# Computer Science - Computational Geometry Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Computational Geometry Publications

Given a set of $n$ points $P$ in the plane, the first layer $L_1$ of $P$ is
formed by the points that appear on $P$'s convex hull. In general, a point
belongs to layer $L_i$, if it lies on the convex hull of the set $P \setminus
\bigcup_{j*Read More*

Edge bundling is an important concept, heavily used for graph visualization purposes. To enable the comparison with other established nearly-planarity models in graph drawing, we formulate a new edge-bundling model which is inspired by the recently introduced fan-planar graphs. In particular, we restrict the bundling to the endsegments of the edges. Read More

We introduce a new geometric spanner, $\delta$-Greedy, whose construction is based on a generalization of the known Path-Greedy and Gap-Greedy spanners. The $\delta$-Greedy spanner combines the most desirable properties of geometric spanners both in theory and in practice. More specifically, it has the same theoretical and practical properties as the Path-Greedy spanner: a natural definition, small degree, linear number of edges, low weight, and strong $(1+\varepsilon)$-spanner for every $\varepsilon>0$. Read More

A celebrated technique for finding near neighbors for the angular distance involves using a set of \textit{random} hyperplanes to partition the space into hash regions [Charikar, STOC 2002]. Experiments later showed that using a set of \textit{orthogonal} hyperplanes, thereby partitioning the space into the Voronoi regions induced by a hypercube, leads to even better results [Terasawa and Tanaka, WADS 2007]. However, no theoretical explanation for this improvement was ever given, and it remained unclear how the resulting hypercube hash method scales in high dimensions. Read More

A graph $G$ is called B$_k$-VPG (resp., B$_k$-EPG), for some constant $k\geq 0$, if it has a string representation on a grid such that each vertex is an orthogonal path with at most $k$ bends and two vertices are adjacent in $G$ if and only if the corresponding strings intersect (resp., the corresponding strings share at least one grid edge). Read More

Airborne laser scanning (lidar) point clouds can be process to extract tree-level information over large forested landscapes. Existing procedures typically detect more than 90% of overstory trees, yet they barely detect 60% of understory trees because of reduced number of lidar points penetrating the top canopy layer. Although understory trees provide limited financial value, they offer habitat for numerous wildlife species and are important for stand development. Read More

Computational topology is an area that revisits topological problems from an algorithmic point of view, and develops topological tools for improved algorithms. We survey results in computational topology that are concerned with graphs drawn on surfaces. Typical questions include representing surfaces and graphs embedded on them computationally, deciding whether a graph embeds on a surface, solving computational problems related to homotopy, optimizing curves and graphs on surfaces, and solving standard graph algorithm problems more efficiently in the case of surface-embedded graphs. Read More

A shape visibility representation displays a graph so that each vertex is represented by an orthogonal polygon of a particular shape and for each edge there is a horizontal or vertical line of sight between the polygons assigned to its endvertices. Special shapes are rectangles, L, T, E and H-shapes, and caterpillars. A flat rectangle is a horizontal bar of height $\epsilon>0$. Read More

Point clouds arising from structured data, mainly as a result of CT scans, provides special properties on the distribution of points and the distances between those. Yet often, the amount of data provided can not compare to unstructured point clouds, i.e. Read More

The purpose of this note is to attract attention to the following conjecture (metastable $r$-fold Whitney trick) by clarifying its status as not having a complete proof, in the sense described in the paper. Assume that $D=D_1\sqcup\ldots\sqcup D_r$ is disjoint union of $r$ disks of dimension $s$, $f:D\to B^d$ a proper PL map such that $f\partial D_1\cap\ldots\cap f\partial D_r=\emptyset$, $rd\ge (r+1)s+3$ and $d\ge s+3$. If the map $$f^r:\partial(D_1\times\ldots\times D_r)\to (B^d)^r-\{(x,x,\ldots,x)\in(B^d)^r\ |\ x\in B^d\}$$ extends to $D_1\times\ldots\times D_r$, then there is a PL map $\overline f:D\to B^d$ such that $$\overline f=f \quad\text{on}\quad D_r\cup\partial D\quad\text{and}\quad \overline fD_1\cap\ldots\cap \overline fD_r=\emptyset. Read More

The use of random samples to approximate properties of geometric configurations has been an influential idea for both combinatorial and algorithmic purposes. This chapter considers two related notions---$\epsilon$-approximations and $\epsilon$-nets---that capture the most important quantitative properties that one would expect from a random sample with respect to an underlying geometric configuration. Read More

The credit on {\it reduction theory} goes back to the work of Lagrange, Gauss, Hermite, Korkin, Zolotarev, and Minkowski. Modern reduction theory is voluminous and includes the work of A. Lenstra, H. Read More

