Physics - Superconductivity Publications (50)

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Physics - Superconductivity Publications

We calculate the energy of threshold fluctuation $\delta F_{thr}$ which triggers the transition of superconducting current-carrying bridge to resistive state. We find that dependence of $\delta F_{thr}$ on current $I$ is sensitive to presence of defects in the bridge (such as the inhomogeneity of local critical temperature $T_c$, variation of thickness/width or mean path length) and changes from $\delta F_{thr}\propto(1-I/I_c)^{5/4}$, which is valid for defectless bridge with length $L \gg \xi$ ($\xi$ is a coherence length), to $\propto(1-I/I_c)^{3/2}$, typical for a Josephson junction or short bridge with $L \ll \xi$ (here $I_c$ is the critical current of the bridge or Josephson junction). We also show that the relation $\delta F_{thr}(I=0)\propto I_c\hbar/e$ remains valid in broad temperature range for long and short bridges and both in dirty and clean limits. Read More


We report on the electronic transport and the impact of spin-filtering in mesa-structures made of epitaxial thin films of cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox(YBCO) and the manganite LaMnO3 (LMO) interlayer with the Au/Nb counterelectrode. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements of heterostructure Au/LMO/YBCO shows ferromagnetic state at temperatures below 150 K as in the case of reference LMO film grown on the neodymium gallate substrate. The heights of the tunneling barrier evaluated from resistive characteristics of mesa-structures at different thickness of interlayer showed an exponential decrease from 30 mV down to 5 mV with the increase of manganite interlayer thickness. Read More


We discuss the stability of highly degenerate zero-energy states tha appear at the surface of a nodal superconductor preserving time-reversal symmetry. The existence of such surface states is a direct consequence of the nontrivial topological numbers defined in the restricted Brillouin zones in the clean limit. In experiments, however, potential disorder is inevitable near the surface of a real superconductor, which may lift the high degeneracy at zero energy. Read More


We describe an approach, based on direct numerical solution of the Usadel equation, to finding stationary points of the free energy of superconducting nanorings. We consider both uniform (equilibrium) solutions and the critical droplets that mediate activated transitions between them. For the uniform solutions, we compute the critical current as a function of the temperature, thus obtaining a correction factor to Bardeen's 1962 interpolation formula. Read More


Superconducting circuit technologies have recently achieved quantum protocols involving closed feedback loops. Quantum artificial intelligence and quantum machine learning are emerging fields inside quantum technologies which may enable quantum devices to acquire information from the outer world and improve themselves via a learning process. Here we propose the implementation of basic protocols in quantum reinforcement learning, with superconducting circuits employing feedback-loop control. Read More


Thermal stability is an important parameter for the operation of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators. The rf power dissipated on the inner surface of the cavities is conducted to the helium bath cooling the outer cavity surface and the equilibrium temperature of the inner surface depends on the thermal resistance. In this manuscript, we present the results of direct measurements of thermal resistance on 1. Read More


We report the synthesis and characterization of the novel hydride LaFeSiH displaying superconductivity below 8.5 K. We find that this pnictogen-free compound is isostructural to LaFeAsO, with a similar low-temperature tetragonal to orthorhombic distortion. Read More


K$_x$Fe$_{2-y}$Se$_2$ exhibits an iron-vacancy ordering at $T_{\rm s} {\sim}270{\deg}$C and separates into two phases: a minor superconducting (iron-vacancy-disordered) phase and a major non-superconducting (iron-vacancy-ordered) phase. The microstructural and superconducting properties of this intermixture can be tuned by an appropriate control of the quenching process through $T_{\rm s}$. A faster quenching rate leads to a finer microstructure and a suppression of formation of the non-superconducting phase by up to 50%. Read More


We use transport and neutron scattering to study the electronic phase diagram and spin excitations of NaFe$_{1-x}$Cu$_x$As single crystals. Similar to Co- and Ni-doped NaFeAs, a bulk superconducting phase appears near $x\approx2\%$ with the suppression of stripe-type magnetic order in NaFeAs. Upon further increasing Cu concentration the system becomes insulating, culminating in an antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase near $x\approx 50\%$. Read More


