Physics - Accelerator Physics Publications (50)


Physics - Accelerator Physics Publications

We propose a method based on the slice energy spread modulation to generate strong subpicoseond density bunching in high-intensity relativistic electron beams. A laser pulse with periodic intensity envelope is used to modulate the slice energy spread of the electron beam, which can then be converted into density modulation after a dispersive section. It is found that the double-horn slice energy distribution of the electron beam induced by the laser modulation is very effective to increase the density bunching. Read More

The free electron laser (FEL), as the new generation light source, is an attractive tool in scientific frontier research, because of its advantages of full coherence, ultra-short pulse and controllable polarization. Generally, the soft X-ray FEL facilities require a precise measurement of polarization and X-ray energy spectrum. In this paper, based on the soft X-ray FEL user facility under construction at Shanghai, a numerical model in the framework of Geant4 was developed for simulating electron time of flight (e-TOF) based polarimeter and spectrometer. Read More

Channeling properties and radiation spectra are studied on the grounds of numerical simulations for the 855 MeV electrons in a periodically bent diamond crystal. The bent crystalline profiles are shown to enhance the re-channeling of the projectiles and to produce distinct lines in the radiation spectra. The results obtained are analyzed and contrasted to the properties of the planar channeling and of the channeling in uniformly bent crystals. Read More

We analyze the stimulated (emission/absorption) interaction of an electron quantum wavepacket with coherent radiation, using perturbation theory and numerical solution of Schrodinger equation. The analysis applies to a wide class of free electron radiative interaction schemes, and exemplified for Smith-Purcell radiation. Though QED theory and experiments indicate that spontaneous emission of radiation by a free electron is independent of its dimensions, we show that wavepacket dimensions do affect the stimulated radiative interaction in a certain range. Read More

The goal of the first phase of the AWAKE \cite{AWAKE1,AWAKE2} experiment at CERN is to measure the self-modulation \cite{SMI} of the $\sigma_z = 12\,\rm{cm}$ long SPS proton bunch into microbunches after traversing $10\,\rm{m}$ of plasma with a plasma density of $n_{pe}=7\times10^{14}\,\rm{electrons/cm}^3$. The two screen measurement setup \cite{Turner2016} is a proton beam diagnostic that can indirectly prove the successful development of the self-modulation of the proton beam by imaging protons that got defocused by the transverse plasma wakefields after passing through the plasma, at two locations downstream the end of the plasma. This article describes the design and realization of the two screen measurement setup integrated in the AWAKE experiment. Read More

Affiliations: 1Fermilab, 2Fermilab, 3Fermilab, 4Fermilab, 5Fermilab, 6Fermilab

The transfer line for beam extraction from the Recycler ring to P1 line provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. It was designed in 2012. The kicker magnets at RR520 and the lambertson magnet at RR522 in the RR were installed in 2014 Summer Shutdown, the elements of RR to P1 Stub (permanent quads, trim quads, correctors, BPMs, the toroid at 703 and vertical bending dipole at V703 (ADCW) were installed in 2015 Summer Shutdown. Read More

In this paper, we extend several time reversible numerical integrators to solve the Lorentz force equations from second order accuracy to higher order accuracy for relativistic charged particle tracking in electromagnetic fields. A fourth order algorithm is given explicitly and tested with numerical examples. Such high order numerical integrators can significantly save the computational cost by using a larger step size in comparison to the second order integrators. Read More

We present a new concept for a multi-stage Zeeman decelerator that is optimized particularly for applications in molecular beam scattering experiments. The decelerator consists of a series of alternating hexapoles and solenoids, that effectively decouple the transverse focusing and longitudinal deceleration properties of the decelerator. It can be operated in a deceleration and acceleration mode, as well as in a hybrid mode that makes it possible to guide a particle beam through the decelerator at constant speed. Read More

There's presently a growing demand for cw high current proton and deuteron linear accelerators based on superconducting technology to better support various fields of science. Up to now, high order modes (HOMs) studies induced by ion beams with current higher than 10 mA and even 100 mA accelerated by low beta non-elliptical Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are very few. Peking University has recently designed and fabricated a beta=0. Read More

The manuscript describes several monochromatization schemes starting from A.~Renieri \cite{ref:Renieri} proposal for head-on collisions based on correlation between particles transverse position and energy deviation. We briefly explain initial proposal and expand it for crossing angle collisions. Read More

Electron cloud can lead to a fast instability in intense proton and positron beams in circular accelerators. In the Fermilab Recycler the electron cloud is confined within its combined function magnets. We show that the field of combined function magnets traps the electron cloud, present the results of analytical estimates of trapping, and compare them to numerical simulations of electron cloud formation. Read More


