Computer Science - General Literature Publications (50)

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Computer Science - General Literature Publications

This paper aims to introduce an application to Kalman Filtering Theory, which is rather unconventional. Recent experiments have shown that many natural phenomena, especially from ecology or meteorology, could be monitored and predicted more accurately when accounting their evolution over some geographical area. Thus, the signals they provide are gathered together into a collection of distributed time series. Read More


Research methods are essential parts in conducting any research project. Although they have been theorized and summarized based on best practices, every field of science requires an adaptation of the overall approaches to perform research activities. In addition, any specific research needs a particular adjustment to the generalized approach and specializing them to suit the project in hand. Read More


The recent surge in interest in ethics in artificial intelligence may leave many educators wondering how to address moral, ethical, and philosophical issues in their AI courses. As instructors we want to develop curriculum that not only prepares students to be artificial intelligence practitioners, but also to understand the moral, ethical, and philosophical impacts that artificial intelligence will have on society. In this article we provide practical case studies and links to resources for use by AI educators. Read More


We introduce the idea of Data Readiness Level (DRL) to measure the relative richness of data to answer specific questions often encountered by data scientists. We first approach the problem in its full generality explaining its desired mathematical properties and applications and then we propose and study two DRL metrics. Specifically, we define DRL as a function of at least four properties of data: Noisiness, Believability, Relevance, and Coherence. Read More


Statistics is running the risk of appearing irrelevant to today's undergraduate students. Today's undergraduate students are familiar with data science projects and they judge statistics against what they have seen. Statistics, especially at the introductory level, should take inspiration from data science so that the discipline is not seen as somehow lesser than data science. Read More


The cost of energy is becoming an increasingly important driver for the operating cost of HPC systems, adding yet another facet to the challenge of producing efficient code. In this paper, we investigate the energy implications of trading computation for locality using Hilbert and Morton space-filling curves with dense matrix-matrix multiplication. The advantage of these curves is that they exhibit an inherent tiling effect without requiring specific architecture tuning. Read More


In 1632, Galileo Galilei wrote a book called \textit{Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems} which compared the new Copernican model of the universe with the old Ptolemaic model. His book took the form of a dialogue between three philosophers, Salviati, a proponent of the Copernican model, Simplicio, a proponent of the Ptolemaic model, and Sagredo, who was initially open-minded and neutral. In this paper, I am going to use Galileo's idea to present a dialogue between three modern philosophers, Mr. Read More


Computing has revolutionized the biological sciences over the past several decades, such that virtually all contemporary research in the biosciences utilizes computer programs. The computational advances have come on many fronts, spurred by fundamental developments in hardware, software, and algorithms. These advances have influenced, and even engendered, a phenomenal array of bioscience fields, including molecular evolution and bioinformatics; genome-, proteome-, transcriptome- and metabolome-wide experimental studies; structural genomics; and atomistic simulations of cellular-scale molecular assemblies as large as ribosomes and intact viruses. Read More


Over nearly three decades at the University of Wisconsin, Jeff Naughton has left an indelible mark on computer science. He has been a global leader of the database research field, deepening its core and pushing its boundaries. Many of Naughton's ideas were translated directly into practice in commercial and open-source systems. Read More


The P=?NP problem is philosophically solved by showing P is equal to NP in the random access with unit multiply (MRAM) model. It is shown that the MRAM model empirically best models computation hardness. The P=?NP problem is shown to be a scientific rather than a mathematical problem. Read More


Incompleteness theorems of Godel, Turing, Chaitin, and Algorithmic Information Theory have profound epistemological implications. Incompleteness limits our ability to ever understand every observable phenomenon in the universe. Incompleteness limits the ability of evolutionary processes from finding optimal solutions. Read More


The problem of the Hanoi Tower is a classic exercise in recursive programming: the solution has a simple recursive definition, and its complexity and the matching lower bound are the solution of a simple recursive function (the solution is so easy that most students memorize it and regurgitate it at exams without truly understanding it). We describe how some very minor changes in the rules of the Hanoi Tower yield various increases of complexity in the solution, so that they require a deeper analysis than the classical Hanoi Tower problem while still yielding exponential solutions. In particular, we analyze the problem fo the Bouncing Tower, where just changing the insertion and extraction position from the top to the middle of the tower results in a surprising increase of complexity in the solution: such a tower of $n$ disks can be optimally moved in $\sqrt{3}^n$ moves for $n$ even (i. Read More


