# Physics - Geophysics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Geophysics Publications

Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10$^{-18}$. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. Read More

Seasonal patterns associated with stress modulation, as evidenced by earthquake occurrence, have been detected in regions characterized by present day mountain building and glacial retreat in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Himalaya and the Alps, seismicity is peaking in spring and summer; opposite behaviour is observed in the Apennines. This diametrical behaviour, confirmed by recent strong earthquakes, well correlates with the dominant tectonic regime: peak in spring and summer in shortening areas, peak in fall and winter in extensional areas. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{2}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{3}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{4}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{5}University of Bern

We report a methodology for measuring 85Kr/Kr isotopic abundances using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) that increases sample measurement throughput by over an order of magnitude to 6 samples per 24 hours. The noble gas isotope 85Kr (half-life = 10.7 yr) is a useful tracer for young groundwater in the age range of 5-50 years. Read More

In simulation of fluid injection in fractured geothermal reservoirs, the characteristics of the physical processes are severely affected by the local occurence of connected fractures. To resolve these structurally dominated processes, there is a need to develop discretization strategies that also limit computational effort. In this paper we present an upscaling methodology for geothermal heat transport with fractures represented explicitly in the computational grid. Read More

In order to improve our understanding of landing on small bodies and of asteroid evolution, we use our novel drop tower facility to perform low-velocity (2-40 cm s^-1), shallow impact experiments of a 10 cm diameter aluminum sphere into quartz sand in low effective gravities (~0.2-1 m s^-2). Using in situ accelerometers, we measure the acceleration profile during the impacts and determine the peak accelerations, collision durations and maximum penetration depth. Read More

An asteroid impact is a low probability event with potentially devastating consequences. The Asteroid Risk Mitigation Optimization and Research (ARMOR) software tool calculates whether a colliding asteroid experiences an airburst or surface impact and calculates effect severity as well as reach on the global map. To calculate the consequences of an impact in terms of loss of human life, new vulnerability models are derived that connect the severity of seven impact effects (strong winds, overpressure shockwave, thermal radiation, seismic shaking, ejecta deposition, cratering and tsunamis) with lethality to human populations. Read More

Forecasting fault failure is a fundamental but elusive goal in earthquake science. Here we show that by listening to the acoustic signal emitted by a laboratory fault, machine learning can predict the time remaining before it fails with great accuracy. These predictions are based solely on the instantaneous physical characteristics of the acoustical signal, and do not make use of its history. Read More

Inorganic carbon, in the form of allogenic (transported) and pedogenic (soil) carbonates in semi-arid soils, may comprise an important carbon sink. Carbon dioxide, CO2, originating from the atmosphere and exhaled by tree roots into the soil, may be hydrated by soil water within the unsaturated zone (USZ) of semi-arid soils to produce the carbonic acid (H2CO3) solutes HCO3- bicarbonate and H+ Hydrogen ion. This H+ may then dissolve relict soil CaCO3 carbonate (calcite), to release Ca+2 calcium cations and more HCO3- bicarbonate. Read More

Inspired by river networks and other structures formed by Laplacian growth, we use the Loewner equation to investigate the growth of a network of thin fingers in a diffusion field. We first review previous contributions to illustrate how this formalism reduces the network's expansion to three rules, which respectively govern the velocity, the direction, and the nucleation of its growing branches. This framework allows us to establish the mathematical equivalence between three formulations of the direction rule, namely geodesic growth, growth that maintains local symmetry and growth that maximizes flux into tips for a given amount of growth. Read More

The Finite Difference (FD) and the Spectral Boundary Integral (SBI) methods have been used extensively to model spontaneously propagating shear cracks in a variety of engineering and geophysical applications. In this paper, we propose a new modeling approach, in which these two methods are combined through consistent exchange of boundary tractions and displacements. Benefiting from the flexibility of FD and the efficiency of spectral boundary integral (SBI) methods, the proposed hybrid scheme will solve a wide range of problems in a computationally efficient way. Read More

