Computer Science - Programming Languages Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Programming Languages Publications

Microservices is an emerging development paradigm where software is obtained by composing autonomous entities, called (micro)services. However, microservice systems are currently developed using general-purpose programming languages that do not provide dedicated abstractions for service composition. Instead, current practice is focused on the deployment aspects of microservices, in particular by using containerization. Read More


Distributed actor languages are an effective means of constructing scalable reliable systems, and the Erlang programming language has a well-established and influential model. While Erlang model conceptually provides reliable scalability, it has some inherent scalability limits and these force developers to depart from the model at scale. This article establishes the scalability limits of Erlang systems, and reports the work to improve the language scalability. Read More


Session types offer a type-based discipline for enforcing communication protocols in distributed programming. We have previously formalized simple session types in the setting of multi-threaded $\lambda$-calculus with linear types. In this work, we build upon our earlier work by presenting a form of dependent session types (of DML-style). Read More


Empirically, neural networks that attempt to learn programs from data have exhibited poor generalizability. Moreover, it has traditionally been difficult to reason about the behavior of these models beyond a certain level of input complexity. In order to address these issues, we propose augmenting neural architectures with a key abstraction: recursion. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Department of Computer Science University of Copenhagen, 2Université Paris 13 - LIPN, 3Department of Computer Science University of Copenhagen

Several techniques for analysis and transformations are used in compilers. Among them, the peeling of loops for hoisting quasi-invariants can be used to optimize generated code, or simply ease developers' lives. In this paper, we introduce a new concept of dependency analysis borrowed from the field of Implicit Computational Complexity (ICC), allowing to work with composed statements called Chunks to detect more quasi-invariants. Read More


This paper introduces a new methodology for the complexity analysis of higher-order functional programs, which is based on three components: a powerful type system for size analysis and a sound type inference procedure for it, a ticking monadic transformation and a concrete tool for constraint solving. Noticeably, the presented methodology can be fully automated, and is able to analyse a series of examples which cannot be handled by most competitor methodologies. This is possible due to various key ingredients, and in particular an abstract index language and index polymorphism at higher ranks. Read More


Many modern parallel computing systems are heterogeneous at their node level. Such nodes may comprise general purpose CPUs and accelerators (such as, GPU, or Intel Xeon Phi) that provide high performance with suitable energy-consumption characteristics. However, exploiting the available performance of heterogeneous architectures may be challenging. Read More


The DICE workshop explores the area of Implicit Computational Complexity (ICC), which grew out from several proposals to use logic and formal methods to provide languages for complexity-bounded computation (e.g. Ptime, Logspace computation). Read More


Memory corruption vulnerabilities in C/C++ applications enable attackers to execute code, change data, and leak information. Current memory sanitizers do no provide comprehensive coverage of a program's data. In particular, existing tools focus primarily on heap allocations with limited support for stack allocations and globals. Read More


We study Abramsky's applicative bisimilarity abstractly, in the context of call-by-value $\lambda$-calculi with algebraic effects. We first of all endow a computational $\lambda$-calculus with a monadic operational semantics. We then show how the theory of relators provides precisely what is needed to generalise applicative bisimilarity to such a calculus, and to single out those monads and relators for which applicative bisimilarity is a congruence, thus a sound methodology for program equivalence. Read More


In this work we introduce Qumin, a novel quantum programming language with a focus on providing an easy to use, minimalist, high-level, and easily extensible platform for quantum programming. Qumin's design concentrates on encompassing the various interactions between classical and quantum computation via the use of two sublanguages: an untyped one that handles classical preparation and control, and one linearly typed that explicitly handles quantum routines. This allows the classical part of the language to be freely used for general programming while placing restrictions on the quantum part that enforce rules of quantum computing like the no-cloning of qubits. Read More


Achieving high code coverage is essential in testing, which gives us confidence in code quality. Testing floating-point code usually requires painstaking efforts in handling floating-point constraints, e.g. Read More


Many cloud applications rely on fast and non-relational storage to aid in the processing of large amounts of data. Managed runtimes are now widely used to support the execution of several storage solutions of the NoSQL movement, particularly when dealing with big data key-value store-driven applications. The benefits of these runtimes can however be limited by modern parallel throughput-oriented GC algorithms, where related objects have the potential to be dispersed in memory, either in the same or different generations. Read More


