Physics - Superconductivity Publications (50)

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Physics - Superconductivity Publications

The lack of energy dissipation and abrupt electrical phase transition of superconductors favorite them for nanoscale technologies, including radiation detectors, and quantum technologies. Moreover, understanding the nanoscale behavior of superconductivity is significant for revealing the onset of collective-electron behavior in nature. Nevertheless, the limited number of accessible superconductors restricts availability of the superconducting properties, encumbering the realization of their potential. Read More


The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition which is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, $c_{\rm p}$, measurements. Read More


Study of the Abrikosov vortex motion in superconductors based on time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations reveals an opportunity to locally detect the values of the Aharonov-Bohm type curl-less vector potentials. Read More


We report time and angle resolved spectroscopic measurements in optimally doped Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{8+\delta}$. The spectral function is monitored as a function of temperature, photoexcitation density and delay time from the pump pulse. According to our data, the superconducting gap becomes slightly stiffer when moving off the nodal direction. Read More


We study the effect of proton irradiation on Ba(Fe$_{0.96}$Co$_{0.04}$)$_2$As$_2$ superconducting single crystals from combined magnetisation and magnetoresistivity measurements. Read More


The microscopic mechanism and the experimental identification of it in unconventional superconductors is one of the most vexing problems of contemporary condensed matter physics. We show that Raman spectroscopy provides a new avenue for this quest by probing the structure of the pairing interaction. As a prototypical example, we study the doping dependence of the Raman spectra in different symmetry channels in the s-wave superconductor ${\rm Ba_{1-x}K_xFe_2As_2}$ for $0. Read More


We investigate theoretically globally nonuniform configurations of vortices in clean superconductors subjected to a macroscopic external force field. Our analytical and numerical simulation results demonstrate that, for suitable choices of the force field, conformal vortex crystals emerge naturally in a way as to minimize the total energy of the system. Despite being globally inhomogeneous, these ordered structures preserve the topologic order and can be mathematically mapped into a triangular lattice via a conformal transformation. Read More


We analysed the flux-flow region of isofield magneto resistivity data obtained on three crystals of BaFe$_{2-x}$Ni$_x$As$_2$ with $T_c$$\sim$20 K for three different geometries relative to the angle formed between the applied magnetic field and the c-axis of the crystals. The field dependent activation energy, $U_0$, was obtained from the TAFF and modified vortex-glass models, which were compared with the values of $U_0$ obtained from flux-creep available in the literature. We observed that the $U_0$ obtained from the TAFF model show deviations among the different crystals, while the correspondent glass lines obtained from the vortex glass model are virtually coincident. Read More


We study the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a Josephson junction (JJ) coupled to an external nanomagnet driven by a time dependent magnetic field both without and in the presence of an external AC drive. We provide an analytic solution for the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equations governing the coupled JJ-nanomagnet system in the presence of a magnetic field with arbitrary time-dependence oriented along the easy axis of the nanomagnet's magnetization and in the limit of weak dimensionless coupling $\epsilon_0$ between the JJ and the nanomagnet. We show the existence of Shapiro-like steps in the I-V characteristics of the JJ for a constant or periodically varying magnetic field and explore the effect of rotation of the magnetic field and the presence of an external AC drive on these steps. Read More


Device-based tunnel spectroscopy of superconductors was first performed by Giaever, whose seminal work provided clear evidence for the spectral gap in the density of states (DOS) predicted by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. Since then, tunnel-barrier-based heterostructure devices have revealed myriad physical phenomena and found a range of applications. Most of these devices rely on a limited number of oxides, which form high-quality insulating, non-magnetic barriers. Read More


We report the effects of heavy-ion irradiation on FeSe single crystals by irradiating Uranium up to a dose equivalent matching field of $B_\phi$ = 16 T. Almost continuous columnar defects along the $c$-axis with a diameter $\sim$10 nm are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. $T_c$ is found to be suppressed by introducing columnar defects at a rate of d$T_c$/d$B_\phi$ $\sim$ -0. Read More


We prepared superconducting and non-superconducting FeSe films on SrTiO3(001) substrates (FeSe/STO) and investigated the superconducting transition induced by charge transfer between organic molecules and FeSe layers by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. At low coverage, donor- and acceptor-type molecules adsorbed preferentially on the non-superconducting and superconducting FeSe layers, respectively. Superconductivity was induced by donor molecules on non-superconducting FeSe layer, while the superconductivity was suppressed near acceptor molecules. Read More


We study spin chain analogs of the two-dimensional Kitaev honeycomb lattice model, which allows us to relate Anderson resonating valence bond states with superconductivity in an exact manner. In addition to their connection with p-wave superconductivity, such chains can be used for topological quantum computation as a result of the emergent Z_2 symmetry, as we show using Majorana fermions. We then focus on the problem of two coupled chains (ladders) : using Majorana fermions, we derive an analytical expression for the energy spectrum in the general case, which allows us to compare the square ladder and the honeycomb ribbon. Read More


