Physics - Accelerator Physics Publications (50)


Physics - Accelerator Physics Publications

HL-LHC federates the efforts and R&D of a large international community towards the ambitious HL- LHC objectives and contributes to establishing the European Research Area (ERA) as a focal point of global research cooperation and a leader in frontier knowledge and technologies. HL-LHC relies on strong participation from various partners, in particular from leading US and Japanese laboratories. This participation will be required for the execution of the construction phase as a global project. Read More

A conceptual design is presented of a novel ERL facility for the development and application of the energy recovery technique to linear electron accelerators in the multi-turn, large current and large energy regime. The main characteristics of the powerful energy recovery linac experiment facility (PERLE) are derived from the design of the Large Hadron electron Collider, an electron beam upgrade under study for the LHC, for which it would be the key demonstrator. PERLE is thus projected as a facility to investigate efficient, high current (> 10 mA) ERL operation with three re-circulation passages through newly designed SCRF cavities, at 801. Read More

We convert a GeV laser-plasma electron accelerator into a compact femtosecond-pulsed $\gamma$-ray source by inserting a $100 \mu$m-thick glass plate $\sim3$ cm after the accelerator exit. With near-unity reliability, and requiring only crude alignment, this glass plasma mirror retro-reflected spent drive laser pulses (photon energy $\hbar\omega_L = 1.17$ eV) with $>50\%$ efficiency back onto trailing electrons (peak Lorentz factor $1000 < \gamma_e < 4400$), creating an optical undulator that generated $\sim10^8 \gamma$-ray photons with sub-mrad divergence, estimated peak brilliance $\sim10^{21}$ photons/s/mm$^2$/mrad$^2$/$0. Read More

In order to minimize the emittance at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), we measure and correct the orbit, dispersion, and transverse coupling of the beam. However, this method is limited by finite measurement resolution of the dispersion, and so a new procedure must be used to further reduce the emittance due to dispersion. In order to achieve this, we use a method based upon the theory of sloppy models. Read More

We revisit the description of inverse Compton scattering sources and the photon beams generated therein, emphasizing the behavior of their phase space density distributions and how they depend upon those of the two colliding beams of electrons and photons. Main objective is to provide practical formulas for bandwidth, spectral density, brilliance, which are valid in general for any value of the recoil factor, i.e. Read More

A system for online measurement of the transverse beam emittance was developed. It is named $^{4}$PrOB$\varepsilon$aM (4-Profiler Online Beam Emittance Measurement) and was conceived to measure the emittance in a fast and efficient way using the multiple beam profiler method. The core of the system is constituted by four consecutive UniBEaM profilers, which are based on silica fibers passing across the beam. Read More

The motion and photon emission of electrons in a superlattice may be described as in an undulator. Therefore, there is a close analogy between ballistic electrons in a superlattice and electrons in a free electron laser (FEL). Touching upon this analogy the intensity of photon emission in the IR region and the gain are calculated. Read More

The RFQ design tool DEMIRCI aims to provide fast and accurate simulation of a light ion accelerating cavity and of the ion beam in it. It is a modern tool with a graphical user interface leading to a "point and click" method to help the designer. This article summarizes the recent developments of DEMIRCI software such as the addition of beam dynamics and 8-term potential coefficient calculations. Read More

A proton beamline consisting of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, two solenoid magnets, two steerer magnets and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is developed at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority's (TAEA) Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC-SANAEM) in Ankara. In Q4 of 2016, the RFQ was installed in the beamline. The high power tests of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line were done successfully. Read More

The extraction system of CSNS mainly consists of two kinds of magnets: eight kickers and one lambertson magnet. In this paper, firstly, the magnetic test results of the eight kickers were introduced and then the filed uniformity and magnetizing relationship of the kickers were given. Secondly, during the beam commissioning in the future, in order to obtain more accurate magnetizing relationship, a new method to measure the magnetizing coefficients of the kickers by the real extraction beam was given and the data analysis would also be processed. Read More

DAFNE is the electron-positron collider operating at the energy of Phi-resonance, 1 GeV in the center of mass. The presently achieved luminosity is by about two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained at other colliders ever operated at this energy. Careful beam dynamic studies such as the vacuum chamber design with low beam coupling impedance, suppression of different kinds of beam instabilities, investigation of beam-beam interaction, optimization of the beam nonlinear motion have been the key ingredients that have helped to reach this impressive result. Read More

In niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerating cavities a decrease of the quality factor at lower fields - a so called \emph{low field Q slope or LFQS} - has been a long-standing unexplained effect. By extending the high $Q$ measurement techniques to ultralow fields we discover two previously unknown features of the effect: i) saturation at rf fields lower than $E_\mathrm{acc} \sim 0.1$~MV/m; ii) strong degradation enhancement by growing thicker niobium pentoxide. Read More