This talk describes how a combination of symbolic computation techniques with first-order theorem proving can be used for solving some challenges of automating program analysis, in particular for generating and proving properties about the logically complex parts of software. The talk will first present how computer algebra methods, such as Groebner basis computation, quantifier elimination and algebraic recurrence solving, help us in inferring properties of program loops with non-trivial arithmetic. Typical properties inferred by our work are loop invariants and expressions bounding the number of loop iterations. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Rice University, 2Rice University, 3Halmstad University

Reachability analysis for hybrid systems is an active area of development and has resulted in many promising prototype tools. Most of these tools allow users to express hybrid system as automata with a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) associated with each state, as well as rules for transitions between states. Significant effort goes into developing and verifying and correctly implementing those tools. Read More


Analyzing the behaviour of a concurrent program is made difficult by the number of possible executions. This problem can be alleviated by applying the theory of Mazurkiewicz traces to focus only on the canonical representatives of the equivalence classes of the possible executions of the program. This paper presents a generic framework that allows to specify the possible behaviours of the execution environment, and generate all Foata-normal executions of a program, for that environment, by discarding abnormal executions during the generation phase. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Imperial College London, 2Imperial College London

Multiparty Session Types (MPST) are a well-established typing discipline for message-passing processes interacting on sessions involving two or more participants. Session typing can ensure desirable properties: absence of communication errors and deadlocks, and protocol conformance. However, existing MPST works provide a subject reduction result that is arguably (and sometimes, surprisingly) restrictive: it only holds for typing contexts with strong duality constraints on the interactions between pairs of participants. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1LaSIGE, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 2LaSIGE, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 3Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University

The Message Passing Interface (MPI) framework is widely used in implementing imperative pro- grams that exhibit a high degree of parallelism. The PARTYPES approach proposes a behavioural type discipline for MPI-like programs in which a type describes the communication protocol followed by the entire program. Well-typed programs are guaranteed to be exempt from deadlocks. Read More


Functional programming typically emphasizes programming with first-class functions and immutable data. Immutable data types enable fault tolerance in distributed systems, and ensure process isolation in message-passing concurrency, among other applications. However, beyond the distinction between reassignable and non-reassignable fields, Scala's type system does not have a built-in notion of immutability for type definitions. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Uppsala University, Sweden, 2Uppsala University, Sweden

In concurrent systems, some form of synchronisation is typically needed to achieve data-race freedom, which is important for correctness and safety. In actor-based systems, messages are exchanged concurrently but executed sequentially by the receiving actor. By relying on isolation and non-sharing, an actor can access its own state without fear of data-races, and the internal behavior of an actor can be reasoned about sequentially. Read More


LaCasa is a type system and programming model to enforce the object capability discipline in Scala, and to provide affine types. One important application of LaCasa's type system is software isolation of concurrent processes. Isolation is important for several reasons including security and data-race freedom. Read More


R is a popular language and programming environment for data scientists. It is increasingly co-packaged with both relational and Hadoop-based data platforms and can often be the most dominant computational component in data analytics pipelines. Recent work has highlighted inefficiencies in executing R programs, both in terms of execution time and memory requirements, which in practice limit the size of data that can be analyzed by R. Read More


Writing reliable concurrent software remains a huge challenge for today's programmers. Programmers rarely reason about their code by explicitly considering different possible inter-leavings of its execution. We consider the problem of detecting data races from individual executions in a sound manner. Read More


PLACES 2017 (full title: Programming Language Approaches to Concurrency- and Communication-cEntric Software) is the tenth edition of the PLACES workshop series. After the first PLACES, which was affiliated to DisCoTec in 2008, the workshop has been part of ETAPS every year since 2009 and is now an established part of the ETAPS satellite events. PLACES 2017 was held on 29th April in Uppsala, Sweden. Read More


This document describes the contributions of the 2016 Applications of Logic Programming Workshop (AppLP), which was held on October 17 and associated with the International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP) in Flushing, New York City. Read More


