Computer Science - Graphics Publications (50)


Computer Science - Graphics Publications

Researchers often summarize their work in the form of scientific posters. Posters provide a coherent and efficient way to convey core ideas expressed in scientific papers. Generating a good scientific poster, however, is a complex and time consuming cognitive task, since such posters need to be readable, informative, and visually aesthetic. Read More

We present here the first systematic treatment of the problems posed by the visualization and analysis of large-scale, parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations on an Eulerian grid. When compared to those obtained by constructing an intermediate unstructured mesh with fully described connectivity, our primary results indicate a gain of at least 80\% in terms of memory footprint, with a better rendering while retaining similar execution speed. In this article, we describe the key concepts that allow us to obtain these results, together with the methodology that facilitates the design, implementation, and optimization of algorithms operating directly on such refined meshes. Read More

This paper presents the three scripting commands and main functionalities of a novel character animation environment called CHASE. CHASE was developed for enabling inexperienced programmers, animators, artists, and students to animate in meaningful ways virtual reality characters. This is achieved by scripting simple commands within CHASE. Read More

In this paper we address the issue of designing developable surfaces with Bezier patches. We show that developable surfaces with a polynomial edge of regression are the set of developable surfaces which can be constructed with Aumann's algorithm. We also obtain the set of polynomial developable surfaces which can be constructed using general polynomial curves. Read More

In this paper, we cover the process of integrating Large-Scale Direct Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (LSD-SLAM) algorithm into our existing AR stereo engine, developed for our modified "Augmented Reality Oculus Rift". With that, we are able to track one of our realworld cameras which are mounted on the rift, within a complete unknown environment. This makes it possible to achieve a constant and full augmentation, synchronizing our 3D movement (x, y, z) in both worlds, the real world and the virtual world. Read More

We address the problem of synthesizing new video frames in an existing video, either in-between existing frames (interpolation), or subsequent to them (extrapolation). This problem is challenging because video appearance and motion can be highly complex. Traditional optical-flow-based solutions often fail where flow estimation is challenging, while newer neural-network-based methods that hallucinate pixel values directly often produce blurry results. Read More

The Easy Path Wavelet Transform is an adaptive transform for bivariate functions (in particular natural images) which has been proposed in [1]. It provides a sparse representation by finding a path in the domain of the function leveraging the local correlations of the function values. It then applies a one dimensional wavelet transform to the obtained vector, decimates the points and iterates the procedure. Read More

A general concept of 3D volumetric visualization systems is described based on 3D discrete voxel scenes (worlds) representation. Definitions of 3D discrete voxel scene (world) basic elements and main steps of the image synthesis algorithm are formulated. An algorithm for solving the problem of the voxelized world 3D image synthesis, intended for the systems of volumetric spatial visualization, is proposed. Read More

The article presents a general concept of the organization of pseudo three dimension visualization of graphics and video content for three dimension visualization systems. The steps of algorithms for solving the problem of synthesis of three dimension stereo images based on two dimension images are introduced. The features of synthesis organization of standard format of three dimension stereo frame are presented. Read More

This paper presents a realization of the approach to spatial three Dimension stereo of visualization of three Dimension images with use parallel Graphics processing unit (GPU). The experiments of realization of synthesis of images of a 3D stage by a method of trace of beams on GPU with Compute Unified Device Architecture have shown that 60 % of the time is spent for the decision of a computing problem approximately, the major part of time (40 %) is spent for transfer of data between the central processing unit and GPU for calculations and the organization process of visualization. The study of the influence of increase in the size of the GPU network at the speed of calculations showed importance of the correct task of structure of formation of the parallel computer network and general mechanism of parallelization. Read More

Unlike the conventional first-order network (FoN), the higher-order network (HoN) provides a more accurate description of transitions by creating additional nodes to encode higher-order dependencies. However, there exists no visualization and exploration tool for the HoN. For applications such as the development of strategies to control species invasion through global shipping which is known to exhibit higher-order dependencies, the existing FoN visualization tools are limited. Read More

