# Physics - History of Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - History of Physics Publications

Around year 2000 the centenary of Planck's thermal radiation formula awakened interest in the origins of quantum theory, traditionally traced back to the Planck's conference on 14 December 1900 at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. A lot of more accurate historical reconstructions, conducted under the stimulus of that recurrence, placed the birth date of quantum theory in March 1905 when Einstein advanced his light quantum hypothesis. Both interpretations are yet controversial, but science historians agree on one point: the emergence of quantum theory from a presumed "crisis" of classical physics is a myth with scarce adherence to the historical truth. Read More

A covariant relativistic formalism for the electron-photon and nuclear dynamics is summarised making more accurate predictions in agreement with experiments for Compton scattering in shells with large electron binding energy. An exact solution for the Dirac equation for an electron in the nuclear Coulomb field is obtained, in order to write the relativistic dynamics for this QED process. This is a preparation for the calculation of the relativistic cross-section for Compton scattering on bound electrons; as a precision test for QED. Read More

In the 80th anniversary book for Alex M\"uller I wrote a story of our scientific collaboration, Shared Fascinations. This time I will be more personal, about the human side of our collaboration and encounters, while also referring to episodes mentioned in Shared Fascinations. Read More

The paper "On the theory of storm" (Zur Sturmtheorie) is the last one Max Margules has published in 1906, just before to "bid farewell to Meteorology" (using his words). The lack of English translation of this paper might be filled by this attempt which can be certainly improved, however. Read More

I summarize, at its 41st--and what would have been Bruno's 94th--birthday, the history of the discoveries of Supergravity. Read More

In the late 1620s the Neapolitan telescope maker Francesco Fontana was the first to observe the sky using a telescope with two convex lenses, which he had manufactured himself. Fontana succeeded in drawing the most accurate maps of the Moon's surface of his time, which were to become popular through a number of publications spread all over Europe but without acknowledging the author. At the end of 1645, in a state of declining health and pressed by the need to defend his authorship, Fontana carried out an intense observational campaign, whose results he hurriedly collected in his Novae Coelestium Terrestriumque rerum Observationis (1646), the only book he left to posterity. Read More

In May of 1935 Einstein published with two co-authors the famous EPR-paper about entangled particles, which questioned the completeness of Quantum Mechanics by means of a gedankenexperiment. Only one month later he published a work that seems unconnected to the EPR-paper at first, the so called Einstein-Rosen-paper that presented a solution of the field equations for particles in the framework of general relativity. Both papers ask for the conception of completeness in a theory and from a modern perspective it is easy to believe that there is a connection between these topics. Read More

Galileo's support to the Copernican theory was decisive for the revolutionary astronomical discoveries he achieved in 1610. We trace the origins of Galileo's conversion to the Copernican theory, discussing in particular the "Dialogo de Cecco di Ronchitti da Bruzene in perpuosito de La Stella Nuova". Later developments of Galileo's works are briefly treated. Read More

Some of the strategies which have been put forward in order to deal with the inconsistency between quantum mechanics and special relativity are examined. The EPR correlations are discussed as a simple example of quantum mechanical macroscopic effects with spacelike separation from their causes. It is shown that they can be used to convey information, whose reliability can be estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. Read More

We study the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of financial market crashes (Johansen, Ledoit, and Sornette [2000] "Crashes as Critical Points." Int. J. Read More

Notoriously, the Einstein equations of general relativity have solutions in which closed timelike curves (CTCs) occur. On these curves time loops back onto itself, which has exotic consequences. However, in order to make time travel stories consistent constraints have to be satisfied, which prevents seemingly ordinary and plausible processes from occurring. Read More

Theory testing in the physical sciences has been revolutionized in recent decades by Bayesian approaches to probability theory. Here, I will consider Bayesian approaches to theory extensions, that is, theories like inflation which aim to provide a deeper explanation for some aspect of our models (in this case, the standard model of cosmology) that seem unnatural or fine-tuned. In particular, I will consider how cosmologists can test the multiverse using observations of this universe. Read More