We consider the problem of parsing natural language descriptions into source code written in a general-purpose programming language like Python. Existing data-driven methods treat this problem as a language generation task without considering the underlying syntax of the target programming language. Informed by previous work in semantic parsing, in this paper we propose a novel neural architecture powered by a grammar model to explicitly capture the target syntax as prior knowledge. Read More


This paper suggests a theomisra@utexas.edury of composable specification of concurrent programs that permits: (1) verification of program code for a given specification, and (2) composition of the specifications of the components to yield the specification of a program. The specification consists of both terminal properties that hold at the end of a program execution (if the execution terminates) and perpetual properties that hold throughout an execution. Read More


While modern parallel computing systems provide high performance resources, utilizing them to the highest extent requires advanced programming expertise. Programming for parallel computing systems is much more difficult than programming for sequential systems. OpenMP is an extension of C++ programming language that enables to express parallelism using compiler directives. Read More


The probability density function of a probability distribution is a fundamental concept in probability theory and a key ingredient in various widely used machine learning methods. However, the necessary framework for compiling probabilistic functional programs to density functions has only recently been developed. In this work, we present a density compiler for a probabilistic language with failure and both discrete and continuous distributions, and provide a proof of its soundness. Read More


Modern programming languages, such as Java and C#, typically provide features that handle exceptions. These features separate error-handling code from regular source code and are proven to enhance the practice of software reliability, comprehension, and maintenance. Having acknowledged the advantages of exception handling features, the misuse of them can still cause catastrophic software failures, such as application crash. Read More


The problem of mechanically formalizing and proving metatheoretic properties of programming language calculi, type systems, operational semantics, and related formal systems has received considerable attention recently. However, the dual problem of searching for errors in such formalizations has attracted comparatively little attention. In this article, we present $\alpha$Check, a bounded model-checker for metatheoretic properties of formal systems specified using nominal logic. Read More


Programming languages themselves have a limited number of reserved keywords and character based tokens that define the language specification. However, programmers have a rich use of natural language within their code through comments, text literals and naming entities. The programmer defined names that can be found in source code are a rich source of information to build a high level understanding of the project. Read More


Domain-specific languages (DSLs) are of increasing importance in scientific high-performance computing to reduce development costs, raise the level of abstraction and, thus, ease scientific programming. However, designing and implementing DSLs is not an easy task, as it requires knowledge of the application domain and experience in language engineering and compilers. Consequently, many DSLs follow a weak approach using macros or text generators, which lack many of the features that make a DSL a comfortable for programmers. Read More


Separation Logic is an effective Program Logic for proving programs that involve pointers. Reasoning with pointers becomes difficult especially when there is aliasing arising due to several pointers to a given cell location. In this paper, we try to explore the problems with aliasing through some simple examples and introduce the notion of separating conjunction as a tool to deal with it. Read More


Constraint Handling Rules is an effective concurrent declarative programming language and a versatile computational logic formalism. CHR programs consist of guarded reactive rules that transform multisets of constraints. One of the main features of CHR is its inherent concurrency. Read More


Model-driven development is a pragmatic approach to software development that embraces domain-specific languages (DSLs), where models correspond to DSL programs. A distinguishing feature of model-driven development is that clients of a model can select from an open set of alternative semantics of the model by applying different model transformation. However, in existing model-driven frameworks, dependencies between models, model transformations, and generated code artifacts are either implicit or globally declared in build scripts, which impedes modular reasoning, separate compilation, and programmability in general. Read More


The context of this work is specification, detection and ultimately removal of detectable harmful patterns in source code that are associated with defects in design and implementation of software. In particular, we investigate five code smells and four antipatterns previously defined in papers and books. Our inquiry is about detecting those in source code written in Python programming language, which is substantially different from all prior research, most of which concerns Java or C-like languages. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy, 2Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy

Context: This paper presents the concept of open programming language interpreters and the implementation of a framework-level metaobject protocol (MOP) to support them. Inquiry: We address the problem of dynamic interpreter adaptation to tailor the interpreter's behavior on the task to be solved and to introduce new features to fulfill unforeseen requirements. Many languages provide a MOP that to some degree supports reflection. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Northeastern University, USA, 2MIT, USA, 3Cloudera, USA, 4Northeastern University, USA

