Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Publications (50)

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Solar and Stellar Astrophysics Publications

Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. Read More


Relying on multifractal behavior of pulsar timing residuals ({\it PTR}s), we examine the capability of Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) and Multifractal Detrending Moving Average Analysis (MF-DMA) modified by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Adaptive Detrending (AD), to detect footprint of gravitational waves (GWs) superimposed on {\it PTR}s. Mentioned methods enable us to clarify the type of GWs which is related to the value of Hurst exponent. We introduce three strategies based on generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum, to determine the dimensionless amplitude of GWs. Read More


We present examples of the both types of bursts and show their similarities and differences. Then for chains of type I bursts a similar model as for drifting pulsation structures (DPSs) is proposed. We show that similarly as in the DPS, the chains of type I bursts can be generated by the fragmented magnetic reconnection associated with plasmoids interactions. Read More


Be/X-ray binaries are the most populous class of High Mass X-ray Binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through optical spectroscopical dedicated observations. We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Read More


The discovery of Proxima b, a terrestrial temperate planet, presents the opportunity of studying a potentially habitable world in optimal conditions. A key aspect to model its habitability is to understand the radiation environment of the planet in the full spectral domain. We characterize the X-rays to mid-IR radiative properties of Proxima with the goal of providing the top-of-atmosphere fluxes on the planet. Read More


Fragmentation of filaments into dense cores is thought to be an important step in forming stars. The bar-mode instability of spherically collapsing cores found in previous linear analysis invokes a possibility of re-fragmentation of the cores due to their ellipsoidal (prolate or oblate) deformation. To investigate this possibility, here we perform three-dimensional self-gravitational hydrodynamics simulations that follow all the way from filament fragmentation to subsequent core collapse. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Technion, Israel, 2Technion, Israel, 3Technion, Israel

We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of energy deposition into the envelope of a red giant star as a result of the merger of two close main sequence stars or brown dwarfs, and show that the outcome is a highly non-spherical outflow. Such a violent interaction of a triple stellar system can explain the formation of `messy', i.e. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1University of Michigan, USA, 2University of Michigan, USA, 3Carnegie Mellon University, USA, 4University of Michigan, USA

We report new spectroscopic observations obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System of 308 red giants (RGs) located in two fields near the photometric center of the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud. This sample consists of 131 stars observed in previous studies (in one field) and 177 newly-observed stars (in the second field) selected specifically to more reliably establish the metallicity and age distributions of the bar. For each star, we measure its heliocentric line-of-sight velocity, surface gravity and metallicity from its high-resolution spectrum (effective temperatures come from photometric colors). Read More


We investigate the properties of magnetized stars in the propeller regime using axisymmetric numerical simulations. We modelled the propeller regime for stars with realistically large magnetospheres (5-7 stellar radii), so that our results could be applied to different types of magnetized stars, including Classical T Tauri stars, cataclysmic variables, and accreting millisecond pulsars. A wide range of propeller strengths has been studied, from very strong propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates much more rapidly than the inner disk) to very weak propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates only slightly faster than the inner disc. Read More


Light curve modeling for the newly discovered system 1SWASP J092328.76+435044 was carried out by using a new BVR complete light curves. A spotted model was applied to treat the asymmetry of the light curves. Read More


The star EPIC 210894022 has been identified from a light curve acquired through the K2 space mission as possibly orbited by a transiting planet. Our aim is to confirm the planetary nature of the object and derive its fundamental parameters. We combine the K2 photometry with reconnaissance spectroscopy and radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained using three separate telescope and spectrograph combinations. Read More


We measured phosphorus abundances in 22 FGK dwarfs and giants that span --0.55 $<$ [Fe/H] $<$ 0.2 using spectra obtained with the Phoenix high resolution infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall 4m telescope, the Gemini South Telescope, and the Arcturus spectral atlas. Read More