In systems having an anisotropic electronic structure, such as the layered materials graphite, graphene and cuprates, impulsive light excitation can coherently stimulate specific bosonic modes, with exotic consequences for the emergent electronic properties. Here we show that the population of E$_{2g}$ phonons in the multiband superconductor MgB$_2$ can be selectively enhanced by femtosecond laser pulses, leading to a transient control of the number of carriers in the {\sigma}-electronic subsystem. The nonequilibrium evolution of the material optical constants is followed in the spectral region sensitive to both the a- and c-axis plasma frequencies and modeled theoretically, revealing the details of the $\sigma$-$\pi$ interband scattering mechanism in MgB$_2$. Read More


Majorana bound states (MBS) are well-established in the clean limit in wires of ferromagnetically aligned impurities deposited on conventional superconductors with finite spin-orbit coupling. Here we show that these MBS are very robust against disorder. By performing self-consistent calculations we find that the MBS are protected as long as the surrounding superconductor show no large signs of inhomogeneity. Read More


A general approach is formulated to describe spontaneous surface current distribution in a chiral p-wave superconductor. We use the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism in the Ricatti parametrization to describe various types of the superconductor surface, including arbitrary roughness and metallic behaviour of the surface layer. We calculate angle resolved distributions of the spontaneous surface currents and formulate the conditions of their observability. Read More


Recently it has been found that models with at least two lifetimes have to be considered when analyzing the angle resolved photoemission data in the nodal region of the cuprates [T. Kondo et al., Nat. Read More


One of the biggest puzzles concerning the cuprate high temperature superconductors is what determines the maximum transition temperature (Tc,max), which varies from less than 30 K to above 130 K in different compounds. Despite this dramatic variation, a robust trend is that within each family, the double-layer compound always has higher Tc,max than the single-layer counterpart. Here we use scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the electronic structure of four cuprate parent compounds belonging to two different families. Read More


High temperature (high-Tc) superconductors like cuprates have superior critical current properties in magnetic fields over other superconductors. However, superconducting wires for high-field-magnet applications are still dominated by low-Tc Nb3Sn due probably to cost and processing issues. The recent discovery of a second class of high-Tc materials, Fe-based superconductors, may provide another option for high-field-magnet wires. Read More


$^{57}$Fe M\"ossbauer spectra at different temperatures between $\sim 5$ K and $\sim 300$ K were measured on an oriented mosaic of single crystals of CaKFe$_4$As$_4$ . The data indicate that CaKFe$_4$As$_4$ is a well formed compound with narrow spectral lines, no traces of other, Fe - containing, secondary phases in the spectra and no static magnetic order. There is no discernible feature at the superconducting transition temperature in any of the hyperfine parameters. Read More


We have studied the temporal evolution of a quantum system subjected to strong dissipation at ultra-low temperatures where the system-bath interaction represents the leading energy scale. In this regime, theory predicts the time evolution of the system to follow a generalization of the classical Smoluchowski description, the quantum Smoluchowski equation, thus, exhibiting quantum Brownian motion characteristics. For this purpose, we have investigated the phase dynamics of a superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of high damping. Read More


Recently, compressed H$_2$S has been shown to become superconducting at 203 K under a pressure of 155 GPa. One might expect fluctuations to dominate at such temperatures. Using the magnetisation critical current, we determine the ground-state London penetration depth, $\lambda_0$=189 nm, and the superconducting energy gap, $\Delta_0$=27. Read More


The exact mechanism responsible for the tenfold enhancement of superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in a monolayer iron selenide (FeSe) on SrTiO3(STO) substrate over that of bulk FeSe, is an open issue. We present here a coordinated study of electrical transport and low temperature electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements on FeSe/STO films of various thicknesses. Our EELS mapping across the FeSe/STO interface shows direct evidence of band-bending caused by electrons transferred from STO to FeSe layer. Read More