Reversible debuggers and process replay have been developed at least since 1970. This vision enables one to execute backwards in time under a debugger. Two important problems in practice are that, first, current reversible debuggers are slow when reversing over long time periods, and, second, after building one reversible debugger, it is difficult to transfer that achievement to a new programming environment. Read More


Computer programs do not always work as expected. In fact, ominous warnings about the desperate state of the software industry continue to be released with almost ritualistic regularity. In this paper, we look at the 60 years history of programming and at the different practical methods that software community developed to live with programming errors. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Hasso Plattner Institute, Germany, 2Hasso Plattner Institute, Germany, 3Hasso Plattner Institute, Germany

Live programming environments enable programmers to edit a running program and obtain immediate feedback on each individual change. The liveness quality is valued by programmers to help work in small steps and continuously add or correct small functionality while maintaining the impression of a direct connection between each edit and its manifestation at run-time. Such immediacy may conflict with the desire to perform a combined set of intermediate steps, such as a refactoring, without immediately taking effect after each individual edit. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1The University of Tokyo, Japan, 2The University of Tokyo, Japan

User-defined syntax extensions are useful to implement an embedded domain specific language (EDSL) with good code-readability. They allow EDSL authors to define domain-natural notation, which is often different from the host language syntax. Nowadays, there are several research works of powerful user-defined syntax extensions. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1University of Kent, United Kingdom, 2University of Kent, United Kingdom, 3Ericsson AB, Sweden

The occurrence of similar code, or `code clones', can make program code difficult to read, modify and maintain. This paper describes industrial case studies of clone detection and elimination using a refactoring and clone detection tool. We discuss how the studies have informed the design of the tool; more importantly, we use the studies to illustrate the complex set of decisions that have to be taken when performing clone elimination in practice. Read More


2017Mar

Modern software development without reactive programming is hard to imagine. Reactive programming favors a wide class of contemporary software systems that respond to user input, network messages, and other events. While reactive programming is an active field of research, the implementation of reactive concepts remains challenging. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Open University of Israel, Israel, 2Open University of Israel, Israel

Language-oriented modularity (LOM) is a methodology that complements language-oriented programming (LOP) in providing on-demand language abstraction solutions during software development. It involves the implementation and immediate utilization of domain-specific languages (DSLs) that are also aspect-oriented (DSALs). However, while DSL development is affordable thanks to modern language workbenches, DSAL development lacks similar tool support. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1University of Bristol, United Kingdom, 2University of Oxford, United Kingdom, 3University of Bristol, United Kingdom

CONTEXT: Data accessors allow one to read and write components of a data structure, such as the fields of a record, the variants of a union, or the elements of a container. These data accessors are collectively known as optics; they are fundamental to programs that manipulate complex data. INQUIRY: Individual data accessors for simple data structures are easy to write, for example as pairs of "getter" and "setter" methods. Read More


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is widely used in the software industry and university introductory courses today. Following the structure of most textbooks, such courses frequently are organised starting with the concepts of imperative and structured programming and only later introducing OOP. An alternative approach is to begin directly with OOP following the Outside-In teaching method as proposed by Meyer. Read More


Contracts and contract monitoring are a powerful mechanism for specifying properties and guaranteeing them at run time. However, run time monitoring of contracts imposes a significant overhead. The execution time is impacted by the insertion of contract checks as well as by the introduction of proxy objects that perform delayed contract checks on demand. Read More


We introduce a general diagrammatic theory of digital circuits, based on connections between monoidal categories and graph rewriting. The main achievement of the paper is conceptual, filling a foundational gap in reasoning syntactically and symbolically about a large class of digital circuits (discrete values, discrete delays, feedback). This complements the dominant approach to circuit modelling, which relies on simulation. Read More


A novel approach is presented to teach the parallel and distributed computing concepts of synchronization and remote memory access. The single program multiple data (SPMD) partitioned global address space (PGAS) model presented in this paper uses a procedural programming language appealing to undergraduate students. We propose that the amusing nature of the approach may engender creativity and interest using these concepts later in more sober environments. Read More