The self-consistent nonlinear interaction of a monoenergetic bunch with cold plasma is considered. It is shown that under certain conditions a self-acceleration of the bunch tail electrons up to high energies is possible. Read More

The 10 MeV accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) Injector-I test stand at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) is a testing facility dedicated to demonstrate one of the two injector design schemes [Injector Scheme-I, which works at 325 MHz], for the ADS project in China. The Injector adopted a four vane copper structure RFQ with output energy of 3.2 MeV and a superconducting (SC) section accommodating fourteen \b{eta}g=0. Read More

The condition and specific features of non-dipole regime of radiation is discussed in connection with the results of recent CERN experiment NA63 on measurement of radiation power spectrum of $149\,$GeV electrons in thin tantalum targets. The first experimental detection of logarithmic dependence of radiation yield from the target thickness is the conclusive evidence of the effect of radiation suppression in a thin layer of matter, which was predicted many years ago, and which is the direct manifestation of radiation of relativistic electron with non-equilibrium own Coulomb field. The special features of angular distribution of radiation and its polarization in a thin target at non-dipole regime are proposed for a new experimental study. Read More

Fermilab carries out an extensive program of accelerator-based high energy particle physics research at the Intensity Frontier that relies on the operation of 8 GeV and 120 GeV proton beamlines for a number of fixed target experiments. Routine operation with a world-record 700kW of average 120 GeV beam power on the neutrino target was achieved in 2017 as the result of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) upgrade. There are plans to further increase the power to 900 - 1000 kW. Read More

Dielectric microstructures have generated much interest in recent years as a means of accelerating charged particles when powered by solid state lasers. The acceleration gradient (or particle energy gain per unit length) is an important figure of merit. To design structures with high acceleration gradients, we explore the adjoint variable method, a highly efficient technique used to compute the sensitivity of an objective with respect to a large number of parameters. Read More

Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies-19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac-before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. Read More

The multiple scattering of ultra relativistic electrons in an amorphous matter leads to the suppression of the soft part of radiation spectrum (the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect), and also can change essentially the angular distribution of the emitted photons. A similar effect must take place in a crystal for the coherent radiation of relativistic electron. The results of the theoretical investigation of angular distributions and polarization of radiation by a relativistic electron passing through a thin (in comparison with a coherence length) crystal at a small angle to the crystal axis are presented. Read More

In 1974, Nelson, Kase and Svensson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding around SLAC high-energy electron accelerators. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by 14 and 18 GeV electron beams hitting a copper/water beamdump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical models available at that time. Read More

The use of resonant depolarization has been suggested for precise beam energy measurements (better than 100 keV) in the $e^{+}e^{-}$ Future Circular Collider (FCC-$e^{+}e^{-}$) for Z and WW physics at 45 and 80 GeV beam energy respectively. Longitudinal beam polarization would benefit the Z peak physics program; however it is not essential and therefore it will be not investigated here. In this paper the possibility of self-polarized leptons is considered. Read More

Affiliations: 1Fermilab, 2Euclid Techlabs, Solon, 3Fermilab, 4ESS, Lund, 5Fermilab

Comprehensive studies with the MARS15(2016) Monte-Carlo code are described on evaluation of prompt and residual radiation levels induced by nominal and accidental beam losses in the 5-MW, 2-GeV European Spallation Source (ESS) Linac. These are to provide a basis for radiation shielding design verification through the accelerator complex. The calculation model is based on the latest engineering design and includes a sophisticated algorithm for particle tracking in the machine RF cavities as well as a well-established model of the beam loss. Read More

Since 1960's, particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics, 29 total have been built and operated, 7 are in operation now. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The future of the world-wide HEP community critically depends on the feasibility of possible post-LHC colliders. Read More

Affiliations: 1NICADD, DeKalb and Fermilab, 2Fermilab, 3Fermilab, 4Fermilab, 5Fermilab

Crystal channeling technology has offered various opportunities in the accelerator community with a viability of ultrahigh gradient (TV/m) acceleration for future HEP collider. The major challenge of channeling acceleration is that ultimate acceleration gradients might require a high power driver in the hard x-ray regime (~ 40 keV). This x-ray energy exceeds those for x-rays as of today, although x-ray lasers can efficiently excite solid plasma and accelerate particles inside a crystal channel. Read More

Arbitrary manipulation of the temporal and spectral properties of X-ray pulses at free-electron lasers (FELs) would revolutionize many experimental applications. At the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford National Accelerator Laboratory, the momentum phase-space of the FEL driving electron bunch can be tuned to emit a pair of X-ray pulses with independently variable photon energy and femtosecond delay. However, while accelerator parameters can easily be adjusted to tune the electron bunch phase-space, the final impact of these actuators on the X-ray pulse cannot be predicted with sufficient precision. Read More