Tight binaries of helium white dwarfs (He WDs) orbiting millisecond pulsars (MSPs) will eventually "merge" due to gravitational damping of the orbit. The outcome has been predicted to be the production of long-lived ultra-compact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), in which the WD transfers material to the accreting neutron star (NS). Here we present complete numerical computations, for the first time, of such stable mass transfer from a He WD to a NS. Read More


The formation process of massive stars is still poorly understood. Massive young stellar objects (mYSOs) are deeply embedded in their parental clouds, they are rare and thus typically distant, and their reddened spectra usually preclude the determination of their photospheric parameters. M17 is one of the best studied HII regions in the sky, is relatively nearby, and hosts a young stellar population. Read More


SS~433 is an X-ray binary and the source of sub-relativistic, precessing, baryonic jets. We present high-resolution spectrograms of SS 433 in the infrared H and K bands. The spectrum is dominated by hydrogen and helium emission lines. Read More


The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modelling their H$\alpha$ emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3. Read More


We discuss how contemporary multiwavelength observations of young OB-dominated clusters address long-standing astrophysical questions: Do clusters form rapidly or slowly with an age spread? When do clusters expand and disperse to constitute the field star population? Do rich clusters form by amalgamation of smaller subclusters? What is the pattern and duration of cluster formation in massive star forming regions (MSFRs)? Past observational difficulties in obtaining good stellar censuses of MSFRs have been alleviated in recent studies that combine X-ray and infrared surveys to obtain rich, though still incomplete, censuses of young stars in MSFRs. We describe here one of these efforts, the MYStIX project, that produced a catalog of 31,784 probable members of 20 MSFRs. We find that age spread within clusters are real in the sense that the stars in the core formed after the cluster halo. Read More


To properly describe heating in weakly collisional turbulent plasmas such as the solar wind, inter-particle collisions should be taken into account. Collisions can convert ordered energy into heat by means of irreversible relaxation towards the thermal equilibrium. Recently, Pezzi et al. Read More


We analyze sunspots rotation and magnetic transients in NOAA AR 11429 during two X-class (X5.4 and X1.3) flares using the data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the \emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory}. Read More


The paucity of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) known to date has severely hampered their potential to investigate the stellar population of the Galactic Centre and the Galactic Potential. The first Gaia data release gives an opportunity to increase the current sample. The challenge is of course the disparity between the expected number of hypervelocity stars and that of bound background stars (around 1 in $10^6$). Read More


Recurrence networks and the associated statistical measures have become important tools in the analysis of time series data. In this work, we test how effective the recurrence network measures are in analyzing real world data involving two main types of noise, white noise and colored noise. We use two prominent network measures as discriminating statistic for hypothesis testing using surrogate data for a specific null hypothesis that the data is derived from a linear stochastic process. Read More


Spicules and other solar jets such as bright points and fibrils generally show a parabolic height-time relationship, which means that each spicule has a constant deceleration. However the deceleration is only constant for a particular spicule and varies widely from one spicule or jet to another. Nonetheless the careful observations of a number of researchers show that the distance - time relationship is parabolic to a high level of precision. Read More


We present the highest spatial resolution ALMA observations to date of the Class I protostar WL 17 in the $\rho$ Ophiuchus L1688 molecular cloud complex, which show that it has a 12 AU hole in the center of its disk. We consider whether WL 17 is actually a Class II disk being extincted by foreground material, but find that such models do not provide a good fit to the broadband SED and also require such high extinction that it would presumably arise from dense material close to the source such as a remnant envelope. Self-consistent models of a disk embedded in a rotating collapsing envelope can nicely reproduce both the ALMA 3 mm observations and the broadband SED of WL 17. Read More


We mine the Tycho-{\it Gaia} astrometric solution (TGAS) catalog for wide stellar binaries by matching positions, proper motions, and astrometric parallaxes. We separate genuine binaries from unassociated stellar pairs through a Bayesian formulation that includes correlated uncertainties in the proper motions and parallaxes. Rather than relying on assumptions about the structure of the Galaxy, we calculate Bayesian priors and likelihoods based on the nature of Keplerian orbits and the TGAS catalog itself. Read More


