Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Publications (50)

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Publications

In astrophysics, we often aim to estimate one or more parameters for each member object in a population and study the distribution of the fitted parameters across the population. In this paper, we develop novel methods that allow us to take advantage of existing software designed for such case-by-case analyses to simultaneously fit parameters of both the individual objects and the parameters that quantify their distribution across the population. Our methods are based on Bayesian hierarchical modelling which is known to produce parameter estimators for the individual objects that are on average closer to their true values than estimators based on case-by-case analyses. Read More


We investigate the formation of circumstellar disks and outflows subsequent to the collapse of molecular cloud cores with the magnetic field and turbulence. Numerical simulations are performed by using an adaptive mesh refinement to follow the evolution up to $\sim 1000$~yr after the formation of a protostar. In the simulations, circumstellar disks are formed around the protostars; those in magnetized models are considerably smaller than those in nonmagnetized models, but their size increases with time. Read More


I propose a scenario where the majority of the progenitors of type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) lose most of their hydrogen-rich envelope during a grazing envelope evolution (GEE). In the GEE the orbital radius of the binary system is about equal to the radius of the giant star, and the more compact companion accretes mass through an accretion disk. The accretion disk is assumed to launch two opposite jets that efficiently remove gas from the envelope along the orbit of the companion. Read More


The BVI lightcurves of seven recent novae have been extensively mapped with daily robotic observations from Atacama (Chile). They are V1534 Sco, V1535 Sco, V2949 Oph, V3661 Oph, MASTER OT J010603.18-744715. Read More


The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the {\em James Webb Space Telescope} (JWST) will revolutionize our understanding of infrared stellar populations in the Local Volume. Using the rich {\em Spitzer}-IRS spectroscopic data-set and spectral classifications from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Spectroscopic survey of over a thousand objects in the Magellanic Clouds, the Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS ({\sc grams}), and the grid of YSO models by Robitaille et al. (2006), we calculate the expected flux-densities and colors in the MIRI broadband filters for prominent infrared stellar populations. Read More


The O8f?p star HD 108 is implied to have experienced the most extreme rotational braking of any magnetic, massive star, with a rotational period $P_{\rm rot}$ of at least 55 years, but the upper limit on its spindown timescale is over twice the age estimated from the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. HD 108's observed X-ray luminosity is also much higher than predicted by the XADM model, a unique discrepancy amongst magnetic O-type stars. Previously reported magnetic data cover only a small fraction ($\sim$3. Read More


We investigate three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure of a blow out jet originated in the west edge of NOAA Active Region (AR) 11513 on 2012 July 02 through recently developed forced field extrapolation model. The results show that the blow out jet can be interpreted as the eruption of the magnetic flux rope (MFR) consisting of twisted and closed field lines. We further calculate the twist number $\mathcal{T}_{w}$ and squashing factor Q of the reconstructed magnetic field and find that the MFR corresponds well with the high $\mathcal{T}_{w}$ region as seen at 2D cutting plane perpendicular to the axis of the MFR. Read More


Using 1-D non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations, we study the ejecta properties required to match the early and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of supernovae (SNe) associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). To match the short rise time, narrow light curve peak, and extremely broad spectral lines of SN1998bw requires a model with <3Msun ejecta but a high explosion energy of a few 1e52erg and 0.5Msun of Ni56. Read More


Context. Precise determination of stellar masses is necessary to test the validity of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolutionary models, whose predictions are in disagreement with measurements for masses below 1.2 Msun. Read More


We use Kepler K2 Campaign 4 short-cadence photometry to measure white light flares in the young, moving group brown dwarfs 2MASS J03350208+2342356 (2M0335+23) and 2MASS J03552337+1133437 (2M0355+11), and report on long-cadence photometry of a flare in the Pleiades M8 brown dwarf CFHT-PL-17. We also report a new measurement of the radial velocity of 2M0335+23 which confirms that this M7 brown dwarf is a beta Pic Moving Group member. We identify a long-lived starspot, and find that the rotation period (5. Read More