Affiliations: 1Dubna, JINR and Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst., 2Moscow, Center Phys. Tech. Projects, 3Dubna, JINR, 4Dubna, JINR, 5Dubna, JINR, 6Dubna, JINR and Fermilab, 7Dubna, JINR, 8Dubna, JINR, 9Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst., 10Dubna, JINR, 11Dubna, JINR, 12Dubna, JINR, 13Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst., 14Dubna, JINR

The natural uranium assembly, "QUINTA", was irradiated with 2, 4, and 8 GeV deuterons. The $^{232}$Th, $^{127}$I, and $^{129}$I samples have been exposed to secondary neutrons produced in the assembly at a 20-cm radial distance from the deuteron beam axis. The spectra of gamma rays emitted by the activated $^{232}$Th, $^{127}$I, and $^{129}$I samples have been analyzed and several tens of product nuclei have been identified. Read More

Fermilab is committed to upgrading its accelerator complex towards the intensity frontier to pursue HEP research in the neutrino sector and beyond. The upgrade has two steps: 1) the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP), which is underway, has its primary goal to start providing 700 kW beam power on NOvA target by the end of 2017 and 2) the foreseen PIP-II will replace the existing LINAC, a 400 MeV injector to the Booster, by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC by the middle of next decade, with output beam intensity from the Booster increased significantly and the beam power on the NOvA target increased to <1.2 MW. Read More

Un-gated thermionic cathode RF guns are well known as a robust source of electrons for many accelerator applications. These sources are in principle scalable to high currents without degradation of the transverse emittance due to control grids but they are also known for being limited by back-bombardment. While back-bombardment presents a significant limitation, there is still a lack of general understanding on how emission over the whole RF period will affect the nature of the beams produced from these guns. Read More

Bright and ultrashort duration X-ray pulses can be produced by through betatron oscillations of electrons during Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA). Our experimental measurements using the \textsc{Hercules} laser system demonstrate a dramatic increase in X-ray flux for interaction distances beyond the depletion/dephasing lengths, where the initial electron bunch injected into the first wake bucket catches up with the laser pulse front and the laser pulse depletes. A transition from an LWFA regime to a beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime consequently occurs. Read More

For booster synchrotrons, like the SIS at GSI, space charge is one of the main intensity limitations. At injection energy the space charge induced tune spreads in booster synchrotrons are large, reaching up to 0.5 and the ramping times are typically short. Read More


The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 heavy assembly building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Read More

Affiliations: 1Fermilab, 2Fermilab, 3Fermilab, 4Fermilab, 5Fermilab, 6Fermilab

An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryomodules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Read More


Using recently available GaN FETs, a 600 Volt three-stage, multi-FET switch has been developed having 2 nanosecond rise time driving a 200 Ohm load with the potential of approaching 30 MHz average switching rates. Possible applications include driving particle beam choppers kicking bunch-by-bunch and beam deflectors where the rise time needs to be custom tailored. This paper reports on the engineering issues addressed, the design approach taken and some performance results of this switch. Read More

Current searches for a dark photon in the mass range below 1 GeV require an electron-positron collider with a luminosity at the level of at least $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The challenge is that, at such low energies, the collider luminosity rapidly drops off due to increase in the beam sizes, strong mutual focusing of the colliding beams, and enhancement of collective effects. Using recent advances in accelerator technology such as the nano-beam scheme of SuperKEK-B, high-current Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL), and magnetized beams, we propose a new configuration of an electron-positron collider based on a positron storage ring and an electron ERL. Read More

We discuss the distributed matching scheme in accelerators where control of transverse beam phase space, oscillation, and transport is accomplished by flexible distribution of focusing elements beyond dedicated matching sections. Besides freeing accelerator design from fixed matching sections, such a scheme has many operational advantages, and enables fluid optics manipulation not possible in conventional schemes. Combined with an interpolation scheme this can bring about a new paradigm for efficient, flexible, and robust optics control. Read More

Affiliations: 1Fermilab, 2Fermilab, 3Fermilab, 4Fermilab, 5Fermilab, 6University Coll. London, 7Fermilab, 8Fermilab, 9Fermilab, 10Goethe U., Frankfurt

The PIP2IT test accelerator is under construction at Fermilab. Its ion source and Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) in its initial (straight) configuration have been commissioned to full specification parameters. This paper introduces the LEBT design and summarizes the outcome of the commissioning activities. Read More