In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Read More

We show that the equations of reinforcement learning and light transport simulation are related integral equations. Based on this correspondence, a scheme to learn importance while sampling path space is derived. The new approach is demonstrated in a consistent light transport simulation algorithm that uses reinforcement learning to progressively learn where light comes from. Read More

Dealing with visualizations containing large data set is a challenging issue and, in the field of Information Visualization, almost every visual technique reveals its drawback when visualizing large number of items. To deal with this problem we introduce a formal environment, modeling in a virtual space the image features we are interested in (e.g, absolute and relative density, clusters, etc. Read More

We develop a framework for rendering photographic images, taking into account display limitations, so as to optimize perceptual similarity between the rendered image and the original scene. We formulate this as a constrained optimization problem, in which we minimize a measure of perceptual dissimilarity, the Normalized Laplacian Pyramid Distance (NLPD), which mimics the early stage transformations of the human visual system. When rendering images acquired with higher dynamic range than that of the display, we find that the optimized solution boosts the contrast of low-contrast features without introducing significant artifacts, yielding results of comparable visual quality to current state-of-the art methods with no manual intervention or parameter settings. Read More

Photographers routinely compose multiple manipulated photos of the same scene (layers) into a single image, which is better than any individual photo could be alone. Similarly, 3D artists set up rendering systems to produce layered images to contain only individual aspects of the light transport, which are composed into the final result in post-production. Regrettably, both approaches either take considerable time to capture, or remain limited to synthetic scenes. Read More

In this paper a new system for piecewise primitive surface recovery on point clouds is presented, which allows a novice user to sketch areas of interest in order to guide the fitting process. The algorithm is demonstrated against a benchmark technique for autonomous surface fitting, and, contrasted against existing literature in user guided surface recovery, with empirical evidence. It is concluded that the system is an improvement to the current documented literature for its visual quality when modelling objects which are composed of piecewise primitive shapes, and, in its ability to fill large holes on occluded surfaces using free-form input. Read More

In this paper, a new approach to solve the cubic B-spline curve fitting problem is presented based on a meta-heuristic algorithm called " dolphin echolocation ". The method minimizes the proximity error value of the selected nodes that measured using the least squares method and the Euclidean distance method of the new curve generated by the reverse engineering. The results of the proposed method are compared with the genetic algorithm. Read More

This paper presents Poisson vector graphics, an extension of the popular first-order diffusion curves, for generating smooth-shaded images. Armed with two new types of primitives, namely Poisson curves and Poisson regions, PVG can easily produce photorealistic effects such as specular highlights, core shadows, translucency and halos. Within the PVG framework, users specify color as the Dirichlet boundary condition of diffusion curves and control tone by offsetting the Laplacian, where both controls are simply done by mouse click and slider dragging. Read More

Non-invasive steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems offer high bandwidth compared to other BCI types and require only minimal calibration and training. Virtual reality (VR) has been already validated as effective, safe, affordable and motivating feedback modality for BCI experiments. Augmented reality (AR) enhances the physical world by superimposing informative, context sensitive, computer generated content. Read More

Exploring and editing colors in images is a common task in graphic design and photography. However, allowing for interactive recoloring while preserving smooth color blends in the image remains a challenging problem. We present LayerBuilder, an algorithm that decomposes an image or video into a linear combination of colored layers to facilitate color-editing applications. Read More

In this paper, we propose a framework to reconstruct 3D models from raw scanned points by learning the prior knowledge of a specific class of objects. Unlike previous work that heuristically specifies particular regularities and defines parametric models, our shape priors are learned directly from existing 3D models under a framework based on affinity propagation. Given a database of 3D models within the same class of objects, we build a comprehensive library of 3D local shape priors. Read More

Style transfer is an important task in which the style of a source image is mapped onto that of a target image. The method is useful for synthesizing derivative works of a particular artist or specific painting. This work considers targeted style transfer, in which the style of a template image is used to alter only part of a target image. Read More

In this paper, we present a novel method for rapid high-resolution range sensing using green-blue stripe pattern. We use green and blue for designing high-frequency stripe projection pattern. For accurate and reliable range recovery, we identify the stripe patterns by our color-stripe segmentation and unwrapping algorithms. Read More