Many natural and engineering systems are simultaneously subjected to a driving force and a stabilizing force. The interplay between the two forces, especially for highly nonlinear systems such as fluid flow, often results in surprising features. Here we reveal such features in three different types of Rayleigh-B\'enard (RB) convection, i. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Kansas

Recent 60Fe results have suggested that the estimated distances of supernovae in the last few million years should be reduced from 100 pc to 50 pc. Two events or series of events are suggested, one about 2.7 million years to 1. Read More

Analysis of transient deformation events in time series data observed via networks of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) ground stations provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic processes that drive volcanic activity. Typical analyses of spatial positions originating from each station require careful tuning of algorithmic parameters and selection of time and spatial regions of interest to observe possible transient events. This iterative, manual process is tedious when attempting to make new discoveries and does not easily scale with the number of stations. Read More

KM3NeT-ORCA is a water-Cherenkov neutrino detector designed for studying the oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos, with the primary objective of measuring the neutrino mass ordering. Atmospheric neutrinos crossing the Earth undergo matter effects, modifying the pattern of their flavour oscillations. The study of the angular and energy distribution of neutrino events in ORCA can therefore provide tomographic information on the Earth's interior with an independent technique, complementary to the standard geophysics methods. Read More

Sand seas on Titan may reflect the present and past climatic conditions. Understanding the morphodynamics and physico-chemical properties of Titan's dunes is therefore essential for a better comprehension of the climatic and geological history of the largest Saturn's moon. We derived quantitatively surface properties (texture, composition) from the modelling of microwave backscattered signal and Monte-Carlo inversion of despeckled Cassini/SAR data over sand sea. Read More

A pseudo-outcrop visualization is demonstrated for borehole and full-diameter rock core images to augment the ubiquitous unwrapped cylinder view and thereby to assist non-specialist interpreters. The pseudo-outcrop visualization is equivalent to a nonlinear projection of the image from borehole to earth frame of reference that creates a solid volume sliced longitudinally to reveal two or more faces in which the orientations of geological features indicate what is observed in the subsurface. A proxy for grain size is used to modulate the external dimensions of the plot to mimic profiles seen in real outcrops. Read More

Surface observations indicate that the speed of the solar meridional circulation in the photosphere varies in anti-phase with the solar cycle. The current explanation for the source of this variation is that inflows into active regions alter the global surface pattern of the meridional circulation. When these localized inflows are integrated over a full hemisphere, they contribute to the slow down of the axisymmetric poleward horizontal component. Read More

The recent evolution of induced seismicity in Central United States calls for exhaustive catalogs to improve seismic hazard assessment. Over the last decades, the volume of seismic data has increased exponentially, creating a need for efficient algorithms to reliably detect and locate earthquakes. Today's most elaborate methods scan through the plethora of continuous seismic records, searching for repeating seismic signals. Read More

We present results of observation of Cygnus-A radiosource scintillation in the Earth's ionosphere in quiet and disturbed geomagnetic condition at Irkutsk incoherent scattering radar (IISR). Scintillation method applied for ionosphere testing at IISR confidently defines Fresnel frequency and power cutoff - the spectral characteristics usually related to the velocities and spatial spectra of ionospheric plasma irregularities. We also use IGFR magnetic field model in order to show relation between shape of discrete radio source scintillation spectra and direction to the radio source with respect to geomagnetic field. Read More

In the presence of background noise and interference, arrival times picked from a surface microseismic data set usually include a number of false picks which lead to uncertainty in location estimation. To eliminate false picks and improve the accuracy of location estimates, we develop a classification algorithm (RATEC) that clusters picked arrival times into event groups based on random sampling and fitting moveout curves that approximate hyperbolas. Arrival times far from the fitted hyperbolas are classified as false picks and removed from the data set prior to location estimation. Read More

**Authors:**J. C. Zappala

^{1}, K. Bailey

^{2}, W. Jiang

^{3}, B. Micklich

^{4}, P. Mueller

^{5}, T. P. O'Connor

^{6}, R. Purtschert

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{2}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{3}University of Science and Technology of China,