We discuss the possibility to build a neutron target for nuclear reaction studies in inverse kinematics utilizing a storage ring and radioactive ion beams. The proposed neutron target is a specially designed spallation target surrounded by a large moderator of heavy water (D$_2$O). We present the resulting neutron spectra and their properties as a target. Read More

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is in the process of being upgraded to a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator and renamed LCLS-II. This upgrade requires thirty five 1.3 GHz SRF cryomodules (CM) and two 3. Read More

This paper will cover several studies and design changes that will eventually be implemented to the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) magnetron ion source. The topics include tungsten cathode insert, solenoid gas valves, current controlled arc pulser, cesium boiler redesign, gas mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and duty factor reduction. The studies were performed on the FNAL test stand, with the aim to improve source lifetime, stability, and reducing the amount of tuning needed. Read More


This paper will detail changes in the operational paradigm of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) magnetron $H^{-}$ ion source due to upgrades in the accelerator system. Prior to November of 2012 the $H^{-}$ ions for High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments were extracted at ~18 keV vertically downward into a 90 degree bending magnet and accelerated through a Cockcroft-Walton accelerating column to 750 keV. Following the upgrade in the fall of 2012 the $H^{-}$ ions are now directly extracted from a magnetron at 35 keV and accelerated to 750 keV by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). Read More

The magnetron-style $H^{-}$ ion sources currently in operation at Fermilab use piezoelectric gas valves to function. This kind of gas valve is sensitive to small changes in ambient temperature, which affect the stability and performance of the ion source. This motivates the need to find an alternative way of feeding H2 gas into the source. Read More

Fermilab is committed to upgrade its accelerator complex to support HEP experiments at the intensity frontier. The ongoing Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) enables us to reach 700 kW beam power on the NuMI neutrino targets. By the end of the next decade, the current 400 MeV normal conducting LINAC will be replaced by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC (PIP-II) with an increased beam power >50% of the PIP design goal. Read More

Background The nuclear structure of the cluster bands in $^{20}$Ne presents a challenge for different theoretical approaches. It is especially difficult to explain the broad 0$^+$, 2$^+$ states at 9 MeV excitation energy. Simultaneously, it is important to obtain more reliable experimental data for these levels in order to quantitatively assess the theoretical framework. Read More

Affiliations: 1National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 2National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 3National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 4National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

The paper discusses an advanced level information system to support educational, research and scientific activities of the Department "Electrophysical Facilities" (DEF) of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" (NRNU MEPhI), which is used for training of specialists of the course "Physics of Charged Particle Beams and Accelerator Technology". Read More

Multiphoton processes in undulators with plane polarized magnetic field are considered. It is shown that the use of strong magnetic fields in the undulator, for beams with relatively low energy makes it possible to increase substantially the frequencies of the amplified electromagnetic waves without noticeably decreasing the gain. The absorption, emission probabilities and the gain are calculated. Read More


A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a final cooling system that reduces transverse emittance to ~25 microns (normalized) while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. Ionization cooling using high-field solenoids (or Li Lens) can reduce transverse emittances to ~100 microns in readily achievable configurations, confirmed by simulation. Passing these muon beams at ~100 MeV/c through cm-sized diamond wedges can reduce transverse emittances to ~25 microns, while increasing longitudinal emittances by a factor of ~25. Read More

Affiliations: 1Fermilab, 2Fermilab, 3Fermilab, 4Fermilab, 5Fermilab, 6Fermilab

In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These devices will be tested at Fermilab's Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) within the Cryomodule Test Stand (CMTS-1) cave. Read More

An "ultimate" high intensity proton source for neutrino factories and/or muon colliders was projected to be a ~4 MW multi-GeV proton source providing short, intense proton pulses at ~15 Hz. The JPARC ~1 MW accelerators provide beam at parameters that in many respects overlap these goals. Proton pulses from the JPARC Main Ring can readily meet the pulsed intensity goals. Read More

In this article, a feasible switchyard design is proposed for the Shanghai soft x-ray free electron laser facility. In the proposed scheme, a switchyard is used to transport the electron beam to different undulator lines. Three-dimensional start-to-end simulations have been carried out to research the beam dynamic during transportation. Read More

Affiliations: 1Kyoto Univ, 2Walther-Meissner-Institut, 3Kyoto Univ, 4Kyoto Univ, 5Walther-Meissner-Institut, 6Walther-Meissner-Institut, 7Kyoto Univ, 8Walther-Meissner-Institut, 9Kyoto Univ

We studied the spin injection in a NiFe(Py)/Si system using broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Gilbert damping parameter of the Py layer on top of the Si channel was determined as a function of the Si doping concentration and Py layer thickness. For fixed Py thickness we observed an increase of the Gilbert damping parameter with decreasing resistivity of the Si channel. Read More