# Physics - Geophysics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Geophysics Publications

In this article, we derive and compute the sensitivity of measurements of coupling between normal modes of oscillation in the Sun to underlying flows. The theory is based on first-Born perturbation theory, and the analysis is carried out using the formalism described by \citet{lavely92}. Albeit tedious, we detail the derivation and compute the sensitivity of specific pairs of coupled normal modes to anomalies in the interior. Read More

The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). Read More

Future sea-level rise drives severe risks for many coastal communities. Strategies to manage these risks hinge on a sound characterization of the uncertainties. For example, recent studies suggest that large fractions of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) may rapidly disintegrate in response to rising global temperatures, leading to potentially several meters of sea-level rise during the next few centuries. Read More

The discovery of long-lived electrostatic coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields ($1 \leq E \leq 500 $ mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which planetary radiation belts' acceleration can take place. Following previous reports showing that small phase-space holes, with $q\phi /T^c_e\simeq 10^{-2}-10^{-3}$, could result from electron interaction with large-amplitude whistlers, we demonstrate one possible mechanism through which holes can grow nonlinearly (i.e. Read More

We study slowly pulling block-spring models in random media. Second-order phase transitions exist in a model pulled by a constant force in the case of velocity-strengthening friction. If external forces are slowly increased, nearly critical states are self-organized. Read More

We develop a theory of three-dimensional slow Rossby waves in rotating spherical density stratified convection. The excited by a non-axisymmetric instability, slow Rossby waves with frequency that is much smaller than the rotating frequency, interact with the density stratified convection and the inertial waves. The density stratification is taken into account using the anelastic approximation for very low-Mach-number flows. Read More

A model of ice floe breakup under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave breakup events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a breakup criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i)~solves wave scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii)~computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii)~fractures the floes satisfying the breakup criterion and (iv)~generates an updated FSD, initialising the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. Read More

The anisotropic model for landscapes erosion first proposed by Pastor-Satorras and Rothman is believed to capture the physics of erosion at intermediate length scale ($\lesssim3$~km), and to account for the large value of the roughness exponent $\alpha$ observed in real data at this scale. Our study of this model -- conducted using the nonperturbative renormalization group (NPRG) -- concludes on the non-universality of this exponent because of the existence of a line of fixed points. Thus, the roughness exponent depends (weakly) on the details of the soil and the erosion mechanisms. Read More

A novel approach is presented for fast generation of synthetic seismograms due to microseismic events, using heterogeneous marine velocity models. The partial differential equations (PDEs) for the 3D elastic wave equation have been numerically solved using the Fourier domain pseudo-spectral method which is parallelizable on the graphics processing unit (GPU) cards, thus making it faster compared to traditional CPU based computing platforms. Due to computationally expensive forward simulation of large geological models, several combinations of individual synthetic seismic traces are used for specified microseismic event locations, in order to simulate the effect of realistic microseismic activity patterns in the subsurface. Read More

Geophysical measurements can reveal the structure of icy ocean worlds and cycling of volatiles. The associated density, temperature, sound speed, and electrical conductivity of such worlds thus characterizes their habitability. To explore the variability and correlation of these parameters, and to provide tools for planning and data analyses, we develop 1-D calculations of internal structure, which use available constraints on the thermodynamics of aqueous MgSO$_4$, NaCl (as seawater), and NH$_3$, water ices, and silicate content. Read More

The first concise formulation of the inverse problem on conservation laws is presented. In this problem one aims to derive the general form of systems of differential equations that admit a prescribed set of conservation laws. The particular cases of the inverse problem on first integrals of ordinary differential equations and on conservation laws for evolution equations are considered. Read More

To date, seismological efforts have been limited to terrestrial objects: Earth, the Moon, and soon Mars. All have in common a rigid lithosphere above a solid mantle. The coming years may see the development of seismological experiments for Europa, Titan and Enceladus, so it is necessary to adapt seismological concepts to the setting of worlds with global oceans covered in ice. Read More

A better understanding and anticipation of natural processes such as landsliding or seismic fault activity requires detailed theoretical and experimental analysis of rock mechanics and geomaterial dynamics. These last decades, considerable progress has been made towards understanding deformation and fracture process in laboratory experiment on granular rock materials, as the well-known shear banding experiment. One of the reasons for this progress is the continuous improvement in the instrumental techniques of observation. Read More