Integrating vision and language has long been a dream in work on artificial intelligence (AI). In the past two years, we have witnessed an explosion of work that brings together vision and language from images to videos and beyond. The available corpora have played a crucial role in advancing this area of research. Read More


Turing's (1936) paper on computable numbers has played its role in underpinning different perspectives on the world of information. On the one hand, it encourages a digital ontology, with a perceived flatness of computational structure comprehensively hosting causality at the physical level and beyond. On the other (the main point of Turing's paper), it can give an insight into the way in which higher order information arises and leads to loss of computational control - while demonstrating how the control can be re-established, in special circumstances, via suitable type reductions. Read More


Over 15 years of teaching, advising students and coordinating scientific research activities and projects in computer science, we have observed the difficulties of students to write scientific papers to present the results of their research practices. In addition, they repeatedly have doubts about the publishing process. In this article we propose a conceptual framework to support the writing and publishing of scientific papers in computer science, providing a kind of guide for computer science students to effectively present the results of their research practices, particularly for experimental research. Read More


The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ran an Investigator Competition as part of its Data-Driven Discovery Initiative in 2014. We received about 1,100 applications and each applicant had the opportunity to list up to five influential works in the general field of "Big Data" for scientific discovery. We collected nearly 5,000 references and 53 works were cited at least six times. Read More


As language and visual understanding by machines progresses rapidly, we are observing an increasing interest in holistic architectures that tightly interlink both modalities in a joint learning and inference process. This trend has allowed the community to progress towards more challenging and open tasks and refueled the hope at achieving the old AI dream of building machines that could pass a turing test in open domains. In order to steadily make progress towards this goal, we realize that quantifying performance becomes increasingly difficult. Read More


Sustainability is a central concern for our society, and software systems increasingly play a central role in it. As designers of software technology, we cause change and are responsible for the effects of our design choices. We recognize that there is a rapidly increasing awareness of the fundamental need and desire for a more sustainable world, and there is a lot of genuine goodwill. Read More


In a recent article, Luciano Floridi explains his view of Turing's legacy in connection to the philosophy of information. I will very briefly survey one of Turing's other contributions to the philosophy of information and computation, including similarities to Shannon's own methodological approach to information through communication, showing how crucial they are and have been as methodological strategies to understanding key aspects of these concepts. While Floridi's concept of Levels of Abstraction is related to the novel methodology of Turing's imitation game for tackling the question of machine intelligence, Turing's other main contribution to the philosophy of information runs contrary to it. Read More


We need much better understanding of information processing and computation as its primary form. Future progress of new computational devices capable of dealing with problems of big data, internet of things, semantic web, cognitive robotics and neuroinformatics depends on the adequate models of computation. In this article we first present the current state of the art through systematization of existing models and mechanisms, and outline basic structural framework of computation. Read More


2013Dec
Authors: Serge Abiteboul1
Affiliations: 1LSV, INRIA Saclay - Ile de France

Over the last 15 years, Software Carpentry has evolved from a week-long training course at the US national laboratories into a worldwide volunteer effort to raise standards in scientific computing. This article explains what we have learned along the way the challenges we now face, and our plans for the future. Read More


Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with gaining knowledge. It is closely related to ontology. The branch that deals with questions like "What is real?" and "What do we know?" as it provides these components. Read More


Big data refers to large and complex data sets that, under existing approaches, exceed the capacity and capability of current compute platforms, systems software, analytical tools and human understanding. Numerous lessons on the scalability of big data can already be found in asymptotic analysis of algorithms and from the high-performance computing (HPC) and applications communities. However, scale is only one aspect of current big data trends; fundamentally, current and emerging problems in big data are a result of unprecedented complexity--in the structure of the data and how to analyze it, in dealing with unreliability and redundancy, in addressing the human factors of comprehending complex data sets, in formulating meaningful analyses, and in managing the dense, power-hungry data centers that house big data. Read More