We explore the effects of the expected higher cosmic ray (CR) ionization rates $\zeta_{\rm CR}$ on the abundances of carbon monoxide (CO), atomic carbon (C), and ionized carbon (C$^+$) in the H$_2$ clouds of star-forming galaxies. The study of Bisbas et al. (2015) is expanded by: a) using realistic inhomogeneous Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) structures, b) a detailed chemical analysis behind the CR-induced destruction of CO, and c) exploring the thermal state of CR-irradiated molecular gas. Read More


The Kepler light curve of DF Cyg is unparalleled in precision and cadence for any RV Tau star to date spanning a baseline of $\sim$4 years and clearly displaying the signature pulsating behavior of alternating deep and shallow minima as well as the long-term trend indicative of an RVb-type variable. We measured DF Cyg's formal period (the time interval between two successive deep minima) to be $~49.84 \pm 0. Read More


We study the formation of runaway stars due to binary-binary (2+2) interactions in young star-forming clusters and/or associations. This is done using a combination of analytic methods and numerical simulations of 2+2 scattering interactions, both in isolation and in a homogeneous background potential. We focus on interactions that produce two single stars and a binary, and study the outcomes as a function of the depth of the background potential, within a range typical of cluster cores. Read More


We present analyses of the spatial distributions of stars in the young (1 - 3 Myr) star-forming regions IC348 and NGC1333 in the Perseus Giant Molecular Cloud. We quantify the spatial structure using the $\mathcal{Q}$-parameter and find that both IC348 and NGC1333 are smooth and centrally concentrated with $\mathcal{Q}$-parameters of 0.98 and 0. Read More


The $\sigma$ Orionis cluster is important for studying protoplanetary disk evolution, as its intermediate age ($\sim$3-5 Myr) is comparable to the median disk lifetime. We use ALMA to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of dust and gas in 92 protoplanetary disks around $\sigma$ Orionis members with $M_{\ast}\gtrsim0.1 M_{\odot}$. Read More


In this paper, we study the 3-body products (two single stars and a binary) of binary-binary (2+2) scattering interactions. This is done using a combination of analytic methods and numerical simulations of 2+2 scattering interactions, both in isolation and in a homogeneous background potential. We derive analytically a simple formula relating the angle between the velocity vectors of the two ejected single stars and the orbital separation of the remaining binary. Read More


With the discovery of the first transiting extrasolar planetary system back to 1999, a great number of projects started to hunt for other similar systems. Because of the incidence rate of such systems was unknown and the length of the shallow transit events is only a few percent of the orbital period, the goal was to monitor continuously as many stars as possible for at least a period of a few months. Small aperture, large field of view automated telescope systems have been installed with a parallel development of new data reduction and analysis methods, leading to better than 1% per data point precision for thousands of stars. Read More


Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. Read More


We present a hierarchical probabilistic model for improving geometric stellar distance estimates using color--magnitude information. This is achieved with a data driven model of the color--magnitude diagram, not relying on stellar models but instead on the relative abundances of stars in color--magnitude cells, which are inferred from very noisy magnitudes and parallaxes. While the resulting noise-deconvolved color--magnitude diagram can be useful for a range of applications, we focus on deriving improved stellar distance estimates relying on both parallax and photometric information. Read More


We determine instability domains on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram for rotating main sequence stars with masses 2-20 $\mathrm M_\odot$. The effects of the Coriolis force are treated in the framework of the traditional approximation. High-order g-modes with the harmonic degrees, $\ell$, up to 4 and mixed gravity-Rossby modes with $|m|$ up to 4 are considered. Read More


I discuss two related nonlinear mechanisms of tidal dissipation that require finite tidal deformations for their operation: the elliptical instability and the precessional instability. Both are likely to be important for the tidal evolution of short-period extrasolar planets. The elliptical instability is a fluid instability of elliptical streamlines, such as in tidally deformed non-synchronously rotating or non-circularly orbiting planets. Read More


We carried out multiwavelength (0.7-5 cm), multiepoch (1994-2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, seven of them identified as young stellar objects. Read More


We investigate the change in the orbital period of a binary system due to dynamical tides by taking into account the evolution of a main-sequence star. Three stars with masses of one, one and a half, and two solar masses are considered. A star of one solar mass at lifetimes $t=4. Read More