This paper proposes a new definition of science based on the distinction between the activity of scientists and the product of that activity: the former is denoted (lower-case) science and the latter (upper-case) Science. These definitions are intended to clarify the nature of scientific knowledge, its authority as well as its limitations, and how scientific knowledge differs from other forms of human knowledge. The body of knowledge we call Science is exemplified by elementary arithmetic: it has the following properties: (i) Science is collective, public knowledge; (ii) Science is universal and free of contradiction; (iii) Science emerges from science; (iv) Science is nevertheless bathed in ignorance and subject to change. Read More

Before the discovery of the expanding universe, one of the challenges faced in early relativistic cosmology was the determination of the finite and constant curvature radius of space-time by using astronomical observations. Great interest in this specific question was shown by de Sitter, Silberstein, and Lundmark. Their ideas and methods for measuring the cosmic curvature radius, at that time interpreted as equivalent to the size of the universe, contributed to the development of the empirical approach to relativistic cosmology. Read More

Because of weak surface gravity, forms of comets approaching the Sun may possibly assume strange shapes depending on factors like rotation, structure and composition of the comet as well as solar wind pattern. It is therefore possible that our ancestors could have described some comets to be as `heavenly tree' or as `sky serpent'. This article proposes few conjectures in which strange events associated with the sky, as described in ancient Sanskrit texts, were actually apparitions of comets of antiquity. Read More

Bell's theorem has fascinated physicists and philosophers since his 1964 paper, which was written in response to the 1935 paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Bell's theorem and its many extensions have led to the claim that quantum mechanics and by inference nature herself are nonlocal in the sense that a measurement on a system by an observer at one location has an immediate effect on a distant "entangled" system (one with which the original system has previously interacted). Einstein was repulsed by such "spooky action at a distance" and was led to question whether quantum mechanics could provide a complete description of physical reality. Read More

Quantum entanglement occurs not just in discrete systems such as spins, but also in the spatial wave functions of systems with more than one degree of freedom. It is easy to introduce students to entangled wave functions at an early stage, in any course that discusses wave functions. Doing so not only prepares students to learn about Bell's theorem and quantum information science, but can also provide a deeper understanding of the principles of quantum mechanics and help fight against some common misconceptions. Read More

In the free case, it is possible to define quantum fields which describe particles with integer or half-integer spin larger than one. It is shown that particles with integer spin must have Bose statistic and particles with half-integer-spin must follow Fermi-Dirac statistic. In the free case, the fields with spin smaller or equal to one are already well defined, so that for them alone, the charge and energy density are clearly identified and gauge invariant; while for the higher spin this is the case only for the total charge and total energy. Read More

Since the mid-1920s, different strands of research used stars as "physics laboratories" for investigating the nature of matter under extreme densities and pressures, impossible to realize on Earth. To trace this process this paper is following the evolution of the concept of a dense core in stars, which was important both for an understanding of stellar evolution and as a testing ground for the fast-evolving field of nuclear physics. In spite of the divide between physicists and astrophysicists, some key actors working in the cross-fertilized soil of overlapping but different scientific cultures formulated models and tentative theories that gradually evolved into more realistic and structured astrophysical objects. Read More

The article analysis was carried out within the confines of the replication project of the telescope, which was used by Mikhail Lomonosov at observation the transit of Venus in 1761. At that time he discovered the Venusian atmosphere. It is known that Lomonosov used Dollond 4. Read More

We derive the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics from epistemic principles. A key assumption is that a physical theory that relies on entities or distinctions that are unknowable in principle gives rise to wrong predictions. An epistemic formalism is developed, where concepts like individual and collective knowledge are used, and knowledge may be actual or potential. Read More

Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the "Copenhagen" interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of "local non-reality" interpretation. Read More

In this contribution I discuss a peak in Einstein's endeavor to extract as much information as possible about the nature of radiation from the Planck distribution is his paper "On the Quantum Theory of Radiation" of 1916. This is one of the most important contributions of Einstein to quantum theory. Read More

The apparent dichotomy between quantum jumps on the one hand, and continuous time evolution according to wave equations on the other hand, provided a challenge to Bohr's proposal of quantum jumps in atoms. Furthermore, Schroedinger's time-dependent equation also seemed to require a modification of the explanation for the origin of line spectra due to the apparent possibility of superpositions of energy eigenstates for different energy levels. Indeed, Schroedinger himself proposed a quantum beat mechanism for the generation of discrete line spectra from superpositions of eigenstates with different energies. Read More

