Computer Science - Information Retrieval Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Information Retrieval Publications

Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Read More


We design a recommender system for research papers based on topic-modeling. The users feedback to the results is used to make the results more relevant the next time they fire a query. The user's needs are understood by observing the change in the themes that the user shows a preference for over time. Read More


As entity type systems become richer and more fine-grained, we expect the number of types assigned to a given entity to increase. However, most fine-grained typing work has focused on datasets that exhibit a low degree of type multiplicity. In this paper, we consider the high-multiplicity regime inherent in data sources such as Wikipedia that have semi-open type systems. Read More


We propose a novel, semi-supervised approach towards domain taxonomy induction from an input vocabulary of seed terms. Unlike most previous approaches, which typically extract direct hypernym edges for terms, our approach utilizes a novel probabilistic framework to extract hypernym subsequences. Taxonomy induction from extracted subsequences is cast as an instance of the minimum-cost flow problem on a carefully designed directed graph. Read More


We propose a simple, yet effective, approach towards inducing multilingual taxonomies from Wikipedia. Given an English taxonomy, our approach leverages the interlanguage links of Wikipedia followed by character-level classifiers to induce high-precision, high-coverage taxonomies in other languages. Through experiments, we demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art, heuristics-heavy approaches for six languages. Read More


Efficient Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces is a foundation of many multimedia retrieval systems. Because it offers low responses times, Product Quantization (PQ) is a popular solution. PQ compresses high-dimensional vectors into short codes using several sub-quantizers, which enables in-RAM storage of large databases. Read More


Dynamic Networks are a popular way of modeling and studying the behavior of evolving systems. However, their analysis constitutes a relatively recent subfield of Network Science, and the number of available tools is consequently much smaller than for static networks. In this work, we propose a method specifically designed to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of dynamic networks. Read More


The problem of ranking a set of items is fundamental in today's data-driven world. Ranking algorithms lie at the core of applications such as search engines, news feeds, and recommendation systems. However, recent events have pointed to the fact that algorithmic bias in rankings, which results in decreased fairness or diversity in the type of content presented, can promote stereotypes and propagate injustices. Read More


Matrix completion models are among the most common formulations of recommender systems. Recent works have showed a boost of performance of these techniques when introducing the pairwise relationships between users/items in the form of graphs, and imposing smoothness priors on these graphs. However, such techniques do not fully exploit the local stationarity structures of user/item graphs, and the number of parameters to learn is linear w. Read More


We tackle the challenge of topic classification of tweets in the context of analyzing a large collection of curated streams by news outlets and other organizations to deliver relevant content to users. Our approach is novel in applying distant supervision based on semi-automatically identifying curated streams that are topically focused (for example, on politics, entertainment, or sports). These streams provide a source of labeled data to train topic classifiers that can then be applied to categorize tweets from more topically-diffuse streams. Read More


Charts are an excellent way to convey patterns and trends in data, but they do not facilitate further modeling of the data or close inspection of individual data points. We present a fully automated system for extracting the numerical values of data points from images of scatter plots. We use deep learning techniques to identify the key components of the chart, and optical character recognition together with robust regression to map from pixels to the coordinate system of the chart. Read More


We propose a summarization approach for scientific articles which takes advantage of citation-context and the document discourse model. While citations have been previously used in generating scientific summaries, they lack the related context from the referenced article and therefore do not accurately reflect the article's content. Our method overcomes the problem of inconsistency between the citation summary and the article's content by providing context for each citation. Read More


Item features play an important role in movie recommender systems, where recommendations can be generated by using explicit or implicit preferences of users on traditional features (attributes) such as tag, genre, and cast. Typically, movie features are human-generated, either editorially (e.g. Read More


Recommender systems nowadays have many applications and are of great economic benefit. Hence, it is imperative for success-oriented companies to compare different of such systems and select the better one for their purposes. To this end, various metrics of predictive accuracy are commonly used, such as the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), or precision and recall. Read More


Duplication, whether exact or partial, is a common issue in many datasets. In clinical notes data, duplication (and near duplication) can arise for many reasons, such as the pervasive use of templates, copy-pasting, or notes being generated by automated procedures. A key challenge in removing such near duplicates is the size of such datasets; our own dataset consists of more than 10 million notes. Read More


Due to its promise to alleviate information overload, text summarization has attracted the attention of many researchers. However, it has remained a serious challenge. Here, we first prove empirical limits on the recall (and F1-scores) of extractive summarizers on the DUC datasets under ROUGE evaluation for both the single-document and multi-document summarization tasks. Read More


In this paper, we propose a novel approach for aggregating online reviews, according to the opinions they express. Our methodology is unsupervised - due to the fact that it does not rely on pre-labeled reviews - and it is agnostic - since it does not make any assumption about the domain or the language of the review content. We measure the adherence of a review content to the domain terminology extracted from a review set. Read More