In honor of Alan Turing's hundredth birthday, I unwisely set out some thoughts about one of Turing's obsessions throughout his life, the question of physics and free will. I focus relatively narrowly on a notion that I call "Knightian freedom": a certain kind of in-principle physical unpredictability that goes beyond probabilistic unpredictability. Other, more metaphysical aspects of free will I regard as possibly outside the scope of science. Read More


There are growing uncertainties surrounding the classical model of computation established by G\"odel, Church, Kleene, Turing and others in the 1930s onwards. The mismatch between the Turing machine conception, and the experiences of those more practically engaged in computing, has parallels with the wider one between science and those working creatively or intuitively out in the 'real' world. The scientific outlook is more flexible and basic than some understand or want to admit. Read More


Replication of scientific experiments is critical to the advance of science. Unfortunately, the discipline of Computer Science has never treated replication seriously, even though computers are very good at doing the same thing over and over again. Not only are experiments rarely replicated, they are rarely even replicable in a meaningful way. Read More


The century of complexity has come. The face of science has changed. Surprisingly, when we start asking about the essence of these changes and then critically analyse the answers, the result are mostly discouraging. Read More


A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we highlight potential barriers to effective research across disciplines, and suggest, using a case study, possible mechanisms for removing these impediments. Read More


This text presents the research field of natural/unconventional computing as it appears in the book COMPUTING NATURE. The articles discussed consist a selection of works from the Symposium on Natural Computing at AISB-IACAP (British Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour and The International Association for Computing and Philosophy) World Congress 2012, held at the University of Birmingham, celebrating Turing centenary. The COMPUTING NATURE is about nature considered as the totality of physical existence, the universe. Read More


2012Oct

Although the history of informatics is recent, this field poses unusual problems with respect to its preservation. These problems are amplified by legal issues, digital law being in itself a subject matter whose history is also worth presenting in a computer science museum. The purpose of this paper is to present a quick overview of the evolution of law regarding digital matters, from an historical perspective as well as with respect to the preservation and presentation of the works. Read More


In this paper, we analyze axiomatic issues of unconventional computations from a methodological and philosophical point of view. We explain how the new models of algorithms changed the algorithmic universe, making it open and allowing increased flexibility and creativity. However, the greater power of new types of algorithms also brought the greater complexity of the algorithmic universe, demanding new tools for its study. Read More


Alan Turing's pioneering work on computability, and his ideas on morphological computing support Andrew Hodges' view of Turing as a natural philosopher. Turing's natural philosophy differs importantly from Galileo's view that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics (The Assayer, 1623). Computing is more than a language of nature as computation produces real time physical behaviors. Read More


The historical development has lead to the decay of Natural Philosophy which until 19th century included all of our knowledge about the physical world into the growing multitude of specialized sciences. The focus on the in-depth enquiry disentangled from its broad context lead to the problem of loss of common world-view and impossibility of communication between specialist research fields because of different languages they developed in isolation. The need for a new unifying framework is becoming increasingly apparent with the information technology enabling and intensifying the communication between different research fields and knowledge communities. Read More


The asynchronous systems f are multi-valued functions, representing the non-deterministic models of the asynchronous circuits from the digital electrical engineering. In real time, they map an 'admissible input' function u:R\rightarrow{0,1}^{m} to a set f(u) of 'possible states' x\inf(u), where x:R\rightarrow{0,1}^{m}. When f is defined by making use of a 'generator function' {\Phi}:{0,1}^{n}\times{0,1}^{m}\rightarrow{0,1}^{n}, the system is called regular. Read More


The success of the abstract model of computation, in terms of bits, logical operations, programming language constructs, and the like, makes it easy to forget that computation is a physical process. Our cherished notions of computation and information are grounded in classical mechanics, but the physics underlying our world is quantum. In the early 80s researchers began to ask how computation would change if we adopted a quantum mechanical, instead of a classical mechanical, view of computation. Read More