We present an implementation of a recent algorithm to compute shortest-path trees in unit disk graphs in $O(n\log n)$ worst-case time, where $n$ is the number of disks. In the minimum-separation problem, we are given $n$ unit disks and two points $s$ and $t$, not contained in any of the disks, and we want to compute the minimum number of disks one needs to retain so that any curve connecting $s$ to $t$ intersects some of the retained disks. We present a new algorithm solving this problem in $O(n^2\log^3 n)$ worst-case time and its implementation. Read More

2-level polytopes naturally appear in several areas of pure and applied mathematics, including combinatorial optimization, polyhedral combinatorics, communication complexity, and statistics. In this paper, we present a polyhedral study of 2-level polytopes arising in combinatorial settings. For all the known (to the best of our knowledge) such polytopes P, we show that v(P). Read More

In this paper, we introduce the notion of DTM-signature, a measure on R + that can be associated to any metric-measure space. This signature is based on the distance to a measure (DTM) introduced by Chazal, Cohen-Steiner and M\'erigot. It leads to a pseudo-metric between metric-measure spaces, upper-bounded by the Gromov-Wasserstein distance. Read More

We study approximation algorithms for the following geometric version of the maximum coverage problem: Let $\mathcal{P}$ be a set of $n$ weighted points in the plane. Let $D$ represent a planar object, such as a rectangle, or a disk. We want to place $m$ copies of $D$ such that the sum of the weights of the points in $\mathcal{P}$ covered by these copies is maximized. Read More

The usefulness of technical drawings as well as scientific illustrations such as medical drawings of human anatomy essentially depends on the placement of labels that describe all relevant parts of the figure. In order to not spoil or clutter the figure with text, the labels are often placed around the figure and are associated by thin connecting lines to their features, respectively. This labeling technique is known as external label placement. Read More

In this paper, we study planar drawings of maximal outerplanar graphs with the objective of achieving small height. A recent paper gave an algorithm for such drawings that is within a factor of 4 of the optimum height. In this paper, we substantially improve the approximation factor to become 2. Read More

In the Any-Angle Pathfinding problem, the goal is to find the shortest path between a pair of vertices on a uniform square grid, that is not constrained to any fixed number of possible directions over the grid. Visibility Graphs are a known optimal algorithm for solving the problem with the use of pre-processing. However, Visibility Graphs are known to perform poorly in terms of running time, especially on large, complex maps. Read More

A regret minimizing set Q is a small size representation of a much larger database P so that user queries executed on Q return answers whose scores are not much worse than those on the full dataset. In particular, a k-regret minimizing set has the property that the regret ratio between the score of the top-1 item in Q and the score of the top-k item in P is minimized, where the score of an item is the inner product of the item's attributes with a user's weight (preference) vector. The problem is challenging because we want to find a single representative set Q whose regret ratio is small with respect to all possible user weight vectors. Read More

We study biplane graphs drawn on a finite point set $S$ in the plane in general position. This is the family of geometric graphs whose vertex set is $S$ and which can be decomposed into two plane graphs. We show that every sufficiently large point set admits a 5-connected biplane graph and that there are arbitrarily large point sets that do not admit any 6-connected biplane graph. Read More

We study biplane graphs drawn on a finite planar point set $S$ in general position. This is the family of geometric graphs whose vertex set is $S$ and can be decomposed into two plane graphs. We show that two maximal biplane graphs---in the sense that no edge can be added while staying biplane---may differ in the number of edges, and we provide an efficient algorithm for adding edges to a biplane graph to make it maximal. Read More

Let R be a family of n axis-parallel rectangles with packing number p-1, meaning that among any p of the rectangles, there are two with a non-empty intersection. We show that the union complexity of R is at most O(n+p^2), and that the (<=k)-level complexity of R is at most O(kn+k^2p^2). Both upper bounds are tight. Read More

The field of algorithmic self-assembly is concerned with the computational and expressive power of nanoscale self-assembling molecular systems. In the well-studied cooperative, or temperature 2, abstract tile assembly model it is known that there is a tile set to simulate any Turing machine and an intrinsically universal tile set that simulates the shapes and dynamics of any instance of the model, up to spatial rescaling. It has been an open question as to whether the seemingly simpler noncooperative, or temperature 1, model is capable of such behaviour. Read More

Any generic closed curve in the plane can be transformed into a simple closed curve by a finite sequence of local transformations called homotopy moves. We prove that simplifying a planar closed curve with $n$ self-crossings requires $\Theta(n^{3/2})$ homotopy moves in the worst case. Our algorithm improves the best previous upper bound $O(n^2)$, which is already implicit in the classical work of Steinitz; the matching lower bound follows from the construction of closed curves with large defect, a topological invariant of generic closed curves introduced by Aicardi and Arnold. Read More