This paper presents the approach developed at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto, to participate in SemEval 2017, Task 5: Fine-grained Sentiment Analysis on Financial Microblogs and News. The task consisted in predicting a real continuous variable from -1.0 to +1. Read More


In this paper we propose the creation of generic LSH families for the angular distance based on Johnson-Lindenstrauss projections. We show that feature hashing is a valid J-L projection and propose two new LSH families based on feature hashing. These new LSH families are tested on both synthetic and real datasets with very good results and a considerable performance improvement over other LSH families. Read More


The task of next POI recommendation has been studied extensively in recent years. However, developing an unified recommendation framework to incorporate multiple factors associated with both POIs and users remains challenging, because of the heterogeneity nature of these information. Further, effective mechanisms to handle cold-start and endow the system with interpretability are also difficult topics. Read More


Search engines play an important role in our everyday lives by assisting us in finding the information we need. When we input a complex query, however, results are often far from satisfactory. In this work, we introduce a query reformulation system based on a neural network that rewrites a query to maximize the number of relevant documents returned. Read More


Scalable web search systems typically employ multi-stage retrieval architectures, where an initial stage generates a set of candidate documents that are then pruned and re-ranked. Since subsequent stages typically exploit a multitude of features of varying costs using machine-learned models, reducing the number of documents that are considered at each stage improves latency. In this work, we propose and validate a unified framework that can be used to predict a wide range of performance-sensitive parameters which minimize effectiveness loss, while simultaneously minimizing query latency, across all stages of a multi-stage search architecture. Read More


In order to adopt deep learning for ad-hoc information retrieval, it is essential to establish suitable representations of query-document pairs and to design neural architectures that are able to digest such representations. In particular, they ought to capture all relevant information required to assess the relevance of a document for a given user query, including term overlap as well as positional information such as proximity and term dependencies. While previous work has successfully captured unigram term matches, none has successfully used position-dependent information on a standard benchmark test collection. Read More


Part-based image classification aims at representing categories by small sets of learned discriminative parts, upon which an image representation is built. Considered as a promising avenue a decade ago, this direction has been neglected since the advent of deep neural networks. In this context, this paper brings two contributions: first, it shows that despite the recent success of end-to-end holistic models, explicit part learning can boosts classification performance. Read More


Modern social networks have become sources for vast quantities of data. Having access to such big data can be very useful for various researchers and data scientists. In this paper we describe Loklak, an open source distributed peer to peer crawler and scraper for supporting such research on platforms like Twitter, Weibo and other social networks. Read More


While open-domain question answering (QA) systems have proven effective for answering simple questions, they struggle with more complex questions. Our goal is to answer more complex questions reliably, without incurring a significant cost in knowledge resource construction to support the QA. One readily available knowledge resource is a term bank, enumerating the key concepts in a domain. Read More


Many social network applications depend on robust representations of spatio-temporal data. In this work, we present an embedding model based on feed-forward neural networks which transforms social media check-ins into dense feature vectors encoding geographic, temporal, and functional aspects for modelling places, neighborhoods, and users. On the basis of this model, we further propose a Spatio-Temporal Embedding Similarity algorithm (STES) for location recommendation. Read More


As the first step to model emotional state of a person, we build sentiment analysis models with existing deep neural network algorithms and compare the models with psychological measurements to enlighten the relationship. In the experiments, we first examined psychological state of 64 participants and asked them to summarize the story of a book, Chronicle of a Death Foretold (Marquez, 1981). Secondly, we trained models using crawled 365,802 movie review data; then we evaluated participants' summaries using the pretrained model as a concept of transfer learning. Read More


Online communities have gained considerable importance in recent years due to the increasing number of people connected to the Internet. Moderating user content in online communities is mainly performed manually, and reducing the workload through automatic methods is of great financial interest for community maintainers. Often, the industry uses basic approaches such as bad words filtering and regular expression matching to assist the moderators. Read More


Using only implicit data, many recommender systems fail in general to provide a precise set of recommendations to users with limited interaction history. This issue is regarded as the "Cold Start" problem and is typically resolved by switching to content-based approaches where extra costly information is required. In this paper, we use a dimensionality reduction algorithm, Word2Vec (W2V), originally applied in Natural Language Processing problems under the framework of Collaborative Filtering (CF) to tackle the "Cold Start" problem using only implicit data. Read More


Recently, deep learning methods have been shown to improve the performance of recommender systems over traditional methods, especially when review text is available. For example, a recent model, DeepCoNN, uses neural nets to learn one latent representation for the text of all reviews written by a target user, and a second latent representation for the text of all reviews for a target item, and then combines these latent representations to obtain state-of-the-art performance on recommendation tasks. We show that (unsurprisingly) much of the predictive value of review text comes from reviews of the target user for the target item. Read More