An electron cloud instability might limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler after the PIP-II upgrade. A multibunch instability typically develops in the horizontal plane within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, leads to beam loss. Recent studies have indicated that the instability is caused by an electron cloud, trapped in the Recycler index dipole magnets. Read More

Comparing with conventional accelerator, laser plasma accelerator can generate high energy ions in a greatly reduced scale due to its TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at Institute of Heavy Ion physics in Peking University, based on which application researches like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulation etc. will be carried on. Read More

The Schr\"odinger equation is solved for the wave function of an electron moving in a superposition of external constant and uniform electric and magnetic fields at an arbitrary angle between the field directions. The changing of the potential barrier under influence of the magnetic field parallel to the metal surface is shown. Read More

We propose a method for the detection of a dynamical Casimir effect. Assuming that the Casimir photons are being generated in an electromagnetic cavity with a vibrating wall (dynamical Casimir effect), we consider electrons passing through the cavity to be interacting with the intracavity field. We show that the dynamical Casimir effect can be observed via the measurement of the change in the average or in the variance of the electron kinetic energy. Read More

We have performed Joule power loss calculations for a flat dechirper. We have considered the configurations of the beam on-axis between the two plates---for chirp control---and for the beam especially close to one plate---for use as a fast kicker. Our calculations use a surface impedance approach, one that is valid when corrugation parameters are small compared to aperture (the perturbative parameter regime). Read More

In this paper, we propose an optimized field/circuit coupling approach for the simulation of magnetothermal transients in superconducting magnets. The approach improves the convergence of the iterative coupling scheme between a magnetothermal partial differential model and an electrical lumped-element circuit. Such a multi-physics, multi-rate and multi-scale problem requires a consistent formulation and a dedicated framework to tackle the challenging transient effects occurring at both circuit and magnet level during normal operation and in case of faults. Read More

This paper presents a model based on Deep Learning algorithms of LSTM and GRU for facilitating an anomaly detection in Large Hadron Collider superconducting magnets. We used high resolution data available in Post Mortem database to train a set of models and chose the best possible set of their hyper-parameters. Using Deep Learning approach allowed to examine a vast body of data and extract the fragments which require further experts examination and are regarded as anomalies. Read More

In the framework of the earlier derived dispersion equation, we study induced Smith Purcell (SP) radiation of relativistic electron beam in the absence of a resonator. We offer a new method for calculation of coefficients for partial amplitudes in the case of rectangular grating. Using this method we calculate the growth rate of the SPFEL with a rectangular grating. Read More

Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerators (MEQALACs) provide an opportunity to realize compact radio-frequency (RF) accelerator structures that can deliver very high beam currents. MEQALACs have been previously realized with acceleration gap distances and beam aperture sizes of the order of centimeters. Through advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, MEQALACs can now be scaled down to the sub-millimeter regime and batch processed on wafer substrates. Read More

For the grating, which has depth of grooves as a small parameter, the dispersion equation of the Smith-Purcell instability was obtained. It was found that the condition of the Thompson or the Raman regimes of excitation does not depend on beam current but depends on the height of the beam above grating surface. The growth rate of instability in both cases is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current. Read More

A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. Read More

The resonance frequency of the system is found and the linear gain is derived for the odd harmonics of this frequency. Averaging of the gain is carried out over the initial distribution of electrons in a transverse cross section of the beam. Estimates are obtained of the maximum lasing frequency and of the gain at this frequency Read More

After more than a century of debate, there remains continuing discomfort over what is the correct expression for the electromagnetic momentum in a dielectric medium. This is the so-called the Minkowski-Abraham controversy. We show that there is indeed a consistent picture for the electromagnetic momentum associated with waves in a dielectric, but one must start with the fields E and B, not D and H as fundamental objects. Read More

Superconducting linacs are capable of producing intense, stable, high-quality electron beams that have found widespread applications in science and industry. The 9-cell 1.3-GHz superconducting standing-wave accelerating RF cavity originally developed for $e^+/e^-$ linear-collider applications [B. Read More

The 74-cell DARHT-II long-pulse linear induction accelerator (LIA) was commissioned in its final configuration in 2007-2008. The final accelerated beam parameters were 2 kA, and greater than 17 MeV in a pulse flat to better than +/- 1% for more than 1.6 micro-s. Read More

We present measurements of the pulse length of ultracold electron bunches generated by near-threshold two-photon photoionization of a laser-cooled gas. The pulse length has been measured using a resonant $3$~GHz deflecting cavity in TM$_{110}$ mode. We have measured the pulse length in three ionization regimes. Read More

We consider a relativistic quantum heat engine that goes through a thermodynamical cycle consisting of stages involving laser-assisted cooling of electrons and the generation of Xray radiation. Quantum treatment of the processes makes it possible to obtain the necessary condition and the amount of work extracted from the interaction ingredients, as well as the efficiency of the heat engine. We have also found that the efficiency of the relativistic engine is less than the one for the nonrelativistic case for the same momenta. Read More