Understanding the controlling mechanisms underlying injection-induced seismicity is important for optimizing reservoir productivity and addressing seismicity-related concerns related to hydraulic stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Hydraulic stimulation enhances permeability through elevated pressures, which cause normal deformations, and the shear slip of pre-existing fractures. Previous experiments indicate that fracture deformation in the normal direction reverses as the pressure decreases, e. Read More

We endeavor to assess site response exploiting ambient noise measurements which we carried out at 70 sites in different parts of Shillong City, one of the seismically active regions. We estimate the spectral ratio from these recordings. The spectral ratios reveal the resonant frequency for Shillong City in the range of 3 to 8 Hz. Read More

Earthquakes at seismogenic plate boundaries are a response to the differential motions of tectonic blocks embedded within a geometrically complex network of branching and coalescing faults. Elastic strain is accumulated at a slow strain rate of the order of $10^{-15}$ s$^{-1}$, and released intermittently at intervals $>100$ years, in the form of rapid (seconds to minutes) coseismic ruptures. The development of macroscopic models of quasi-static planar tectonic dynamics at these plate boundaries has remained challenging due to uncertainty with regard to the spatial and kinematic complexity of fault system behaviors. Read More

This paper presents a mathematical model and a numerical procedure to simulate an acoustic well stimulation (AWS) method for enhancing the permeability of the rock formation surrounding oil and gas wells. The AWS method considered herein aims to exploit the well-known permeability-enhancing effect of mechanical vibrations in acoustically porous materials, by transmitting time-harmonic sound waves from a sound source device---placed inside the well---to the well perforations made into the formation. The efficiency of the AWS is assessed by quantifying the amount of acoustic energy transmitted from the source device to the rock formation in terms of the emission frequency and the well configuration. Read More

Almost all parameterizations of turbulence in NWP models and GCM make the assumption of equality of exchange coefficients for heat $K_h$ and water $K_w$. However, large uncertainties exists in old papers published in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, where the turbulent Lewis number Le_t $= K_h / K_w$ have been evaluated from observations and then set to Le_t$=1$. The aim of this note is: 1) to trust the recommendations of Richardson (1919), who suggested to use the moist-air entropy as a variable on which the turbulence is acting; 2) to compute a new exchange coefficients $K_s$ for the moist-air entropy; 3) to determine the values of the new entropy-Lewis number Le_ts $= K_s / K_w$ from observations (M\'et\'eopole-Flux and Cabauw masts) and from LES and SCM outputs for the IHOP case (Couvreux et al. Read More

The groundwater flow system in the Culebra Dolomite Member (Culebra) of the Permian Rustler Formation is a potential radionuclide release pathway from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only deep geological repository for transuranic waste in the United States. In early conceptual models of the Culebra, groundwater levels were not expected to fluctuate markedly, except in response to long-term climatic changes, with response times on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Recent groundwater pressures measured in monitoring wells record more than 25 m of drawdown. Read More

The introduction of the Phase Tensor marked a major breakthrough in the understanding, analysis and treatment of galvanic distortion of the electric field in the Magnetotelluric (MT) method. We build upon a recently formulated impedance tensor decomposition into the known Phase Tensor and an Amplitude Tensor that is shown to be complementary and algebraically independent of the Phase Tensor. This recent decomposition demonstrates that the Amplitude Tensor contains inductive and galvanic information of the subsurface and that the inductive information is physically coupled to the one contained in the Phase Tensor. Read More

The forest plays an important role in a watershed hydrology, regulating the transfer of water within the system. The forest role in maintaining watersheds hydrological regime is still a controversial issue. Consequently, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to simulate scenarios of land use in a watershed. Read More

We report estimation of site response in the form of fundamental frequency. Towards this objective, we deploy widely established receiver function technique. Taking locally recorded events as inputs, we implement this technique to estimate resonance frequency in three receiver sites, characterized by varying lithology underneath. Read More

This study aims to advance hardware-level computations for travel-time tomography applications in which the wavelength is close to the diameter of the information that has to be recovered. Such can be the case, for example, in the imaging applications of (1) biomedical physics, (2) astro-geophysics and (3) civil engineering. Our aim is to shed light on the effect of that preprocessing the digital waveform signal has on the inversion results and to find computational solutions that guarantee robust inversion when there are incomplete and/or noisy measurements. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Chicago,