Planck's law for black-body radiation marks the origin of quantum theory and is discussed in all introductory (or advanced) courses on this subject. However, the question whether Planck really implied quantisation is debated among historians of physics. We present a simplified account of this debate which also sheds light on the issue of indistinguishability and Einstein's light quantum hypothesis. Read More

Scientific illustrations, thanks to the vision of great artists fascinated by astronomical research and astronautics, have provided us with an accurate depiction of the possible views which mankind will one day observed from locations other than our planet. In this talk I will pay homage to some of these geniuses who serve science, and underline the scientific, artistic, political, and social implications deriving from a wise use of space-art. Read More

**Authors:**Manuel Ortega-RodrÃguez

^{1}, Hugo SolÃs-SÃ¡nchez

^{2}, Eduardo Boza-Oviedo

^{3}, Kenneth Chaves-Cruz

^{4}, Milena Guevara-Bertsch

^{5}, Marianela QuirÃ³s-Rojas

^{6}, SofÃa Vargas-HernÃ¡ndez

^{7}, Ariadna Venegas-Li

^{8}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{2}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{3}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{4}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{5}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{6}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{7}Universidad de Costa Rica,

^{8}Universidad de Costa Rica

We aim to carry out an assessment of the scientific value of Oppenheimer's research on black holes in order to determine and weigh possible factors to explain its neglect by the scientific community, and even by Oppenheimer himself. Dealing primarily with the science and looking closely at the scientific culture and the scientific conceptual belief system of the 1930s, the present article seeks to supplement the existent literature on the subject by enriching the explanations and possibly complicating the guiding questions. We suggest a rereading of Oppenheimer as a more intriguing, ahead-of-his-time figure. Read More

Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn by its author from physical theorizing in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of gravity, foundations of quantum mechanics, elementary particle physics, and cosmology. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to offer an open research potential for the foundations of physics even after the turn to the new millennium. Read More

The rising complexity of our terrestrial surrounding is an empirical fact. Details of this process evaded description in terms of physics for long time attracting attention and creating myriad of ideas including non-scientific ones. In this essay we explain the phenomenon of the growth of complexity by combining our up to date understanding of cosmology, non-equilibrium physics and thermodynamics. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Holland

**Category:**Physics - History of Physics

"Let us call the novel quantities which, in addition to the vectors and tensors, have appeared in the quantum mechanics of the spinning electron, and which in the case of the Lorentz group are quite differently transformed from tensors, as spinors for short. Is there no spinor analysis that every physicist can learn, such as tensor analysis, and with the aid of which all the possible spinors can be formed, and secondly, all the invariant equations in which spinors occur?" So Mr Ehrenfest asked me and the answer will be given below. Read More

I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are "conventionalist" in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of "degenerating problemshift" in the language of Imre Lakatos. Read More

**Authors:**Ian T. Durham

According to quantum theory, randomness is a fundamental property of the universe yet classical physics is mostly deterministic. In this article I show that it is possible for deterministic systems to arise from random ones and discuss the implications of this for the concept of free will. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Victoria University of Wellington

Eugene Wigner famously argued for the "unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" for describing physics and other natural sciences in his 1960 essay. That essay has now led to some 55 years of (sometimes anguished) soul searching --- responses range from "So what? Why do you think we developed mathematics in the first place?", through to extremely speculative ruminations on the existence of the universe (multiverse) as a purely mathematical entity --- the Mathematical Universe Hypothesis. In the current essay I will steer an utterly prosaic middle course: Much of the mathematics we develop is informed by physics questions we are tying to solve; and those physics questions for which the most utilitarian mathematics has successfully been developed are typically those where the best physics progress has been made. Read More

The goal of this paper is to explain how the views of Albert Einstein, John Bell and others, about nonlocality and the conceptual issues raised by quantum mechanics, have been rather systematically misunderstood by the majority of physicists. Read More

The quantum Liouville equation, which describes the phase space dynamics of a quantum system, is analyzed from statistical point of view as a particular example of the Kramers-Moyal expansion. Quantum mechanics is extended to the relativistic domain by generalizing the Wigner-Moyal equation. Thus, an expression is derived for the relativistic mass in the Wigner quantum phase space presentation. Read More

The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward 'accumulation of evidence' alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Read More