In this paper, we design a system in order to perform the real-time beat tracking for an audio signal. We use Onset Strength Signal (OSS) to detect the onsets and estimate the tempos. Then, we form Cumulative Beat Strength Signal (CBSS) by taking advantage of OSS and estimated tempos. Read More


Recently, topic modeling has been widely used to discover the abstract topics in text corpora. Most of the existing topic models are based on the assumption of three-layer hierarchical Bayesian structure, i.e. Read More


Implicit feedback is the simplest form of user feedback that can be used for item recommendation. It is easy to collect and domain independent. However, there is a lack of negative examples. Read More


TextRank is a variant of PageRank typically used in graphs that represent documents, and where vertices denote terms and edges denote relations between terms. Quite often the relation between terms is simple term co-occurrence within a fixed window of k terms. The output of TextRank when applied iteratively is a score for each vertex, i. Read More


The ECIR half-day workshop on Task-Based and Aggregated Search (TBAS) was held in Barcelona, Spain on 1 April 2012. The program included a keynote talk by Professor Jarvelin, six full paper presentations, two poster presentations, and an interactive discussion among the approximately 25 participants. This report overviews the aims and contents of the workshop and outlines the major outcomes. Read More


We propose a novel approach to improve unsupervised hashing. Specifically, we propose an embedding method to enhance the discriminative property of features before passing them into hashing. We propose a very efficient embedding method: Gaussian Mixture Model embedding (Gemb). Read More


Automatic language processing tools typically assign to terms so-called weights corresponding to the contribution of terms to information content. Traditionally, term weights are computed from lexical statistics, e.g. Read More


Interactive Information Retrieval refers to the branch of Information Retrieval that considers the retrieval process with respect to a wide range of contexts, which may affect the user's information seeking experience. The identification and representation of such contexts has been the object of the principle of Polyrepresentation, a theoretical framework for reasoning about different representations arising from interactive information retrieval in a given context. Although the principle of Polyrepresentation has received attention from many researchers, not much empirical work has been done based on it. Read More


According to the principle of polyrepresentation, retrieval accuracy may improve through the combination of multiple and diverse information object representations about e.g. the context of the user, the information sought, or the retrieval system. Read More


Typically, every part in most coherent text has some plausible reason for its presence, some function that it performs to the overall semantics of the text. Rhetorical relations, e.g. Read More


Online marketplaces, search engines, and databases employ aggregated social information to rank their content for users. Two ranking heuristics commonly implemented to order the available options are the average review score and item popularity-that is, the number of users who have experienced an item. These rules, although easy to implement, only partly reflect actual user preferences, as people may assign values to both average scores and popularity and trade off between the two. Read More


Despite the increasing use of social media platforms for information and news gathering, its unmoderated nature often leads to the emergence and spread of rumours, i.e. pieces of information that are unverified at the time of posting. Read More


Collaborative filtering (CF) has been successfully used to provide users with personalized products and services. However, dealing with the increasing sparseness of user-item matrix still remains a challenge. To tackle such issue, hybrid CF such as combining with content based filtering and leveraging side information of users and items has been extensively studied to enhance performance. Read More


We investigate the problem of choice overload - the difficulty of making a decision when faced with many options - when displaying related-article recommendations in digital libraries. So far, research regarding to how many items should be displayed has mostly been done in the fields of media recommendations and search engines. We analyze the number of recommendations in current digital libraries. Read More


Research on recommender systems is a challenging task, as is building and operating such systems. Major challenges include non-reproducible research results, dealing with noisy data, and answering many questions such as how many recommendations to display, how often, and, of course, how to generate recommendations most effectively. In the past six years, we built three research-article recommender systems for digital libraries and reference managers, and conducted research on these systems. Read More


As the type and the number of such venues increase, automated analysis of sentiment on textual resources has become an essential data mining task. In this paper, we investigate the problem of mining opinions on the collection of informal short texts. Both positive and negative sentiment strength of texts are detected. Read More


The increasing amount of data on the Web, in particular of Linked Data, has led to a diverse landscape of datasets, which make entity retrieval a challenging task. Explicit cross-dataset links, for instance to indicate co-references or related entities can significantly improve entity retrieval. However, only a small fraction of entities are interlinked through explicit statements. Read More


Wikipedia, rich in entities and events, is an invaluable resource for various knowledge harvesting, extraction and mining tasks. Numerous resources like DBpedia, YAGO and other knowledge bases are based on extracting entity and event based knowledge from it. Online news, on the other hand, is an authoritative and rich source for emerging entities, events and facts relating to existing entities. Read More


Wikipedia entity pages are a valuable source of information for direct consumption and for knowledge-base construction, update and maintenance. Facts in these entity pages are typically supported by references. Recent studies show that as much as 20\% of the references are from online news sources. Read More