^{4}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{5}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{6}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{7}University of Bern

We place a 2.5% limit on the anthropogenic contribution to the modern abundance of 81Kr/Kr in the atmosphere at the 90% confidence level. Due to its simple production and transport in the terrestrial environment, 81Kr (halflife = 230,000 yr) is an ideal tracer for old water and ice with mean residence times in the range of 10^5-10^6 years. Read More

The paper by Taroni et al. (2016) considers results of forward prediction of Italian strong earthquakes by CN algorithm with the declared intent of providing "a careful assessment of CN prediction performances.. Read More

In this paper we survey the various implementations of a new data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm based on spatial coarse mesh measurements. As a paradigm, we demonstrate the application of this algorithm to the 3D Leray-$\alpha$ subgrid scale turbulence model. Most importantly, we use this paradigm to show that it is not always necessary that one has to collect coarse mesh measurements of all the state variables, that are involved in the underlying evolutionary system, in order to recover the corresponding exact reference solution. Read More

The soundscape in the eastern Arctic was studied from April to September 2013 using a 22 element vertical hydrophone array as it drifted from near the North Pole (89$^{\circ}$23'N, 62$^{\circ}$35'W) to north of Fram Strait (83$^{\circ}$45'N 4$^{\circ}$28'W). The hydrophones recorded for 108 minutes on six days per week with a sampling rate of 1953.125 Hz. Read More

We present results of numerical simulation of the direct cascade in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence (with spatial resolution up to $16384 \times 16384$). If at the earlier stage (at the time of order of the inverse pumping growth rate $\tau\sim\Gamma_{max}^{-1}$), the turbulence develops according to the same scenario as in the case of a freely decaying turbulence \cite{KNNR-07, KKS}: quasi-singular distributions of di-vorticity are formed, which in $k$-space correspond to jets, leading to a strong turbulence anisotropy, then for times of the order of $10\tau$ turbulence becomes almost isotropic. In particular, at these times any significant anisotropy in the angular fluctuations for the energy spectrum (for a fixed $k$) is not visible, while the probability distribution function of vorticity for large arguments has the exponential tail with the exponent linearly dependent on vorticity, in the agreement with the theoretical prediction \cite{FalkovichLebedev2011}. Read More

A first principle micromagnetic and statistical calculation of viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) in an ensemble of cubic magnetite pseudo single-domain particles is presented. This is achieved by developing a fast relaxation algorithm for finding optimal transition paths between micromagnetic local energy minima. It combines a nudged elastic band technique with action minimization. Read More

We demonstrate that the critical magnetic Reynolds number $Rm_c$ for a turbulent non-helical dynamo in the low magnetic Prandtl number $Pm$ limit (i.e. $Pm = Rm/Re \ll 1$) can be significantly reduced if the flow is submitted to global rotation. Read More

The Huang-Hilbert transform is applied to Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activities in order to decompose them into a number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and study which of these functions better represent the SES. The results are compared to those obtained from the analysis in a new time domain termed natural time after having subtracted the magnetotelluric background from the original signal. It is shown that the instantaneous amplitudes of the IMFs can be used for the distinction of SES from artificial noises when combined with the natural time analysis. Read More

One of the most significant challenges involved in efforts to understand the effects of repeated earthquake cycle activity are the computational costs of large-scale viscoelastic earthquake cycle models. Computationally intensive viscoelastic codes must be evaluated thousands of times and locations, and as a result, studies tend to adopt a few fixed rheological structures and model geometries, and examine the predicted time-dependent deformation over short (<10 yr) time periods at a given depth after a large earthquake. Training a deep neural network to learn a computationally efficient representation of viscoelastic solutions, at any time, location, and for a large range of rheological structures, allows these calculations to be done quickly and reliably, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Read More