^{2}Princeton University,

^{3}Princeton University

We study the thermalization, injection, and acceleration of ions with different mass/charge ratios, $A/Z$, in non-relativistic collisionless shocks via hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations. In general, ions thermalize to a post-shock temperature proportional to $A$. When diffusive shock acceleration is efficient, ions develop a non-thermal tail whose extent scales with $Z$ and whose normalization is enhanced as $(A/Z)^2$, so that incompletely-ionized heavy ions are preferentially accelerated. Read More

Three national US soil point datasets: the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) Characterization Database, National Soil Information System (NASIS), and the Rapid Carbon Assessment (RaCA) dataset, were combined with a stack of over 200 environmental datasets to generate complete coverage gridded predictions at 100 m spatial resolution of soil properties (percent organic C, total N, bulk density, pH, and percent sand and clay) and US soil taxonomic classes (291 great groups and 78 modified particle size classes) for the Conterminous US. Models were built using parallelized random forest and gradient boosting algorithms. Soil property predictions were generated at seven standard soil depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm). Read More

When modeling global satellite data to recover a planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field and evaluate it elsewhere, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e. Read More

Applying Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to the geomagnetic data recorded at three measuring stations in Japan, Rong et al. in 2012 reported that anomalous magnetic field variations were identified well before the occurrence of the disastrous Tohoku $M_w$9.0 earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 in Japan exhibiting increased "non-uniform" scaling behavior. Read More

Plate motions are governed by equilibrium between basal and edge forces. Great earthquakes may induce differential static stress changes across tectonic plates, enabling a new equilibrium state. Here we consider the torque balance for idealized circular plates and find a simple scalar relationship for changes in relative plate speed as a function of its size, upper mantle viscosity, and coseismic stress changes. Read More

Space weather events produce variations in the electric current in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. From these high altitude atmospheric regions, resulting geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) can lead to fluctuations in ground currents that affect the electric power grid and potentially overload transformers during extreme storms. The most extreme geomagnetic storm on record, known as the 1859 Carrington event, was so intense that ground-based magnetometers were saturated at high magnetic latitudes. Read More

The moist-air entropy can be used to analyze and better understand the general circulation of the atmosphere or convective motions. Isentropic analyses are commonly based on studies of different equivalent potential temperatures, all of which are assumed to fully represent the entropy of moist air. It is, however, possible to rely on statistical physics or the third law of thermodynamics when defining and computing the absolute entropy of moist air and to study the corresponding third-law potential temperature, which is different from the previous ones. Read More

The atmospheric pressure fluctuations on Mars induce an elastic response in the ground that creates a ground tilt, detectable as a seismic signal on the InSight seismometer SEIS. The seismic pressure noise is modeled using Large Eddy Simulations of the wind and surface pressure at the InSight landing site and a Green's function ground deformation approach that is subsequently validated via a detailed comparison with two other methods based on Sorrells' theory (Sorrels 1971; Sorrels et al. 1971). Read More

We show that, in general, the translational average over a spatial variable---discussed by Backus \cite{backus}, and referred to as the equivalent-medium average---and the rotational average over a symmetry group at a point---discussed by Gazis et al. \cite{gazis}, and referred to as the effective-medium average---do not commute. However, they do commute in special cases of a given symmetry class, which correspond to particular relations among the elasticity parameters. Read More

We consider the late-time tailing in a tracer test performed with a push-drift methodology (i.e., quasi-radial injection followed by drift under natural gradient). Read More

We discuss a methodology to identify observation points for muongraphy of active Colombian Volcanoes and it is found that only Cerro Machin can be studied. Read More

While in the case of zero offset data with horizontal beds, it is clear that the recorded trace is a convolution of the wavelet and reflectivity series, the situation in the case of finite offset is a bit more complex as the direction of the incident ray is not vertical, the natural direction in which the reflectivity series is measured.We examine the consequences of this hitherto neglected fact. Read More

We examine kinematic dynamo action driven by an axisymmetric large scale flow that is superimposed with an azimuthally propagating non-axisymmetric perturbation with a frequency $\omega$. Although we apply a rather simple large scale velocity field, our simulations exhibit a complex behavior with oscillating and azimuthally drifting eigenmodes as well as stationary regimes. Within these non-oscillating regimes we find parametric resonances characterized by a considerable enhancement of dynamo action and by a locking of the phase of the magnetic field to the pattern of the perturbation. Read More