We address the physical nature of subdwarf A-type (sdA) stars and their possible link to extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs). The two classes of objects are confused in low-resolution spectroscopy. However, colors and proper motions indicate that sdA stars are cooler and more luminous, and thus larger in radius, than published ELM WDs. Read More


Context. Mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars are a class of slowly rotating chemically peculiar main-sequence late B-type stars. More than two-thirds of the HgMn stars are known to belong to spectroscopic binaries. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1The Weizmann Institute for Science, 2The Weizmann Institute for Science, 3The Weizmann Institute for Science, 4The Weizmann Institute for Science, 5Radboud University

Recent studies of the stellar population in the solar neighborhood (<20 pc) suggest that there are undetected white dwarfs (WDs) in multiple systems with main sequence companions. Detecting these hidden stars and obtaining a more complete census of nearby WDs is important for our understanding of binary and galactic evolution, as well as the study of explosive phenomena. In an attempt to uncover these hidden WDs, we present intermediate resolution spectroscopy over the wavelength range 3000-25000 \AA\ of 101 nearby M dwarfs (dMs), observed with the Very Large Telescope X-Shooter spectrograph. Read More


Over the last decade, thanks to the successful space missions launched to detect stellar pulsations, Asteroseismology has produced an extraordinary revolution in astrophysics, unveiling a wealth of results on structural properties of stars over a large part of the H-R diagram. Particularly impressive has been the development of Asteroseismology for stars showing solar-like oscillations, which are excited and intrinsically damped in stars with convective envelopes. Here I will review on the modern era of Asteroseismology with emphasis on results obtained for solar-like stars and discuss its potential for the advancement of stellar physics. Read More


Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used techniques for exoplanet atmosphere characterisation. This technique has been used to detect ionized and neutral species in exoplanet atmospheres by comparing the observed stellar lines in and out of transit. The centre-to-limb variation (CLV) of the stellar lines across the stellar disk is an important effect for transmission spectroscopy, since it results in a change of stellar line depth when the planet transits different parts of the stellar disk. Read More


We present MUSE observations of galaxy NGC 7469 from its Science Verification to show how powerful is the combination of high-resolution wide-field integral field spectroscopy with both photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) explosions. Using STARLIGHT and HIIexplorer, we selected all Hii regions of the galaxy and produced 2- dimensional maps of the H{\alpha} equivalent width, average luminosity-weighted stellar age, and oxygen abundance. We measured deprojected galactocentric distances for all Hii regions, and radial gradients for all above-mentioned parameters. Read More


Solar $\gamma$ ray events measured near Earth can last several hours during so-called Long Duration Gamma Ray Flares (LDGRFs). LDGRFs suggest that a particle-acceleration mechanism operates over many hours to produce energetic protons that stream continually towards the solar surface. Coronal shocks, driven by the expansion of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), could be the source of these energetic particles. Read More


Supermassive primordial stars are now suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z~6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Read More


New CCD photometry of seven successive years from 2010 is presented for the HW Vir-type eclipsing binary 2M 1533+3759. Using the $VI$ light curves together with the radial-velocity data given by For et al. (2010), we determined the absolute parameters of each component to be $M_1$ = 0. Read More


We investigate the nature of dissipative instability appearing in a prominence planar thread filled with partially ionised plasma in the incompressible limit. The importance of partial ionisation is investigated in terms of the ionisation factor and wavelength of waves propagating in the slab. To highlight the role of partial ionisation, we have constructed models describing various situations we can meet in solar prominence fine structure. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1CIERA/Northwestern, 2Caltech, 3UW e-Science Institute, 4Oskar Klein Centre - Physics, 5Weizmann Institute, 6IPAC, 7Caltech, 8IPAC, 9LBNL, 10Dark Cosmology Centre, 11Oskar Klein Centre - Physics, 12SDSU, 13JPL, 14Oskar Klein Centre - Astronomy, 15Oskar Klein Centre - Astronomy, 16Caltech