This paper constructs a continuous localized tight frame on a two-dimensional simplex $T^{2}$ using orthogonal polynomials. We then use quadrature rules on $T^{2}$ to construct discrete tight framelets. Fast algorithms for discrete tight framelet transforms on $T^{2}$ are given, which have the same computational steps as the fast Fourier transforms on the simplex $T^{2}$. Read More

Color transfer between images uses the statistics information of image effectively. We present a novel approach of local color transfer between images based on the simple statistics and locally linear embedding. A sketching interface is proposed for quickly and easily specifying the color correspondences between target and source image. Read More

This article introduces a new notion of optimal transport (OT) between tensor fields, which are measures whose values are positive semidefinite matrices (PSD). This "quantum"' formulation of OT corresponds to a relaxed version of the classical Kantorovich transport problem, where the fidelity between the input PSD-valued measures is captured using the geometry of the Von-Neumann quantum entropy. We propose a quantum-entropic regularization of the resulting convex optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently using an iterative scaling algorithm. Read More

In this manuscript, inspired by a simpler reformulation of primary sample space Metropolis light transport, we derive a novel family of general Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms called charted Metropolis-Hastings, that introduces the notion of sampling charts to extend a given sampling domain and making it easier to sample the desired target distribution and escape from local maxima through coordinate changes. We further apply the novel algorithms to light transport simulation, obtaining a new type of algorithm called charted Metropolis light transport, that can be seen as a bridge between primary sample space and path space Metropolis light transport. The new algorithms require to provide only right inverses of the sampling functions, a property that we believe crucial to make them practical in the context of light transport simulation. Read More

The EditLens is an interactive lens technique that supports the editing of graphs. The user can insert, update, or delete nodes and edges while maintaining an already existing layout of the graph. For the nodes and edges that are affected by an edit operation, the EditLens suggests suitable locations and routes, which the user can accept or adjust. Read More

With the development of range sensors such as LIDAR and time-of-flight cameras, 3D point cloud scans have become ubiquitous in computer vision applications, the most prominent ones being gesture recognition and autonomous driving. Parsimony-based algorithms have shown great success on images and videos where data points are sampled on a regular Cartesian grid. We propose an adaptation of these techniques to irregularly sampled signals by using continuous dictionaries. Read More

Artistic style transfer is an image synthesis problem where the content of an image is reproduced with the style of another. Recent works show that a visually appealing style transfer can be achieved by using the hidden activations of a pretrained convolutional neural network. However, existing methods either apply (i) an optimization procedure that works for any style image but is very expensive, or (ii) an efficient feedforward network that only allows a limited number of trained styles. Read More

We provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 8 clear sky models used in Computer Graphics. We compare the models with each other as well as with measurements and with a reference model from the physics community. After a short summary of the physics of the problem, we present the measurements and the reference model, and how we "invert" it to get the model parameters. Read More

Current CFD calibration work has mainly focused on the CFD model calibration. However no known work has considered the calibration of the CFD results. In this paper, we take inspiration from the image editing problem to develop a methodology to calibrate CFD simulation results based on sparse sensor observations. Read More

This paper introduces a deep architecture for segmenting 3D objects into their labeled semantic parts. Our architecture combines image-based Fully Convolutional Networks (FCNs) and surface-based Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to yield coherent segmentations of 3D shapes. The image-based FCNs are used for efficient view-based reasoning about 3D object parts. Read More

In this paper, we present a new method for computing approximate geodesic distances. We introduce the wave method for approximating geodesic distances from a point on a manifold mesh. Our method involves the solution of two linear systems of equations. Read More

Shape analysis is very often performed by segmenting the shape into smooth surface parts that can be further classified using a set of predefined primitives such as planes, cylinders or spheres. Hence the shape is generally assumed to be manifold and smooth or to be an assembly of primitive parts. In this paper we propose an approach which does not make any assumption on the shape properties but rather learns its characteristics through a statistical analysis of local shape variations. Read More