We conducted ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the delta phase of the hydrous mineral AlOOH at ambient temperature and high pressure. Nuclear quantum effects were included through a Langevin dynamics in a bath of quantum harmonic oscillators. We confirm that under increasing pressure delta-AlOOH undergoes a phase transition from a $P2_1nm$ structure with asymmetric and disordered O-H bonds to a stiffer $Pnnm$ phase with symmetric hydrogen bonds, which should be stable within the pressure and temperature ranges typical for the Earth's mantle. Read More

Source localization is solved as a classification problem by training a feed-forward neural network (FNN) on ocean acoustic data. The pressure received by a vertical linear array is preprocessed by constructing a normalized sample covariance matrix (SCM), which is used as input for the FNN. Each neuron of the output layer represents a discrete source range. Read More

The electromagnetic induction equation (Helmholtz equation) for the electrically conducting Earth is generalised to the inclusion of a spatially fluctuating internal conductivity spectrum that is superimposed on a one-dimensional large-scale conductivity reference-profile which depends solely on the vertical coordinate z>0. This large-scale profile is assumed to be known. The distribution of the fluctuations is allowed to be arbitrary. Read More

Recently, Ciufolini et al. reported on a test of the general relativistic gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect by analyzing about 3.5 years of laser ranging data to the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II, LARES geodetic satellites orbiting the Earth. Read More

**Category:**Physics - Geophysics

Characterization, correlation and provenance determination of tephra samples in sedimentary sections (tephrochronological studies) are powerful tools for establishing ages of depositional events, volcanic eruptions, and tephra dispersion. Despite the large literature and the advancements in this research field, the univocal attribution of tephra deposits to specific volcanic sources remains too often elusive. In this contribution, we test the application of a machine learning technique named Support Vector Machine to attempt shedding new light upon tephra deposits related to one of the most complex and debated volcanic regions on Earth: the Pliocene-Pleistocene magmatism in Italy. Read More

Analyses for $^{81}$Kr and noble gases on groundwater from the deepest aquifer system of the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) were performed to determine groundwater ages and uncover the flow dynamics of the system on a timescale of several hundred thousand years. We find that the system is controlled by mixing of three distinct water masses: Interglacial or recent meteoric water $(\delta^{18}\text{O} \approx -10.4\unicode{x2030})$ with a poorly evolved chemical and noble gas signature, glacial meltwater $(\delta^{18}\text{O} \leq -18\unicode{x2030})$ with elevated noble gas concentrations, and an old, high-salinity brine component $(\delta^{18}\text{O} \geq -4. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}MSSMat, CEEM

**Category:**Physics - Geophysics

The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners with further insight into spurious damping forces that can be generated in nonlinear seismic response history analyses (RHA). The term 'spurious' is used to refer to damping forces that are not present in an elastic system and appear as nonlinearities develop: such damping forces are not necessarily intended and appear as a result of modifications in the structural properties as it yields or damages due to the seismic action. In this paper, two types of spurious damping forces are characterized. Read More

We address the problem of predicting saturation-dependent electrical conductivity {\sigma} in packings of spheres during drainage and imbibition. The effective-medium approximation (EMA) and the universal power law of percolation for {\sigma} are used, respectively, at higher and low water saturations to predict the conductivity, with the crossover between the two occurring at some intermediate saturation Swx. The main input to the theory is a single parameter that we estimate using the capillary pressure data. Read More

Observations suggest that impactors and volcanism are connected, but the mechanism that links these events is unknown. This research proposes the impact exsolution hypothesis to explain how planetary scale collisions trigger volcanism. This hypothesis says that when large objects such as asteroids or comets hit planets, they generate seismic waves that cause exsolution in magma, which initiates eruptions. Read More

Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number $Pr$) that convect as the core cools. The convecting, conductive medium can self-excite and maintain a planetary magnetic field. Here we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low, Ekman number $Ek$) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Read More

The mechanism by which the Earth's magnetic field is generated is thought to be thermal convection in the metallic liquid iron core. Computational considerations previously restricted most numerical simulations to a regime where the diffusivities of momentum and electric current are roughly equal, leading to similar spectra for both velocities and magnetic fields. Here we present results of a suite of self-consistent spherical shell computations with ultra-low viscosities. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Linné Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics,