Modern wide-field, optical time-domain surveys must solve a basic optimization problem: maximize the number of transient discoveries or minimize the follow-up needed for the new discoveries. Here, we describe the Color Me Intrigued experiment, the first from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to search for transients simultaneously in the $g_\mathrm{PTF}$- and $R_\mathrm{PTF}$-bands. During the course of this experiment we discovered iPTF$\,$16fnm, a new member of the 02cx-like subclass of type Ia supernovae (SNe). Read More


We recently used near-infrared spectroscopy to improve the characterization of 76 low-mass stars around which K2 had detected 79 candidate transiting planets. Thirty of these worlds were new discoveries that have not previously been published. We calculate the false positive probabilities that the transit-like signals are actually caused by non-planetary astrophysical phenomena and reject five new transit-like events and three previously reported events as false positives. Read More


According to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the encounter of two collisional magnetized plasmas at high velocity gives rise to shock waves. Investigations conducted so far have found that the same conclusion still holds in the case of collisionless plasmas. For the case of a flow-aligned field, MHD stipulates that the field and the fluid are disconnected, so that the shock produced is independent of the field. Read More


Linear polarization can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases withthe degree of oblateness, which is inversely proportional to the surface gravity. We aimed to test the existence of optical linear polarization in a sample of bright young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 and L2, observable from the Calar Alto Observatory, and cataloged previously as low gravity objects using spectroscopy. Read More


Context. The structure of the inner parts of Be star disks (20 stellar radii) is well explained by the viscous decretion disk (VDD) model, which is able to reproduce the observable properties of most of the objects studied so far. The outer parts, on the ther hand, are not observationally well-explored, as they are observable only at radio wavelengths. Read More


The robust detection of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares has been the topic of recent debate. In light of this, we have adapted a method described by Vaughan (2005) to aid with the search for QPPs in flare time series data. The method identifies statistically significant periodic signals in power spectra, and properly accounts for red noise as well as the uncertainties associated with the data. Read More


We revisit the viscous decretion disk (VDD) model of the classical Be star $\beta$ CMi as presented by \citet{klement} using an updated version of the radiative transfer code {\ttfamily HDUST}. A software bug was causing the mean intensities to be slightly underestimated in the equatorial region of the disk, with small but detectable effects on the disk temperature and emergent spectrum. The new model fixes an unexplained feature of the original model, which was able to reproduce the observations only when considering a dual density behavior: a steep density fall-off in the very inner parts of the disk followed by a shallower density profile. Read More


Imaging studies with the VLA have revealed HI emission associated with the extended circumstellar shells of red giants. We analyse the spectral map obtained on Y CVn, a J-type carbon star on the AGB. The HI line profiles can be interpreted with a model of a detached shell resulting from the interaction of a stellar outflow with the local interstellar medium. Read More


The discovery of K I 7699{\AA} line strength variations during the 1982-1984 eclipse of {\epsilon} Aurigae is described. The equivalent widths and radial velocities of the K I 7699{\AA} line derived from spectra obtained during 1981 November to 1983 July with the 2.1-meter Otto Struve reflector telescope of the McDonald observatory are presented. Read More


We have Fourier analyzed 941 K2 light curves of likely members of Praesepe, measuring periods for 86% and increasing the number of rotation periods (P) by nearly a factor of four. The distribution of P vs. (V-K), a mass proxy, has three different regimes: (V-K)<1. Read More


We present Atacama Large Millimeter/ sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of V883 Ori, an FU Ori object. We describe the molecular outflow and envelope of the system based on the $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO emissions, which together trace a bipolar molecular outflow. The C$^{18}$O emission traces the rotational motion of the circumstellar disk. Read More


We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. Read More


Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the cosmic background temperature. Our new CO 1-0 data reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of this ultra-cold outflow, out to $\gtrsim120,000$ AU. We find that in the ultra-cold outflow, the mass-loss rate (dM/dt) increases with radius, similar to its expansion velocity ($V$) - taking $V\propto r$, we find $dM/dt \propto r^{0. Read More


In this work we quantify the performance of $LSST$ on the detection of eclipsing binaries. We use $Kepler$ observed binaries to create a large sample of simulated pseudo-$LSST$ binary light curves. From these light curves, we attempt to recover the known binary signal. Read More