I am most honoured to have the privilege to present the Foreword to this fascinating and wonderfully varied collection of contributions, concerning the nature of computation and of its deep connection with the operation of those basic laws, known or yet unknown, governing the universe in which we live. Fundamentally deep questions are indeed being grappled with here, and the fact that we find so many different viewpoints is something to be expected, since, in truth, we know little about the foundational nature and origins of these basic laws, despite the immense precision that we so often find revealed in them. Accordingly, it is not surprising that within the viewpoints expressed here is some unabashed speculation, occasionally bordering on just partially justified guesswork, while elsewhere we find a good deal of precise reasoning, some in the form of rigorous mathematical theorems. Read More


We survey the reasons for the ongoing boycott of the publisher Elsevier. We examine Elsevier's pricing and bundling policies, restrictions on dissemination by authors, and lapses in ethics and peer review, and we conclude with thoughts about the future of mathematical publishing. Read More


This article presents an overview, and recent history, of studies of gender gaps in the mathematically-intensive sciences. Included are several statistics about gender differences in science, and about public resources aimed at addressing them. We then examine the role that gender differences in creativity play in explaining the recent and current gender differences in the mathematical sciences, and identify several constructive suggestions aimed at improving analytical creativity output in research institutions. Read More


The CDOI outcome measure - a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument utilizing direct client feedback - was implemented in a large, real-world behavioral healthcare setting in order to evaluate previous findings from smaller controlled studies. PROs provide an alternative window into treatment effectiveness based on client perception and facilitate detection of problems/symptoms for which there is no discernible measure (e.g. Read More


Sourcing processes are discussed at a high abstraction level. A dedicated terminology is developed concerning general aspects of sourcing. The term sourcement is coined to denote a building block for sourcing. Read More


Contemporary use of the term 'intension' derives from the traditional logical Frege-Russell's doctrine that an idea (logic formula) has both an extension and an intension. From the Montague's point of view, the meaning of an idea can be considered as particular extensions in different possible worlds. In this paper we analyze the minimal intensional semantic enrichment of the syntax of the FOL language, by unification of different views: Tarskian extensional semantics of the FOL, modal interpretation of quantifiers, and a derivation of the Tarskian theory of truth from unified semantic theory based on a single meaning relation. Read More


Computational science and engineering (CSE) has been misunderstood to advance with the construction of enormous computers. To the contrary, the historical record demonstrates that innovations in CSE come from improvements to the mathematics embodied by computer programs. Whether scientists and engineers become inventors who make these breakthroughs depends on circumstances and the interdisciplinary extent of their educations. Read More


A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments. Read More


In recent years environmental and energy conservation issues have taken the central theme in the global business arena. The reality of rising energy cost and their impact on international affairs coupled with the different kinds of environmental issues has shifted the social and economic consciousness of the business community. Hence, the business community is now in search of an eco-friendly business model. Read More


We introduce a new visual analytic approach to the study of scientific discoveries and knowledge diffusion. Our approach enhances contemporary co-citation network analysis by enabling analysts to identify co-citation clusters of cited references intuitively, synthesize thematic contexts in which these clusters are cited, and trace how research focus evolves over time. The new approach integrates and streamlines a few previously isolated techniques such as spectral clustering and feature selection algorithms. Read More


In the last decade the broad scope of complex networks has led to a rapid progress. In this area a particular interest has the study of community structures. The analysis of this type of structure requires the formalization of the intuitive concept of community and the definition of indices of goodness for the obtained results. Read More


The dialogue develops arguments for and against adopting a new world system, info-computationalist naturalism, that is poised to replace the traditional mechanistic world system. We try to figure out what the info-computational paradigm would mean, in particular its pancomputationalism. We make some steps towards developing the notion of computing that is necessary here, especially in relation to traditional notions. Read More


Research into, and design and construction of mobile systems and algorithms requires access to large-scale mobility data. Unfortunately, the wireless and mobile research community lacks such data. For instance, the largest available human contact traces contain only 100 nodes with very sparse connectivity, limited by experimental logistics. Read More


This paper sets out to examine the skills gaps between the industrial application of Information Technology and university academic programmes (curriculum). It looks at some of the causes, and considers the probable solutions for bridging the gap between them and suggests the possibilities of exploring a new role for our universities and employers of labor. It also highlights strategies to abolish the misalignment between university and industry. Read More