^{2}DICCA, University of Genova,

^{3}Linné Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics

Despite the ubiquity of fluid flows interacting with porous and elastic materials, we lack a validated non-empirical macroscale method for characterizing the flow over and through a poroelastic medium. We propose a computational tool to describe such configurations by deriving and validating a continuum model for the poroelastic bed and its interface with the above free fluid. We show that, using stress continuity condition and slip velocity condition at the interface, the effective model captures the effects of small changes in the microstructure anisotropy correctly and predicts the overall behaviour in a physically consistent and controllable manner. Read More

The distributions of size and chemical composition in the regolith on airless bodies provides clues to the evolution of the solar system. Recently, the regolith on asteroid (25143) Itokawa, visited by the JAXA Hayabusa spacecraft, was observed to contain millimeter to centimeter sized particles. Itokawa boulders commonly display well-rounded profiles and surface textures that appear inconsistent with mechanical fragmentation during meteorite impact; the rounded profiles have been hypothesized to arise from rolling and movement on the surface as a consequence of seismic shaking. Read More

Shear banding is widely observed in natural fault zones as well as in gouge layers in laboratory experiments. Understanding the dynamics of strain localization under different loading conditions is essential for quantifying strength evolution of fault gouge, energy partitioning during earthquakes and characterizing rheological transitions and fault zone structure changes. To that end, we develop a physics-based continuum model for strain localization in sheared granular materials. Read More

We present a new approach based on linear integro-differential operators with logarithmic kernel related to the Hadamard fractional calculus in order to generalize, by a parameter $\nu \in (0,1]$, the logarithmic creep law known in rheology as Lomnitz law (obtained for $\nu=1$). We derive the constitutive stress-strain relation of this generalized model in a form that couples memory effects and time-varying viscosity. Then, based on the hereditary theory of linear viscoelasticity, we also derive the corresponding relaxation function by solving numerically a Volterra integral equation of the second kind. Read More

The influence of the channel inclination angle on gravity-driven turbulent bedload transport is studied in an idealised framework considering steady and uniform flow conditions. It is shown that a misconception has led to erroneous results of the slope influence on the critical Shields number corresponding to the onset of motion. Analyzing the phenomenon further in a two-phase continuous framework, the channel inclination angle is shown to not only influence the fluid bed shear stress and the resistance of the granular bed, but also the fluid flow inside the granular bed. Read More

Magmatism in subduction zones builds continental crust and causes most of Earth's subaerial volcanism. The production rate and composition of magmas are controlled by the thermal structure of subduction zones. A range of geochemical and heat flow evidence has recently converged to indicate that subduction zones are hotter than predicted by models of solid-state mantle creep. Read More

Probabilistic inversion methods based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are well suited to quantify parameter and model uncertainty of nonlinear inverse problems. Yet, application of such methods to CPU-intensive forward models can be a daunting task, particularly if the parameter space is high dimensional. Here, we present a two-dimensional (2D) pixel-based MCMC inversion of plane-wave electromagnetic (EM) data. Read More

Geoelectrical techniques are widely used to monitor groundwater processes, while surprisingly few studies have considered audio (AMT) and radio (RMT) magnetotellurics for such purposes. In this numerical investigation, we analyze to what extent inversion results based on AMT and RMT monitoring data can be improved by (1) time-lapse difference inversion; (2) incorporation of statistical information about the expected model update (i.e. Read More

The geometry and connectivity of fractures exert a strong influence on the flow and transport properties of fracture networks. We present a novel approach to stochastically generate three-dimensional discrete networks of connected fractures that are conditioned to hydrological and geophysical data. A hierarchical rejection sampling algorithm is used to draw realizations from the posterior probability density function at different conditioning levels. Read More

Investigations of solute transport in fractured rock aquifers often rely on tracer test data acquired at a limited number of observation points. Such data do not, by themselves, allow detailed assessments of the spreading of the injected tracer plume. To better understand the transport behavior in a granitic aquifer, we combine tracer test data with single-hole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection monitoring data. Read More