In the standard design method of straight dipole magnets, the good field region is symmetric to the magnet mechanical center, and the magnetic field is usually integrated along straight lines longitudinally to obtain the integrated field. In this paper, an improved design method for conventional straight dipole magnets is proposed. The width of good field region is not enlarged to include the beam sagitta, and the good field region is not symmetric with respect to the magnet mechanical center. Read More

A novel scaling type of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator is proposed that solves the major problems of conventional scaling FFAGs. This scaling FFAG accelerator combines reverse bending magnets of the radial sector type and a spiral edge angle of the spiral sector type to ensure sufficient vertical focusing without relying on extreme values of either parameter. This new concept makes it possible to design a scaling FFAG for high energy (above GeV range) applications such as a proton driver for a spallation neutron source and an accelerator driven subcritical reactor. Read More

Authors: MICE Collaboration, M. Bogomilov, R. Tsenov, G. Vankova-Kirilova, Y. Song, J. Tang, Z. Li, R. Bertoni, M. Bonesini, F. Chignoli, R. Mazza, V. Palladino, A. de Bari, G. Cecchet, D. Orestano, L. Tortora, Y. Kuno, S. Ishimoto, F. Filthaut, D. Jokovic, D. Maletic, M. Savic, O. M. Hansen, S. Ramberger, M. Vretenar, R. Asfandiyarov, A. Blondel, F. Drielsma, Y. Karadzhov, G. Charnley, N. Collomb, A. Gallagher, A. Grant, S. Griffiths, T. Hartnett, B. Martlew, A. Moss, A. Muir, I. Mullacrane, A. Oates, P. Owens, G. Stokes, M. Tucker, P. Warburton, C. White, D. Adams, R. J. Anderson, P. Barclay, V. Bayliss, J. Boehm, T. W. Bradshaw, M. Courthold, K. Dumbell, V. Francis, L. Fry, T. Hayler, M. Hills, A. Lintern, C. Macwaters, A. Nichols, R. Preece, S. Ricciardi, C. Rogers, T. Stanley, J. Tarrant, A. Wilson, S. Watson, R. Bayes, J. C. Nugent, F. J. P. Soler, R. Gamet, G. Barber, V. J. Blackmore, D. Colling, A. Dobbs, P. Dornan, C. Hunt, A. Kurup, J-B. Lagrange, K. Long, J. Martyniak, S. Middleton, J. Pasternak, M. A. Uchida, J. H. Cobb, W. Lau, C. N. Booth, P. Hodgson, J. Langlands, E. Overton, M. Robinson, P. J. Smith, S. Wilbur, A. J. Dick, K. Ronald, C. G. Whyte, A. R. Young, S. Boyd, P. Franchini, J. R. Greis, C. Pidcott, I. Taylor, R. B. S. Gardener, P. Kyberd, J. J. Nebrensky, M. Palmer, H. Witte, A. D. Bross, D. Bowring, A. Liu, D. Neuffer, M. Popovic, P. Rubinov, A. DeMello, S. Gourlay, D. Li, S. Prestemon, S. Virostek, B. Freemire, P. Hanlet, D. M. Kaplan, T. A. Mohayai, D. Rajaram, P. Snopok, V. Suezaki, Y. Torun, Y. Onel, L. M. Cremaldi, D. A. Sanders, D. J. Summers, G. G. Hanson, C. Heidt

Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. Read More

The simplest model of the magnetized infinitely thin electron beam is considered. The basic equations that describe the periodic solutions for a self-consistent system of a couple of Maxwell equations and equations for the medium are obtained. Read More

We report the finding of new surface treatments that permit to manipulate the niobium resonator nitrogen content in the first few nanometers in a controlled way, and the resonator fundamental Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance and residual resistance accordingly. In particular, we find surface infusion conditions that systematically a) increase the quality factor of these 1.3 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) bulk niobium resonators, up to very high gradients; b) increase the achievable accelerating gradient of the cavity compared to its own baseline with state-of-the-art surface processing. Read More

A refined equation for channe;ing particle diffusion in transverse energy taking into consideration large-angle scattering by nuclei is suggested. This equation is reduced to the Sturm-Liouville problem allowing one to reveal both the origin and the limitations of the dechanneling length notion. The values of the latter is evaluated for both positively and negatively charged particles of various energies. Read More

Thermal stability is an important parameter for the operation of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators. The rf power dissipated on the inner surface of the cavities is conducted to the helium bath cooling the outer cavity surface and the equilibrium temperature of the inner surface depends on the thermal resistance. In this manuscript, we present the results of direct measurements of thermal resistance on 1. Read More