In this paper, we examine the applicability of the approximation, $\,\overline{fg}\approx \overline f\,\overline g\,$, within Backus (1962) averaging. This approximation is a crucial step in the method proposed by Backus (1962), which is widely used in studying wave propagation in layered Hookean solids. According to this approximation, the average of the product of a rapidly varying function and a slowly varying function is approximately equal to the product of the averages of those two functions. Read More

When monitoring geophysical parameters, data from segments that are contaminated by noise may have to be abandoned. This is the case, for example, in the geoelectrical field measurements at some sites in Japan, where high noise -due mainly to leakage currents from DC driven trains- prevails almost during 70\% of the 24 hour operational time. We show that even in such a case, the identification of seismic electric signals (SES), which are long-range correlated signals, may be possible, if the remaining noise free data are analyzed in natural time along with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Read More

To evaluate the variability of multi-phase flow properties of porous media at the pore scale, it is necessary to acquire a number of representative samples of the void-solid structure. While modern x-ray computer tomography has made it possible to extract three-dimensional images of the pore space, assessment of the variability in the inherent material properties is often experimentally not feasible. We present a novel method to reconstruct the solid-void structure of porous media by applying a generative neural network that allows an implicit description of the probability distribution represented by three-dimensional image datasets. Read More

The Phase Tensor marked a breakthrough in understanding and analysis of electric galvanic distortion. It can be used for (distortion free) dimensionality analysis, distortion analysis, mapping and subsurface model inversion. However, the information stored in the 3D Phase Tensor is redundant with traditional apparent resistivity data due to inherent mode mixing and therefore complicates joint interpretations, but including the impedance amplitude will result in more reliable interpretation. Read More

It has been shown [Phys. Rev. E 84, 022101 (2011); Chaos 22, 023123 (2012)] that earthquakes of magnitude $M$ greater or equal to 7 are globally correlated. Read More

Recent numerical simulations showed that the mean flow is generated in inhomogeneous turbulence of an incompressible fluid accompanied with helicity and system rotation. In order to investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon, we carry out a numerical simulation of inhomogeneous turbulence in a rotating system. In the simulation, an external force is applied to inject inhomogeneous turbulent helicity and the rotation axis is taken to be perpendicular to the inhomogeneous direction. Read More

We examine the sensitivity of the Love and the quasi-Rayleigh waves to model parameters. Both waves are guided waves that propagate in the same model of an elastic layer above an elastic halfspace. We study their dispersion curves without any simplifying assumptions, beyond the standard approach of elasticity theory in isotropic media. Read More

This paper reports the repeat-pass interferometric SAR results of Gaofen-3, a Chinese civil SAR satellite, acquired in November 2016 and March 2017 from Ningbo area. With the spatial baseline about 600 m and time baseline 116 days, the coherence of the two images still achieve good enough to generate the digital elevation model (DEM). During the InSAR processing, we compared several baseline estimating methods and obtained a good flat-earth phase removed interferogram map. Read More

The results of the probabilistic analysis of the direct numerical simulations of irregular unidirectional deep-water waves are discussed. It is shown that an occurrence of large-amplitude soliton-like groups represents an extraordinary case, which is able to increase noticeably the probability of high waves even in moderately rough sea conditions. The ensemble of wave realizations should be large enough to take these rare events into account. Read More

We evaluated the body wave attenuation parameter in Kopili region of northeast India. Using the modified algorithm of coda normalization method, we delineated frequency-dependent attenuation for both P and S waves. Taking more than 300 seismograms as input, we comprehensively studied microearthquake spectra in the frequency range of 1. Read More

El Nino is probably the most influential climate phenomenon on interannual time scales. It affects the global climate system and is associated with natural disasters and serious consequences in many aspects of human life. However, the forecasting of the onset and in particular the magnitude of El Nino are still not accurate, at least more than half a year in advance. Read More

**Authors:**Yi Yang

^{1}, Stefan Bruns

^{2}, Melania Rogowska

^{3}, Sepideh S. Hakim

^{4}, Jörg U. Hammel

^{5}, Susan L. S. Stipp

^{6}, Henning O. Sørensen

^{7}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen,

^{2}Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen,

^{3}Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen,

^{4}Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen,

^{5}Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany,

^{6}Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen,

^{7}Nano-Science Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen

The dissolution of porous materials in a flow field shapes the morphologies of many geologic landscapes. Identifying the dissolution front, the interface between the reactive and the unreactive regions in a dissolving medium, is a prerequisite for studying dissolution kinetics. Despite its fundamental importance, the dynamics of a dissolution front in an evolving natural microstructure has never been reported. Read More