We calculate the Josephson current between two one-dimensional (1D) nanowires oriented along $x$ with proximity induced $s$-wave superconducting pairing and separated by a narrow dielectric barrier in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) characterized by strength $\alpha$ and two Zeeman fields ($h$ along $\hat z$ and ${\bf B}$ in the $x-y$ plane). We formulate a general method for computing the Andreev bound states energy which allows us to obtain analytical expressions for the energy of these states in several asymptotic cases. We find that in the absence of the magnetic fields the energy gap between the Andreev bound states decreases with increasing Rashba SOI constant leading eventually to touching of the levels. Read More


We study discrete symmetries satisfied by helical $p$-wave superconductors with d-vectors $k_{x}\hat{x}\pm k_{y}\hat{y}$ or $k_{y}\hat{x}\pm k_{x}\hat{y}$ and transformations brought by the symmetry operations to ferromagnet and spin-singlet superconductors, which show intimate associations with transport properties in heterojunctions including helical superconductor. Especially, the partial symmetries of the Hamiltonian under the spin-rotation and gauge-rotation operations are responsible for novel invariances of the conductance in tunnel junctions and new selection rules of the lowest current and peculiar phase diagrams in Josephson junctions which are reported recently. The symmetries of constructed free energies for Josephson junctions are also analyzed which are consistent with the results from Hamiltonian. Read More


A characteristic feature of topological systems is the presence of robust gapless edge states. In this work the effect of time-dependent perturbations on the edge states is considered. Specifically we consider perturbations that can be understood as changes of the parameters of the Hamiltonian. Read More


We study a two-orbital $t$-$J_1$-$J_2$ model, originally developed to describe iron-based superconductors at low energies, in the presence of bond disorder (via next nearest-neighbor $J_2$-bond dilution). By using Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, we self-consistently calculate the local pairing amplitudes and the corresponding density of states, which demonstrate a change of dominant pairing symmetry from $s_\pm$-wave to $d$-wave when increasing disorder strength as long as $J_1\lesssim J_2$. Moreover, the combined pairing interaction and strong bond disorder lead to the formation of $s_\pm$-wave "islands" with length scale of the superconducting coherence length embedded in a $d$-wave "sea". Read More


We present a detailed analysis on the hopping between monolayer CuO$_2$ and bulk CuO$_2$ plane in the Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{8+\delta}$ substrate. With a two-band model, we demonstrate that the nodeless gap can only exist when the hole concentration in monolayer CuO$_2$ plane is very large or very small. We argued that the possible phase separation may play important role in the recent experimental observation of nodeless gap. Read More


Magnetic impurities have a dramatic effect on superconductivity by breaking the time-reversal symmetry and inducing so-called Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) low energy bound states within the superconducting gap. These types of systems have attracted renewed interest after the recent observation of Majorana modes in a linear chain of magnetic atoms on an s-wave superconductor. In general, controlled coupling of YSR states should enable realizing designer quantum materials with novel topological phases. Read More


We report on specific heat and magnetotransport measurements performed on superconducting Cu$_{10\%}$TiSe$_2$ single crystals. We show that superconductivity persists in transport measurements up to magnetic fields $H_R$ well above the upper critical field $H_{c2}$ deduced from the calorimetric measurements. Surprisingly this "surface" superconductivity is present for all magnetic field orientations, either parallel or perpendicular to the layers. Read More


The chromium arsenides BaCr2As2 and BaCrFeAs2 with ThCr2Si2 type structure (space group I4/mmm; also adopted by '122' iron arsenide superconductors) have been suggested as mother compounds for possible new superconductors. DFT-based calculations of the electronic structure evidence metallic antiferromagnetic ground states for both compounds. By powder neutron diffraction we confirm for BaCr2As2 a robust ordering in the antiferromagnetic G-type structure at T_N = 580 K with mu_Cr = 1. Read More


We consider the Josephson effect through a thin spin-orbit coupled layer in the presence of an exchange field, and discover a set of supercurrent vortices appearing in the system which can be controllably moved around in the system by varying either the direction of the exchange field, its strength, or the spin-orbit coupling magnitude via a gate voltage. We refer to this phenomenon as a supercurrent vortex pinball effect and show that its origin is the spin polarization of the triplet Cooper pairs induced in the system. The supercurrent vortices thus arise from what resembles a Cooper pair-induced inverse Edelstein effect. Read More