A non-equilibrium theory of optical conductivity of dirty-limit superconductors and commensurate charge density wave is presented. We discuss the current response to different experimentally relevant light-field probe pulses and show that a single frequency definition of the optical conductivity $\sigma(\omega)\equiv j(\omega)/E(\omega)$ is difficult to interpret out of the adiabatic limit. We identify characteristic time domain signatures distinguishing between superconducting, normal metal and charge density wave states. Read More


CaFe2As2 exhibits collapsed tetragonal (cT) structure and varied exotic behavior under pressure at low temperatures that led to debate on linking the structural changes to its exceptional electronic properties like superconductivity, magnetism, etc. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of CaFe2As2 forming in different structures employing density functional theory. The results indicate better stability of the cT phase with enhancement in hybridization induced effects and shift of the energy bands towards lower energies. Read More


Spin fluctuations are a leading candidate for the pairing mechanism in high temperature superconductors, supported by the common appearance of a distinct resonance in the spin susceptibility across the cuprates, iron-based superconductors and many heavy fermion materials1. The information we have about the spin resonance comes almost exclusively from neutron scattering. Here we demonstrate that by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we can characterize the spin resonance in real space. Read More


Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions with a Coulomb charging energy comparable to the Josephson coupling energy are explored within the context of a model previously considered by Geigenm\"uller and Sch\"on that includes Zener tunneling and treats quasiparticle tunneling as an explicit shot-noise process. The dynamics of the junction quasicharge are investigated numerically using both Monte Carlo and ensemble approaches to calculate voltage--current characteristics in the presence of microwaves. We examine in detail the origin of harmonic and subharmonic Bloch steps at dc biases $I=(n/m)2ef$ induced by microwaves of frequency $f$ and consider the optimum parameters for the observation of harmonic ($m=1$) steps. Read More


We study the ultrafast Kerr effect and high-harmonic generation in type-II superconductors by formulating a new model for a time-varying electromagnetic pulse normally incident on a thin-film superconductor. It is found that type-II superconductors exhibit exceptionally large $\chi^{(3)}$ due to the progressive destruction of Cooper pairs, and display high-harmonic generation at low incident intensities, and the highest nonlinear susceptibility of all known materials in the THz regime. Our theory opens up new avenues for accessible analytical and numerical studies of the ultrafast dynamics of superconductors. Read More


We use the Nernst effect to delineate the boundary of the pseudogap phase in the temperature-doping phase diagram of cuprate superconductors. New data for the Nernst coefficient $\nu(T)$ of YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{y}$ (YBCO), La$_{1.8-x}$Eu$_{0. Read More


We study the phase transition between a trivial and a time-reversal-invariant topological supercon- ductor. By analyzing the interplay of symmetry, topology and energetics, we show that for a generic normal state band structure, the phase transition occurs via extended intermediate phases in which even- and odd-parity pairing components coexist. For inversion symmetric systems, the coexistence phase spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry. Read More


Evidence for intra-unit-cell (IUC) magnetic order in the pseudogap region of high-$T_c$ cuprates below a temperature $T^\ast$ is found in several studies, but NMR and $\mu$SR experiments do not observe the expected static local magnetic fields. It has been noted, however, that such fields could be averaged by fluctuations. Our measurements of muon spin relaxation rates in single crystals of YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_y$ reveal magnetic fluctuations of the expected order of magnitude that exhibit critical slowing down at $T^\ast$. Read More


Electron-doped Eu(Fe$_{0.93}$Rh$_{0.07}$)$_2$As$_2$ has been systematically studied by high pressure investigations of the magnetic and electrical transport properties, in order to unravel the complex interplay of superconductivity and magnetism. Read More


The elastic, thermodynamic, electronic, and optical properties of recently discovered and potentially technologically important transition metal boride NbRuB, have been investigated using the density functional formalism. Both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) were used for geometrical optimization and for estimation of various elastic moduli and constants. The optical properties of NbRuB have been studied for the first time with different photon polarizations. Read More


The search for new superconducting compounds with higher critical temperatures $T_{c}^{\prime}$s has long been the very heart of scientific research on superconductivity. It took 75 years for scientists to push the $T_{c}$ above liquid nitrogen boiling temperature since the discovery of superconductivity. So far, the record high $T_{c}$ of about 130 K at atmosphere pressure was reported in some multilayer Hg(Tl)-Ba-Ca-Cu-O compounds. Read More


We study vortex lattices (VLs) in superconducting weak-pinning platelet-like crystals of $\beta$-Bi$_{2}$Pd in tilted fields with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope. We show that vortices exit the sample perpendicular to the surface and are thus bent beneath the surface. The structure and orientation of tilted VL in the bulk are, for large tilt angles, strongly affected by Coulomb-type intervortex repulsion at the surface due to stray fields. Read More