In this paper, we analyze the performance of a simple and standard Local Search algorithm for clustering on well behaved data. Since the seminal paper by Ostrovsky, Rabani, Schulman and Swamy [FOCS 2006], much progress has been made to characterize real-world instances. We distinguish the three main definitions -- Distribution Stability (Awasthi, Blum, Sheffet, FOCS 2010) -- Spectral Separability (Kumar, Kannan, FOCS 2010) -- Perturbation Resilience (Bilu, Linial, ICS 2010) We show that Local Search performs well on the instances with the aforementioned stability properties. Read More

Combinatorial discrepancy is a complexity measure of a collection of sets which quantifies how well the sets in the collection can be simultaneously balanced. More precisely, we are given an n-point set $P$, and a collection $\mathcal{F} = \{F_1, .. Read More

Laman graphs model planar frameworks that are rigid for a general choice of distances between the vertices. There are finitely many ways, up to isometries, to realize a Laman graph in the plane. Such realizations can be seen as solutions of systems of quadratic equations prescribing the distances between pairs of points. Read More

In this paper we study the art gallery problem, which is one of the fundamental problems in computational geometry. The objective is to place a minimum number of guards inside a simple polygon such that the guards together can see the whole polygon. We say that a guard at position $x$ sees a point $y$ if the line segment $xy$ is fully contained in the polygon. Read More

Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is a fundamental technique for similarity search and similarity estimation in high-dimensional spaces. The basic idea is that similar objects should produce hash collisions with probability significantly larger than objects with low similarity. We consider LSH for objects that can be represented as point sets in either one or two dimensions. Read More

A directed acyclic graph G = (V, E) is pseudo-transitive with respect to a given subset of edges E1, if for any edge ab in E1 and any edge bc in E, we have ac in E. We give algorithms for computing longest chains and demonstrate geometric applications that unify and improves some important past results. (For specific applications see the introduction. Read More

Path planning for walking characters in complicated virtual environments is a fundamental task in simulations and games. In this paper, we present an improved definition of the Explicit Corridor Map (ECM), a navigation mesh that allows efficient path planning and crowd simulation for disk-shaped characters of any radius. The ECM is a medial axis (MA) annotated with nearest-obstacle information. Read More

We study the problem of computing the \textsc{Maxima} of a set of $n$ $d$-dimensional points. For dimensions 2 and 3, there are algorithms to solve the problem with order-oblivious instance-optimal running time. However, in higher dimensions there is still room for improvements. Read More

We introduce the dynamic conflict-free coloring problem for a set $S$ of intervals in $\mathbb{R}^1$ with respect to points, where the goal is to maintain a conflict-free coloring for $S$ under insertions and deletions. We investigate trade-offs between the number of colors used and the number of intervals that are recolored upon insertion or deletion of an interval. Our results include: - a lower bound on the number of recolorings as a function of the number of colors, which implies that with $O(1)$ recolorings per update the worst-case number of colors is $\Omega(\log n/\log\log n)$, and that any strategy using $O(1/\varepsilon)$ colors needs $\Omega(\varepsilon n^{\varepsilon})$ recolorings; - a coloring strategy that uses $O(\log n)$ colors at the cost of $O(\log n)$ recolorings, and another strategy that uses $O(1/\varepsilon)$ colors at the cost of $O(n^{\varepsilon}/\varepsilon)$ recolorings; - stronger upper and lower bounds for special cases. Read More

In this paper, we propose a framework to reconstruct 3D models from raw scanned points by learning the prior knowledge of a specific class of objects. Unlike previous work that heuristically specifies particular regularities and defines parametric models, our shape priors are learned directly from existing 3D models under a framework based on affinity propagation. Given a database of 3D models within the same class of objects, we build a comprehensive library of 3D local shape priors. Read More

Solutions of partial differential equations (PDEs) on manifolds have provided important applications in different fields in science and engineering. Existing methods are majorly based on discretization of manifolds as implicit functions, triangle meshes, or point clouds, where the manifold structure is approximated by either zero level set of an implicit function or a set of points. In many applications, manifolds might be only provided as an inter-point distance matrix with possible missing values. Read More

Consider a pair of plane straight-line graphs, whose edges are colored red and blue, respectively, and let n be the total complexity of both graphs. We present a O(n log n)-time O(n)-space technique to preprocess such pair of graphs, that enables efficient searches among the red-blue intersections along edges of one of the graphs. Our technique has a number of applications to geometric problems. Read More

A tower is a sequence of simplicial complexes connected by simplicial maps. We show how to compute a filtration, a sequence of nested simplicial complexes, with the same persistent barcode as the tower. Our approach is based on the coning strategy by Dey et al. Read More