Besides the target to pursue the narrow bandwidth X-ray pulses, the large bandwidth free-electron laser pulses are also strongly demanded to satisfy a wide range of scientific user experiments. In this paper, using the transversely tilt beam enabled by deflecting cavity and/or corrugated structure, the potential of large bandwidth X-ray free-electron lasers generation with the natural gradient of the planar undulator are discussed. Simulations confirm the theoretical prediction, and X-ray free-electron laser bandwidth indicates five-fold increase with optimized beam parameters. Read More

In this paper, a simple method is proposed to extend the photon energy range of a soft x-ray self-seeding free-electron laser (FEL). A normal monochromator is first applied to purify the FEL spectrum and provide a coherent seeding signal. This coherent signal then interacts with the electron beam in the following reverse tapered undulator section to generate strong coherent microbunchings while maintain the good quality of the electron beam. Read More

The Dragon-II linear induction accelerator is able to provide triple-pulse electron beams with an adjustable pulse spacing at the minimum of 300 ns. As a main determinant of the image quality, the X-ray spot size is usually quoted as an evaluation of the resolving power. The pinhole imaging method is applied to measure the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the triple-pulse X-ray source, by which the azimuthal asymmetry of the source can be analyzed. Read More

Using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated the possibilities for emittance growth through the quadrupole magnets of the system used to transport the high-current electron beam from an induction accelerator to the bremsstrahlung converter target used for flash radiography. We found that even highly mismatched beams exhibited little emittance growth (< 6%), which we attribute to softening of their initial hard edge current distributions. We also used this PIC code to evaluate the accuracy of emittance measurements using a solenoid focal scan following the quadrupole magnets. Read More

The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility uses bremsstrahlung radiation source spots produced by the focused electron beams from two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to radiograph large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives. Radiographic resolution is determined by the size of the source spot, and beam emittance is the ultimate limitation to spot size. Some of the possible causes for the emittance growth in the DARHT LIA have been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, and are discussed in this article. Read More

The dual-axis radiography for hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory uses two electron linear-induction accelerators (LIA) to produce the source spots for perpendicular flash radiographs of a dynamic experiment.Manipulating the beam current is a means for adjusting the dose, and one way to do this is to change the size of the cathode. This article describes simulations undertaken to develop scaling laws for use as design tools in changing the Axis-1 beam current by changing the cathode size. Read More

Investigation of coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (SPR) spectral characteristics was performed both experimentally and by numerical simulation. The measurement of SPR spectral line shapes of different diffraction orders was carried out at KEK LUCX facility. A pair of room-temperature Schottky barrier diode (SBD) detectors with sensitivity bands of $60-90$~GHz and $320-460$~GHz was used in the measurements. Read More

Beam tracking software for accelerators can be divided into two categories: fast envelope simula- tions limited to linear beam optics, and slower multiparticle simulations that can model nonlinear effects. To find a middle ground between these approaches, we introduce virtual parameters in position and momentum which exhibit a cross-dependency (i.e. Read More

The calculated linear gain in relativistic strophotron is averaged over electron distribution. It is shown, that after averaging resonance peaks remain in amplification spectrum. The nonresonant background gives only negligibly small contribution to the gain. Read More

A new bunch current measurement system has been implemented in Hefei Light Source II (HLS II) recently. This system is based on the photodetector and synchrotron radiation. This paper presents the system structure and a waveform reconstruction algorithm. Read More

The magnetron H- ion sources developed in the 1970s currently in operation at Fermilab provide beam to the rest of the accelerator complex. A series of modifications to these sources have been tested in a dedicated offline test stand with the aim of improving different operational issues. The solenoid type gas valve was tested as an alternative to the piezoelectric gas valve in order to avoid its temperature dependence. Read More

Affiliations: 1Fermilab, 2Fermilab, 3Fermilab, 4Fermilab, 5Fermilab, 6Fermilab, 7Fermilab, 8Fermilab, 9Fermilab, 10Fermilab, 11Fermilab, 12Fermilab, 13Fermilab, 14Fermilab, 15Fermilab, 16Fermilab, 17Colorado State U.

A CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting linac "PIP-II" is being planned to upgrade Fermilab's injection complex. To validate the front-end concept, a test accelerator (The PIP-II Injector Test, formerly known as "PXIE") is under construction. The warm part of this accelerator comprises a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2. Read More

A plasma beam dump uses the collective oscillations of plasma electrons to absorb the kinetic energy of a particle beam. In this paper, a modified passive plasma beam dump scheme is proposed using either a gradient or stepped plasma profile to maintain a higher decelerating gradient compared to a uniform plasma. The improvement is a result of the plasma wavelength change preventing the re-acceleration of low energy particles. Read More

The experimental device for generation of undulator radiation in terahertz wavelength region by use of undulator on ferromagnets is created. The device is based on a beam of a microtrone with the energy 7.5 MeV. Read More