and partially with heavy carbon ions) has reached an important completion of these modalities with regard to some suitable applications. Read More


Background: Data fitting approaches to modeling allow for parametric formulae that may not reveal the physical quantities involved and their influence on the function being studied. In this paper the author models the approach to equilibrium function by a method that allows the physical quantities to be defined beforehand, allows their influence to be studied, and can be used to predict how each physical quantity affects approach to equilibrium. Methods: An ordinary differential equation (ODE) is used to model the approach to equilibrium function for the case where collimation is changed at fixed detector size. Read More


In this study, we make non-invasive, remote, passive measurements of the heart beat frequency and determine the map of blood pulsation intensity in a region of interest (ROI) of skin. The ROI used was the forearm of a volunteer. The method employs a regular video camera and visible light, and the video acquisition takes less than 1 minute. Read More


Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. Read More


The $\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery overcomes the corresponding $\gamma$ technique in case the background from healthy tissues is relevant. It can be used only in case a radio-tracer marked with $^{90}$Y is available since the current probe prototype was optimized for the emission spectrum of this radio-nuclide. Here we study, with a set of laboratory tests and simulations, the prototype capability in case a different radio-nuclide is chosen among those used in nuclear medicine. Read More


In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) systems using non-ionizing methods in cancer treatment, if the device is applied to the body externally, the HIFU beam can damage nearby healthy tissues and burn skin due to lack of knowledge about the viscoelastic properties of patient tissue and failure to consider the physical properties of tissue in treatment planning. Addressing this problem by using various methods, such as MRI or ultrasound, elastography can effectively measure visco-elastic properties of tissue and fits within the pattern of stimulation and total treatment planning. In this paper, in a linear path of HIFU propagation, and by considering the smallest part of the path, including voxel with three mechanical elements of mass, spring and damper, which represents the properties of viscoelasticity of tissue, by creating waves of HIFU in the wire environment of MATLAB mechanics and stimulating these elements, pressure and heat transfer due to stimulation in the hypothetical voxel was obtained. Read More