Superconductivity in novel bismuth-sulphur superconductors has attracted large research efforts, both experimental and theoretical, but a consensus on the nature of superconductivity in these materials has yet to be reached. Using density functional theory for superconductors, we study the electron-phonon pairing mechanism in LaO$_{0.5}$F$_{0. Read More


Within the complex phase diagram of the hole-doped cuprates, seizing the nature of the mysterious pseudo-gap phase is essential to unravel the microscopic origin of high-temperature superconductivity. Below the pseudo-gap temperature $\rm T^{\star}$, evidences for intra-unit-cell orders breaking the 4-fold rotation symmetry have been provided by neutron diffraction and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Using polarized neutron diffraction on a detwinned $\rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{6. Read More


Spin-3/2 topological superconductors (TSCs) may be realized in ultracold atoms or doped semimetals. We consider a p-wave model with linear and cubic dispersing Majorana surface bands. We show that the latter are unstable to interactions, which generate a spontaneous thermal quantum Hall effect (TQHE). Read More


We investigate the Gorkov--Melik-Barkhudarov (GM) correction to superfluid transition temperature in two-dimensional Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) across the SOC-driven BCS-BEC crossover. In the calculation of the induced interaction, we find that the spin-component mixing due to SOC can induce both of the conventional screening and additional anti-screening contributions that interplay significantly in the strong SOC regime. While the GM correction generally lowers the estimate of transition temperature, it turns out that at a fixed weak interaction, the correction effect exhibits a crossover behavior where the ratio between the estimates without and with the correction firstly decreases with SOC and then becomes insensitive to SOC when it goes into the strong SOC regime. Read More


This article reviews the status of current research on the 112-phase of pnictides. The 112-phase has gained augmented attention due to the recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in $\cl$ with a maximum critical temperature $\tc\sim$ 47\,K upon Sb substitution. The structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of $\cl$ bear some similarities with other superconducting pnictide phases, however, the different valence states of the pnictogen and the presence of a metallic spacer layer are unique features of the 112-system. Read More


We present the results of electrical transport measurements of La$_{1.85}$Sr$_{0.15}$Cu$_{1-y}$Ni$_{y}$O$_{4}$ thin single-crystal films at magnetic fields up to 9 T. Read More


Majorana zero modes are usually attributed to topological superconductors. We study a class of two-dimensional topologically trivial superconductors without chiral edge modes, which nevertheless host robust Majorana zero modes in topological defects. The construction of the specific single-band model is facilitated by the Hopf map and the Hopf invariant. Read More


Recent several experiments revealed that novel bipartite magnetic/superconducting phases widely exist in iron pnictides and chalcogenides. Nevertheless, the origin of the two-dome superconducting phases in iron-based compounds still remains unclear. Here we theoretically investigated the electronic structures, magnetic and superconducting properties of three representative iron-based systems, i. Read More


We present an ab-initio study of Ru substitution in two different compounds, BaFe2As2 and LaFeAsO, pure and F-doped. Despite the many similarities among them, Ru substitution has very different effects on these compounds. By means of an unfolding technique, which allows us to trace back the electronic states into the primitive cell of the pure compounds, we are able to disentangle the effects brought by the local structural deformations and by the impurity potential to the states at the Fermi level. Read More


The short coherence lengths characteristic of low-dimensional superconductors are associated with usefully high critical fields or temperatures. Unfortunately, such materials are often sensitive to disorder and suffer from phase fluctuations in the superconducting order parameter which diverge with temperature $T$, magnetic field $H$ or current $I$. We propose an approach to overcome synthesis and fluctuation problems: building superconductors from inhomogeneous composites of nanofilaments. Read More


Bismuth displays puzzling superconducting properties. In its crystalline equilibrium phase, it does not seem to superconduct at accessible low temperatures. However, in the amorphous phase it displays superconductivity at ~ 6 K. Read More


We designed, fabricated and tested short one dimensional arrays of masked ion-irradiated YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_7$ Josephson junctions (JJ) embedded into log-periodic spiral antennas. Our arrays consist of 4 or 8 junctions separated either by 960~nm or 80~nm long areas of undamaged YBCO. Samples with distanced junctions and with closely spaced junctions showed qualitatively different behaviors. Read More