We optimized the substrate temperature (Ts) and phosphorus concentration (x) of BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 films on practical metal-tape substrates for pulsed laser deposition from the viewpoints of crystallinity, superconductor critical temperature (Tc), and critical current density (Jc). It was found that the optimum Ts and x values are 1050 degree C and x = 0.28, respectively. Read More


Many recent studies show that superconductivity not only exists in atomically thin monolayers but can exhibit enhanced properties such as higher transition temperature and stronger critical field. Nevertheless, besides being air unstable, weak tunability in these intrinsically metallic monolayers has posed a severe limitation in exploring monolayer superconductivity, hence hindering possible applications in electronic devices. Using field effect gating, we prepared monolayer superconductivity in easily accessible CVD-grown WS2, a typical ambient stable semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD). Read More


Non-Fermi liquid (NFL) state represents an ensemble of incoherent quantum fluids arising from the coupling between electrons and massless (critical) excitations, and is separated by phase boundary from the quasiparticle behavior in the Fermi-liquid (FL) theory. Here we show that such sharp distinction breaks down in cuprates, and that both NFL and FL states coexists in different momentum (k) regions at all dopings. Their coexistence originates from the strong anisotropy in the many-body self-energy, arising from dispersive density-density fluctuations. Read More


Left-handed materials usually are realized in artificial subwavelength structures. Here we show that some anisotropic superconductors, such as $\mathrm{Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_{8+\delta}}$, $\mathrm{YBa_2Cu_xO_y}$ and $\mathrm{La_{2-x}Sr_xCuO_4}$, are intrinsic left-handed materials. The condition is that the plasma frequency in the $c$ axis, $\omega_c$, and in the $ab$ plane, $\omega_{ab}$, and the operating frequency, $\omega$, satisfy $\omega_c<\omega<\omega_{ab}$. Read More


In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, electron scattering off impurities depends on both spin and orbital angular momentum of electrons -- spin-orbit scattering. Although some transport properties are subject to spin-orbit scattering, experimental techniques directly accessible to this effect are limited. Here we show that a signature of spin-orbit scattering manifests itself in quasiparticle interference (QPI) imaged by spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. Read More


In this paper, we will construct the coherent states for a Dirac electron in graphene placed in a constant homogeneous magnetic field which is orthogonal to the graphene surface. First of all, we will identify the appropriate annihilation and creation operators. Then, we will derive the coherent states as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, with complex eigenvalues. Read More


Inelastic neutron scattering experiments on Sr2RuO4 determine the spectral weight of the nesting induced magnetic fluctuations across the superconducting transition. There is no observable change at the superconducting transition down to an energy of ~0.35 meV, which is well below the 2 delta values reported in several tunneling experiments. Read More


We study the angular dependence of the dissipation in the superconducting state of FeSe and Fe(Se$_\text{1-x}$Te$_\text{x}$) through electrical transport measurements, using crystalline intergrown materials. We reveal the key role of the inclusions of the non superconducting magnetic phase Fe$_\text{1-y}$(Se$_\text{1-x}$Te$_\text{x}$), growing into the Fe(Se$_\text{1-x}$Te$_\text{x}$) pure $\beta$-phase, in the development of a correlated defect structure. The matching of both atomic structures defines the growth habit of the crystalline material as well as the correlated planar defects orientation. Read More


Optimization of the fidelity of control operations is of critical importance in the pursuit of fault tolerant quantum computation. We apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate that a single drive via the cavity in circuit quantum electrodynamics can implement a high fidelity two-qubit all-microwave gate that directly entangles the qubits via the mutual qubit-cavity couplings. This is performed by driving at one of the qubits' frequencies which generates a conditional two-qubit gate, but will also generate other spurious interactions. Read More


Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with mass production. Here we present our research using graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. Read More


We study a mechanical resonator made of aluminum near the normal to super conductivity phase transition. A sharp drop in the rate of mechanical damping is observed below the critical temperature. The experimental results are compared with predictions based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer theory of superconductivity and a fair agreement is obtained. Read More


Organic compounds are promising candidates to exhibit high temperature or room temperature superconductivity. However, the critical temperatures of organic superconductors are bounded to 38 K. By doping potassium into $p$-terphenyl consisting of C and H elements with three phenyl rings connected by single C-C bond in para position, we find that this material can have a superconducting phase with the critical temperature of 43 K. Read More


Motivated by the exploration of bipolaronic superconductivity in conducting polymers, we examine such a possibility in the starting member of $p$-oligophenyls $-$ $p$-terphenyl with three phenyl rings, belonging to the family of conducting polymer polyparaphenylene. The formation of bipolarons is identified from Raman scattering measurements. Both the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that $p$-terphenyl is a type-II superconductor with a critical temperature of 7. Read More