Context. Globular clusters host stars with chemical peculiarities. The associated helium enrichment is expected to affect the evolution of stars, in general, and of low-mass stars, and in particular the progenitors of white dwarfs (WDs). Read More


Evolutionary tracks from the zero age main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch were computed for stars with initial masses 2M_\odot <= Mzams <= 5M_\odot and metallicity Z=0.02. Some models of evolutionary sequences were used as initial conditions for equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection describing radial stellar pulsations. Read More


RSG stars are very massive cool evolved stars. Recently, a weak magnetic field was measured at the surface of $\alpha$ Ori and this is so far the only M-type supergiant for which a direct detection of a surface magnetic field has been reported. By extending the search for surface magnetic field in a sample of late-type supergiants, we want to determine whether the surface magnetic field detected on $\alpha$ Ori is a common feature among the M-type supergiants. Read More


Between the 13 and 16 of February 2011 a series of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from multiple polarity inversion lines within active region 11158. For seven of these CMEs we use the Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) flux rope model to determine the CME trajectory using both Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and coronagraph images. We then use the Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT) model for nonradial CME dynamics driven by magnetic forces, to simulate the deflection and rotation of the seven CMEs. Read More


We present a homogeneous set of accurate atmospheric parameters for a complete sample of very and extremely metal-poor stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, Fornax, Bo\"otes I, Ursa Major II, and Leo IV. We also deliver a Milky Way (MW) comparison sample of giant stars covering the -4 < [Fe/H] < -1.7 metallicity range. Read More


We present a new empirical model of total and spectral solar irradiance (TSI and SSI) variability entitled EMPirical Irradiance REconstruction (EMPIRE). As with existing empirical models, TSI and SSI variability is given by the linear combination of solar activity indices. In empirical models, UV SSI variability is usually determined by fitting the rotational variability in activity indices to that in measurements. Read More


We present the results of our investigation of the star-forming potential in the Perseus star-forming complex. We build on previous starless core, protostellar core, and young stellar object (YSO) catalogs from Spitzer, Herschel, and SCUBA observations in the literature. We place the cores and YSOs within seven star-forming clumps based on column densities greater than 5x10^21 cm^-2. Read More


In molecular outflows from forming low-mass protostars, most oxygen is expected to be locked up in water. However, Herschel observations have shown that typically an order of magnitude or more of the oxygen is still unaccounted for. To test if the oxygen is instead in atomic form, SOFIA-GREAT observed the R1 position of the bright molecular outflow from NGC1333-IRAS4A. Read More


Recent results by Martin et al. (2014) showed in 3D SPH simulations that tilted discs in binary systems can be unstable to the development of global, damped Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations in which the discs exchange tilt for eccentricity. We investigate the linear stability of KL modes for tilted inviscid discs under the approximations that the disc eccentricity is small and the disc remains flat. Read More


Magnetic fields in the sun's outer atmosphere -- the corona -- control both solar-wind acceleration and the dynamics of solar eruptions. We present the first clear observational evidence of coronal magnetic nulls in off-limb linearly polarized observations of pseudostreamers, taken by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) telescope. These nulls represent regions where magnetic reconnection is likely to act as a catalyst for solar activity. Read More


We have constructed the most-comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster (GC). The core of $\omega$Cen has been imaged over 650 times through WFC3's UVIS and IR channels for the purpose of detector calibration. There exist from 4 to over 60 exposures through each of 26 filters, stretching continuously from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Read More


We analyzed spectral and imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard SDO. We report observations of small flaring loops in the penumbra of a large sunspot on July 19, 2013. Our main event consisted of a loop spanning ~ 15 arcsec, from the umbral-penumbral boundary to an opposite polarity region outside the penumbra. Read More


Gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers provide a new probe of massive-star evolution and the formation channels of binary compact objects. By coupling the growing sample of binary black hole systems with realistic population synthesis models, we can begin to constrain the parameters of such models and glean unprecedented knowledge of the inherent physical processes that underpin binary stellar evolution. In this study, we apply a hierarchical Bayesian model on mass measurements from a synthetic gravitational-wave sample to constrain the physical prescriptions in population models and the relative fractions of systems generated from various channels. Read More


The transit method, employed by MOST, Kepler, and various ground-based surveys has enabled the characterization of extrasolar planets to unprecedented precision. These results are precise enough to begin to measure planet atmosphere composition, planetary oblateness, star spots, and other phenomena at the level of a few hundred parts-per-million. However, these results depend on our understanding of stellar limb darkening, that is, the intensity distribution across the stellar disk that is sequentially blocked as the planet transits. Read More


We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, collision strengths, and effective collision strengths for transitions among the lowest 25 levels of the n <= 5 configurations of He~II. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) and Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 25 levels. Read More


We briefly present the spectroscopic evolution of the recent outburst of the classical nova V1369 Cen, and the presence of a narrow absorption line identified as due to the resonance of neutral lithium at 6708 \AA. We also discuss the consequences for the chemical evolution of lithium in the Galaxy. Read More


A spectroscopic analysis has been undertaken for the B-type multiple systems (excluding those with supergiant primaries) in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). Projected rotational velocities, $v$sin$i$, for the primaries have been estimated using a Fourier Transform technique and confirmed by fitting rotationally broadened profiles. A subset of 33 systems with $v$sin$i$$\leq$ 80 km/s have been analysed using a TLUSTY grid of model atmospheres to estimate stellar parameters and surface abundances for the primaries. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 2Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 3Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 4Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 5Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 6Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 7Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 8Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 9Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 10Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 11Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, 12Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia

Regular observations of active processes in the solar atmosphere have been started using the first stage of the multiwave Siberian Radioheliograph (SRH), a T-shaped 48-antenna array with a 4-8 GHz operating frequency range and a 10 MHz instantaneous receiving band. Antennas are mounted on the central antenna posts of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope. The maximum baseline is 107. Read More


According to recent observations relative number of flare stars does not change very much from cool dwarfs to hot A stars. Flare energies are strongly correlated with stellar luminosity and radius. Whence it follows that the typical magnetic field associated with a flare is several tens gauss and the typical flare loop length-scales are parts of the stellar radius. Read More


We discuss two recent papers very critical of our Group Sunspot Number Series (Svalgaard & Schatten [2016]). Unfortunately, we cannot support any of the concerns they raise. We first show that almost always there is simple proportionality between the counts of different observers and that taking the small, occasional non-linearities into account makes very little difference. Read More


Galactic star formation scaling relations show increased scatter from kpc to sub-kpc scales. Investigating this scatter may hold important clues to how the star formation process evolves in time and space. Here, we combine different molecular gas tracers, different star formation indicators probing distinct populations of massive stars, and knowledge on the evolutionary state of each star forming region to derive star formation properties of $\sim$150 star forming complexes over the face of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Read More


Recent photometric studies have revealed that surface spots that produce flux variations are present on virtually all L and T dwarfs. Their likely magnetic or dusty nature has been a much-debated problem, the resolution to which has been hindered by paucity of diagnostic multi-wavelength observations. To test for a correlation between magnetic activity and photometric variability, we searched for H$\alpha$ emission among eight L3$-$T2 ultra-cool dwarfs with extensive previous photometric monitoring, some of which are known to be variable at 3. Read More


The first results of radiative transfer calculations on decretion discs of binary Be stars are presented. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics code computes the structure of Be discs in coplanar circular binary systems for a range of orbital and disc parameters. The resulting disc configuration is fed into a Monte Carlo code, which calculates the radiative transfer along the line of sight for various observational coordinates. Read More


Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. Read More