The principle of common cause asserts that positive correlations between causally unrelated events ought to be explained through the action of some shared causal factors. Reichenbachian common cause systems are probabilistic structures aimed at accounting for cases where correlations of the aforesaid sort cannot be explained through the action of a single common cause. The existence of Reichenbachian common cause systems of arbitrary finite size for each pair of non-causally correlated events was allegedly demonstrated by Hofer-Szab\'o and R\'edei in 2006. Read More

The beginning of the calendar record inscribed on the Mamari tablet has been dated to the day of the summer solstice of December 20, 1680 A.D. The moon was not visible earlier at night. Read More

In the early sixties Leonard Parker discovered that the expansion of the universe can create particles out of the vacuum, opening a new and fruitfull field in physics. We give a historical review in the form of an interview that took place during the Conference ERE2014 (Valencia 1-5, September, 2014). Read More

This article discusses the relationship between emergence and reductionism from the perspective of a condensed matter physicist. Reductionism and emergence play an intertwined role in the everyday life of the physicist, yet we rarely stop to contemplate their relationship: indeed, the two are often regarded as conflicting world-views of science. I argue that in practice, they compliment one-another, forming an awkward alliance in a fashion envisioned by the Renaissance scientist, Francis Bacon. Read More

The guiding influence of some of Stanley Mandelstam's key contributions to the development of theoretical high energy physics is discussed, from the motivation for the study of the analytic properties of the scattering matrix through to dual resonance models and their evolution into string theory. Read More

The present discussion concerning certain fundamental physical theories (such as string theory and multiverse cosmology) has reopened the demarcation problem between science and non-science. While parts of the physics community see the situation as a beginning epistemic shift in what defines science, others deny that the traditional criterion of empirical testability can or should be changed. As demonstrated by the history of physics, it is not the first time that drastic revisions of theory assessment have been proposed. Read More

In 1626, the Venetian physician Santorio Santorio published the details of his pulsilogium, a stop clock that could accurately measure one's pulse rate. He applied Galileo Galilei's insights that the frequency of a pendulum's oscillation is inversely proportional to the square root of its length. Santorio's inventions emerged at a time when the natural world and our solar system were beginning to be mapped in remarkable detail. Read More

This is the first part of an oral history interview on the lifelong involvement of Joel Lebowitz in the development of statistical mechanics. Here the covered topics include the formative years, which overlapped the tragic period of Nazi power and World War II in Europe, the emigration to the United States in 1946 and the schooling there. It also includes the beginnings and early scientific works with Peter Bergmann, Oliver Penrose and many others. Read More

Canonical quantization relies on Cartesian, canonical, phase-space coordinates to promote to Hermitian operators, which also become the principal ingredients in the quantum Hamiltonian. While generally appropriate, this procedure can also fail, e.g. Read More

Cholanaikkans are a diminishing tribe of India. With a population of less than 200 members, this tribe living in the reserved forests about 80 km from Kozhikode, it is one of the most isolated tribes. A programme of the Government of Kerala brings some of them to Kozhikode once a year. Read More

The purpose of this note is to explain what is "analytical history", a modular and testable analysis of historical events introduced in a book published in 2002 (Roehner and Syme 2002). Broadly speaking, it is a comparative methodology for the analysis of historical events. Comparison is the keystone and hallmark of science. Read More

Objective probability in quantum mechanics is often thought to involve a stochastic process whereby an actual future is selected from a range of possibilities. Everett's seminal idea is that all possible definite futures on the pointer basis exist as components of a macroscopic linear superposition. I demonstrate that these two conceptions of what is involved in quantum processes are linked by two alternative interpretation of the mind-body relation. Read More

In 2012, Chen Ning Yang received a 90th birthday gift in the form of a black cube inscribed with his 13 most important contributions, which cover four major areas of physics: statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, particle physics and field theory. We briefly describe these 13 contributions and make general comments about Yang's distinctive style as a trailblazing leader in research. Read More

As Harvey Brown emphasizes in his book Physical Relativity, inertial motion in general relativity is best understood as a theorem, and not a postulate. Here I discuss the status of the "conservation condition", which states that the energy-momentum tensor associated with non-interacting matter is covariantly divergence-free, in connection with such theorems. I argue that the conservation condition is best understood as a consequence of the differential equations governing the evolution of matter in general relativity and many other theories. Read More