Pressure-induced superconductivity and structural phase transitions in phosphorous (P) are studied by resistivity measurements under pressures up to 170 GPa and fully $ab-initio$ crystal structure and superconductivity calculations up to 350 GPa. Two distinct superconducting transition temperature (T$_{c}$) vs. pressure ($P$) trends at low pressure have been reported more than 30 years ago, and for the first time we are able to reproduce them and devise a consistent explanation founded on thermodynamically metastable phases of black-phosphorous. Read More


Recent experiments[1] have shown that lithium presents an extremely anomalous isotope effect in the 15-25 GPa pressure range. In this article we have calculated the anharmonic phonon dispersion of $\mathrm{^6Li}$ and $\mathrm{^7Li}$ under pressure, their superconducting transition temperatures, and the associated isotope effect. We have found a huge anharmonic renormalization of a transverse acoustic soft mode along $\Gamma$K in the fcc phase, the expected structure at the pressure range of interest. Read More


Coherent operation of gate-voltage-controlled hybrid transmon qubits (gatemons) based on semiconductor nanowires was recently demonstrated. Here we experimentally investigate the anharmonicity in epitaxial InAs-Al Josephson junctions, a key parameter for their use as a qubit. Anharmonicity is found to be reduced by roughly a factor of two compared to conventional metallic junctions, and dependent on gate voltage. Read More


Bulk superconductors are used in both many applications and material characterization experiments, being the bulk shape of rectangular prism very frequent. However the magnetization currents are still mostly unknown for this kind of three dimensional (3D) shape, specially below the saturation magnetic field. Knowledge of the magnetization currents in this kind of samples is needed to interpret the measurements and the development of bulk materials for applications. Read More


Superconducting electronic devices have re-emerged as contenders for both classical and quantum computing due to their fast operation speeds, low dissipation and long coherence times. An ultimate demonstration of coherence is lasing. We use one of the fundamental aspects of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect, to demonstrate a laser made from a Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multi-mode superconducting cavity. Read More


We theoretically investigate the temperature-to-phase conversion (TPC) process occurring in dc superconducting quantum interferometers based on superconductor--normal metal--superconductor (SNS) mesoscopic Josephson junctions. In particular, we predict the temperature-driven rearrangement of the phase gradients in the interferometer under the fixed constraints of fluxoid quantization and supercurrent conservation. This allows sizeable phase variations across the junctions for suitable structure parameters and temperatures. Read More


The 11-type Fe-chalcogenides belong to the family of Fe-based superconductors. In these compounds, the interstitial Fe is known to strongly influence the magnetic and superconducting properties. Here we present the chemical homogeneity range of ternary compounds Fe$_{1+y}$Te$_{1-x}$Se$_x$ based on powder x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and magnetization measurements. Read More


Two-mode squeezing is a fascinating example of quantum entanglement manifested in cross-correlations of incompatible observables between two subsystems. At the same time, these subsystems themselves may contain no quantum signatures in their self-correlations. These properties make two-mode squeezed (TMS) states an ideal resource for applications in quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum illumination. Read More


We show that a properly dc-biased Josephson junction in series with two microwave resonators of different frequencies emits photon pairs in the resonators. By measuring auto- and inter-correlations of the power leaking out of the resonators, we demonstrate two-mode amplitude squeezing below the classical limit. This non-classical microwave light emission is found to be in quantitative agreement with our theoretical predictions, up to an emission rate of 2 billion photon pairs per second. Read More


We present muon spin rotation ($\mu$SR) measurements on the noncentrosymmetric superconductor PbTaSe$_2$. From measurements in an applied transverse field between $H_{c1}$ and $H_{c2}$, we extract the superfluid density as a function of temperature in the vortex state. This data can be fit with a fully gapped two-band model, consistent with previous evidence from ARPES, thermal conductivity, and resistivity. Read More


Recently, a test for a sign-changing gap function in a candidate multiband unconventional superconductor involving quasiparticle interference data was proposed. The test was based on the antisymmetric, Fourier transformed conductance maps integrated over a range of momenta $\bf q$ corresponding to interband processes, which was argued to display a particular resonant form, provided the gaps changed sign between the Fermi surface sheets connected by $\bf q$. The calculation was performed for a single impurity, however, raising the question of how robust this measure is as a test of sign-changing pairing in a realistic system with many impurities. Read More


We construct a variational wave function for the ground state of weakly interacting bosons that gives a lower energy than the mean-field Girardeau-Arnowitt (or Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) theory. This improvement is brought about by incorporating the dynamical 3/2-body processes where one of two colliding non-condensed particles drops into the condensate and vice versa. The processes are also shown to transform the one-particle excitation spectrum into a bubbling mode with a finite lifetime even in the long-wavelength limit. Read More