Development of additive manufacturing in last decade greatly improves tissue engineering. During the manufacturing of porous scaffold, simplified but functionally equivalent models are getting focused for practically reasons. Scaffolds can be classified into regular porous scaffolds and irregular porous scaffolds. Read More

We present a data-driven inference method that can synthesize a photorealistic texture map of a complete 3D face model given a partial 2D view of a person in the wild. After an initial estimation of shape and low-frequency albedo, we compute a high-frequency partial texture map, without the shading component, of the visible face area. To extract the fine appearance details from this incomplete input, we introduce a multi-scale detail analysis technique based on mid-layer feature correlations extracted from a deep convolutional neural network. Read More

We propose a new approach for editing face images, which enables numerous exciting applications including face relighting, makeup transfer and face detail editing. Our face edits are based on a visual representation, which includes geometry, face segmentation, albedo, illumination and detail map. To recover our visual representation, we start by estimating geometry using a morphable face model, then decompose the face image to recover the albedo, and then shade the geometry with the albedo and illumination. Read More

Understanding the 3D world is a fundamental problem in computer vision. However, learning a good representation of 3D objects is still an open problem due to the high dimensionality of the data and many factors of variation involved. In this work, we investigate the task of single-view 3D object reconstruction from a learning agent's perspective. Read More

Problems such as predicting an optical flow field (Y) for an image (X) are ambiguous: many very distinct solutions are good. Representing this ambiguity requires building a conditional model P(Y|X) of the prediction, conditioned on the image. It is hard because training data usually does not contain many different flow fields for the same image. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Nebraska-Omaha, 2University of Nebraska-Omaha, 3Creighton University

This paper describes the Bricklayer Ecosystem - a freely-available online educational ecosystem created for people of all ages and coding backgrounds. Bricklayer is designed in accordance with a "low-threshold infinite ceiling" philosophy and has been successfully used to teach coding to primary school students, middle school students, university freshmen, and in-service secondary math teachers. Bricklayer programs are written in the functional programming language SML and, when executed, create 2D and 3D artifacts. Read More

Immersive, stereoscopic viewing enables scientists to better analyze the spatial structures of visualized physical phenomena. However, their findings cannot be properly presented in traditional media, which lack these core attributes. Creating a presentation tool that captures this environment poses unique challenges, namely related to poor viewing accessibility. Read More

Boundary prediction in images and videos has been a very active topic of research and organizing visual information into boundaries and segments is believed to be a corner stone of visual perception. While prior work has focused on predicting boundaries for observed frames, our work aims at predicting boundaries of future unobserved frames. This requires our model to learn about the fate of boundaries and extrapolate motion patterns. Read More

Motivated by applications in robotics and computer vision, we study problems related to spatial reasoning of a 3D environment using sublevel sets of polynomials. These include: tightly containing a cloud of points (e.g. Read More

Lossy image compression algorithms are pervasively used to reduce the size of images transmitted over the web and recorded on data storage media. However, we pay for their high compression rate with visual artifacts degrading the user experience. Deep convolutional neural networks have become a widespread tool to address high-level computer vision tasks very successfully. Read More

This paper proposes a shoulder inverse kinematics (IK) technique. Shoulder complex is comprised of the sternum, clavicle, ribs, scapula, humerus, and four joints. The shoulder complex shows specific motion pattern, such as Scapulo humeral rhythm. Read More

We apply a novel optimization scheme from the image processing and machine learning areas, a fast Primal-Dual method, to achieve controllable and realistic fluid simulations. While our method is generally applicable to many problems in fluid simulations, we focus on the two topics of fluid guiding and separating solid-wall boundary conditions. Each problem is posed as an optimization problem and solved using our method, which contains acceleration schemes tailored to each problem. Read More

Interference detection of arbitrary geometric objects is not a trivial task due to the heavy computational load imposed by implementation issues. The hierarchically structured bounding boxes help us to quickly isolate the contour of segments in interference. In this paper, a new approach is introduced to treat the interference detection problem involving the representation of arbitrary shaped objects. Read More