We study the following local-to-global phenomenon: Let $B$ and $R$ be two finite sets of (blue and red) points in the Euclidean plane $\mathbb{R}^2$. Suppose that in each "neighborhood" of a red point, the number of blue points is at least as large as the number of red points. We show that in this case the total number of blue points is at least one fifth of the total number of red points. Read More

For a point set of $n$ elements in the $d$-dimensional unit cube and a class of test sets we are interested in the largest volume of a test set which does not contain any point. For all natural numbers $n$, $d$ and under the assumption of a $delta$-cover with cardinality $\vert \Gamma_\delta \vert$ we prove that there is a point set, such that the largest volume of such a test set without any point is bounded by $\frac{\log \vert \Gamma_\delta \vert}{n} + \delta$. For axis-parallel boxes on the unit cube this leads to a volume of at most $\frac{4d}{n}\log(\frac{9n}{d})$ and on the torus to $\frac{4d}{n}\log (2n)$. Read More

Readability criteria have been addressed as a measurement of the quality of graph visualizations. In this paper, we argue that readability criteria are necessary but not sufficient. We propose a new kind of criteria, namely faithfulness, to evaluate the quality of graph layouts. Read More

We present an algorithm that cuts any collection of n disjoint triangles in R^3 into O(n^{7/4} polylog n) triangular fragments such that all cycles in the depth-order relation are eliminated. The running time of our algorithm is O(n^{3.69}). Read More

This paper investigates efficient techniques to collect and concentrate an under-actuated particle swarm despite obstacles. Concentrating a swarm of particles is of critical importance in health-care for targeted drug delivery, where micro-scale particles must be steered to a goal location. Individual particles must be small in order to navigate through micro-vasculature, but decreasing size brings new challenges. Read More

This paper presents a non-parametric approach for segmenting trees from airborne LiDAR data in deciduous forests. Based on the LiDAR point cloud, the approach collects crown information such as steepness and height on-the-fly to delineate crown boundaries, and most importantly, does not require a priori assumptions of crown shape and size. The approach segments trees iteratively starting from the tallest within a given area to the smallest until all trees have been segmented. Read More

Airborne LiDAR point cloud of a forest contains three dimensional data, from which vertical stand structure (including information about under-story trees) can be derived. This paper presents a segmentation approach for multi-story stands that strips the point cloud to its canopy layers, identifies individual tree segments within each layer using a DSM-based tree identification method as a building block, and combines the segments of immediate layers in order to fix potential over-segmentation of tree crowns across the layers. We introduce local layering that analyzes the vertical distributions of LiDAR points within their local neighborhoods in order to locally determine the height thresholds for layering the canopy. Read More

We prove the computational intractability of rotating and placing $n$ square tiles into a $1 \times n$ array such that adjacent tiles are compatible--either equal edge colors, as in edge-matching puzzles, or matching tab/pocket shapes, as in jigsaw puzzles. Beyond basic NP-hardness, we prove that it is NP-hard even to approximately maximize the number of placed tiles (allowing blanks), while satisfying the compatibility constraint between nonblank tiles, within a factor of 0.9999999851. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}DATASHAPE,

^{2}DATASHAPE,

^{3}LSTA

Approximations of Laplace-Beltrami operators on manifolds through graph Lapla-cians have become popular tools in data analysis and machine learning. These discretized operators usually depend on bandwidth parameters whose tuning remains a theoretical and practical problem. In this paper, we address this problem for the unnormalized graph Laplacian by establishing an oracle inequality that opens the door to a well-founded data-driven procedure for the bandwidth selection. Read More

A graph drawing is $\textit{greedy}$ if, for every ordered pair of vertices $(x,y)$, there is a path from $x$ to $y$ such that the Euclidean distance to $y$ decreases monotonically at every vertex of the path. Greedy drawings support a simple geometric routing scheme, in which any node that has to send a packet to a destination "greedily" forwards the packet to any neighbor that is closer to the destination than itself, according to the Euclidean distance in the drawing. In a greedy drawing such a neighbor always exists and hence this routing scheme is guaranteed to succeed. Read More

Human identification remains to be one of the challenging tasks in computer vision community due to drastic changes in visual features across different viewpoints, lighting conditions, occlusion, etc. Most of the literature has been focused on exploring human re-identification across viewpoints that are not too drastically different in nature. Cameras usually capture oblique or side views of humans, leaving room for a lot of geometric and visual reasoning. Read More

The $c$-approximate Near Neighbor problem in high dimensional spaces has been mainly addressed by Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), which offers polynomial dependence on the dimension, query time sublinear in the size of the dataset, and subquadratic space requirement. For practical applications, linear space is typically imperative. Most previous work in the linear space regime focuses on the case that $c$ exceeds $1$ by a constant term. Read More