The recent realization of two-dimensional (2D) synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling opens a broad avenue to study novel topological states for ultracold atoms. Here, we propose a new scheme to realize exotic chiral Fulde-Ferrell superfluid for ultracold fermions, with a generic theory being shown that the topology of superfluid pairing phases can be determined from the normal states. The main findings are two fold. Read More


The energy gap has been measured and the characteristic phonon energies determined for the superconducting compound $La_{1.8}Sr_{02}CuO_4$ from the current-voltage characteristics of point contacts with a copper counterelectrode. The temperature dependence of the energy gap was determined. Read More


We study superconductors with $n$-fold rotational invariance both in the presence and in the absence of spin-orbit interactions. More specifically, we classify the non-interacting Hamiltonians by defining a series of $Z$-numbers for the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) symmetry classes of the Altland-Zimbauer classification of random matrices in $1$D, $2$D, and $3$D in the presence of discrete rotational invariance. Our analysis emphasizes the important role played by the angular momentum of the Cooper pairs in the system: for pairings of nonzero angular momentum, the rotation symmetry may be represented projectively, and a projective representation of rotation symmetry may have anomalous properties, including the anti-commutation with the time-reversal symmetry. Read More


We report on electrical transport properties of epitaxial Ba(Fe1-xNix)2As2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition in static magnetic fields up to 35 T. The thin film shows a critical temperature of 17.2 K and a critical current density of 5. Read More


The recent discovery of topologically protected surface states in the noncentrosymmetric $\alpha$-BiPd and the centrosymmetric $\beta$-Bi$_{2}$Pd has renewed the interest in the Bi-Pd family of superconductors. Here, we employ first-principles calculations to investigate the structure, electronic, and topological features of $\beta$-Bi$_{2}$Pd, in bulk and in thin films of various thicknesses. We find that the Van der Waals dispersion corrections are important for reproducing the experimental structural parameters, while the spin-orbit interaction is critical for properly describing the appearance of topological electronic states. Read More


A quantitative vortex-fluid model for flux-flow resistivity $\rho$ and Nernst signal $e_N$ in high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) is proposed. Two kinds of vortices, magnetic and thermal, are considered, and the damping viscosity $\eta$ is modeled by extending the Bardeen-Stephen model to include the contributions of flux pinning at low temperature and in weak magnetic fields, and vortex-vortex collisions in strong magnetic fields. Remarkably accurate descriptions for both Nernst signal of six samples and flux flow resistivity are achieved over a wide range of temperature $T$ and magnetic field $B$. Read More


Superconductivity of transition metal dichalcogenide $1T$-TiTe$_2$ under high pressure was investigated by the first-principles calculations. Our results show that the superconductivity of $1T$-TiTe$_2$ exhibits very different behavior under the hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure. The hydrostatic pressure is harmful to the superconductivity, while the uniaxial pressure is beneficial to the superconductivity. Read More


One promising avenue to study one-dimensional ($1$D) topological phases is to realize them in synthetic materials such as cold atomic gases. Intriguingly, it is possible to realize Majorana boundary modes in a $1$D number-conserving system consisting of two fermionic chains coupled only by pair-hopping processes. It is commonly believed that significant interchain single-particle tunneling necessarily destroys these Majorana modes, as it spoils the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ fermion parity symmetry that protects them. Read More


The development of quantum computers and quantum simulators promises to provide solutions to problems, which can currently not be solved on classical computers. Finding the best physical implementation for such technologies is an important research topic and using optical effects is a promising route towards this goal. It was theoretically shown that optical quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources and detectors, and linear optical circuits. Read More


In order to establish the doping dependence of the critical current properties in the iron-based superconductors, the in-plane critical current density (Jc) of BaFe2As2-based superconductors, Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (K-Ba122), Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (Co-Ba122), and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (P-Ba122) in a wide range of doping concentration (x) was investigated by means of magnetization hysteresis loop (MHL) measurements on single-crystal samples. Depending on the dopant elements and their concentration, Jc exhibits a variety of magnetic-field (H) and temperature (T) dependences. (1) In the case of K-Ba122, MHL of the underdoped samples (x < 0. Read More