Physics - Superconductivity Publications (50)


Physics - Superconductivity Publications

This review provides a summary of the rich physics expressed within SrTiO$_3$-based heterostructures and nanostructures. The intended audience is researchers who are working in the field of oxides, but also those with different backgrounds (e.g. Read More

The pairing symmetry of the newly proposed cobalt high temperature (high-$T_c$) superconductors formed by vertex shared cation-anion tetrahedral complexes is studied by the methods of mean field, random phase approximation (RPA) and functional renormalization group (FRG) analysis. The results of all these methods show that the $d_{x^2-y^2}$ pairing symmetry is robustly favored near half filling. The RPA and FRG methods, which are valid in weak interaction regions, predict that the superconducting state is also strongly orbital selective, namely the $d_{x^2-y^2}$ orbital that has the largest density near half filling among the three $t_{2g}$ orbitals dominates superconducting pairing. Read More

We have investigated the crystal structure and physical properties of LaO1-xFxBiSSe to reveal the intrinsic superconductivity phase diagram of the BiCh2-based layered compound family. From synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinements with anisotropic displacement parameters, we clearly found that the in-plane disorder in the BiSSe layer was fully suppressed for all x. In LaO1-xFxBiSSe, metallic conductivity and superconductivity are suddenly induced by electron doping even at x = 0. Read More

We study the superconducting properties of the thin film BCS superconductor proximity coupled to a magnetically doped topological insulator(TI). Using the mean field theory, we show that Fulde-Ferrell(FF) pairing can be induced in the conventional superconductor by having inverse proximity effect(IPE). This occurs when the IPE of the TI to the superconductor is large enough that the normal band of the superconductor possesses a proximity induced spin-orbit coupling and magnetization. Read More

We theoretically investigate superfluidity in a strongly interacting Fermi gas confined to two dimensions at finite temperature. Using a Gaussian pair fluctuation theory in the superfluid phase, we calculate the superfluid density and determine the critical temperature and chemical potential at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We propose that the transition can be unambiguously demonstrated in cold-atom experiments by stirring the superfluid Fermi gas using a red detuned laser beam, to identify the characteristic jump in the local Landau critical velocity at the superfluid-normal interface, as the laser beam moves across the cloud. Read More

Unlike the hole-doped cuprates, both nodal and nodeless superconductivity (SC) are observed in the electron-doped cuprates. To understand these two types of SC states, we propose a unified theory by considering the two-dimensional t-J model in proximity to an antiferromagnetic (AF) long-range ordering state. Within the slave-fermion mean-field approximation, the d-wave pairing symmetry is still the most energetically favorable even in the presence of the external AF field. Read More

Superconductivity and magnetism are mutually exclusive in most alloys and elements, so it is striking that superconductivity emerges around a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP) in many strongly correlated electron systems (SCES). In the latter case superconductivity is believed to be unconventional and directly influenced by the QCP. However, experimentally unconventional superconductivity has neither been established nor directly been linked to any mechanism of the QCP. Read More

A comprehensive study on the evolution of Stoner factor with doping concentration for various doped 122 systems (like BaFe$_2$As$_2$, SrFe$_2$As$_2$) of Fe-based superconductors is presented. Our first principles electronic structure calculations reveal that for Co/Ru (electron or iso-electronic) doping at Fe sites or P doping at As sites result in a reduction of Stoner factor with increasing doping concentration. On the contrary, in case of Na/K (hole) doping at the Ba sites, Stoner factor is enhanced for higher doping concentrations. Read More

We report the temperature-pressure phase diagram of CaKFe$_4$As$_4$ established using high pressure electrical resistivity, magnetization and high energy x-ray diffraction measurements up to 6 GPa. With increasing pressure, both resistivity and magnetization data show that the bulk superconducting transition of CaKFe$_4$As$_4$ is suppressed and then disappears at $p$ $\gtrsim$ 4 GPa. High pressure x-ray data clearly indicate a phase transition to a collapsed tetragonal phase in CaKFe$_4$As$_4$ under pressure that coincides with the abrupt loss of bulk superconductivity near 4 GPa. Read More

Employing a 10-orbital tight binding model, we present a new set of hopping parameters fitted directly to our latest high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data for the high temperature tetragonal phase of FeSe. Using these parameters we predict a large 10 meV shift of the chemical potential as a function of temperature. In order to confirm this large temperature dependence, we performed ARPES experiments on FeSe and observed a $\sim$25 meV rigid shift to the chemical potential between 100 K and 300 K. Read More

We study Andreev reflection and the Josephson effect in a ballistic monolayer of black phosphorous, known as phosphorene. Due to the anisotropic band structure of this system, the supercurrent changes with an order of magnitude when comparing tunneling along two perpendicular directions in the monolayer. We show that the main reason for this effect is a large difference in the number of transverse modes in Andreev bound states. Read More

The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in two-dimensional superconductors is usually expected to be protected against disorder. However, its typical signatures in real system, like e.g. Read More

We show that a quantum phase transition, generating flat bands and altering Fermi surface topology, is a primary reason for the exotic behavior of the overdoped high-temperature superconductors, whose superconductivity features differ from what is predicted by the classical Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. We demonstrate that 1) at temperature $T=0$, the superfluid density $n_s$ turns out to be considerably smaller than the total density of the electrons; 2) the critical temperature $T_c$ is controlled by $n_s$ rather than by doping, and is a linear function of the $n_s$; 3) at $T>T_c$ the resistivity $\rho(T)$ varies linearly with temperature, $\rho(T)\propto \alpha T$, where $\alpha$ diminishes with $T_c\to 0$, while in the "normal" region induced by overdoping, with $T_c=0$, $\rho(T)\propto T^2$. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations. Read More

The superconducting energy gap in $\rm DyNi_2B_2C$ has been investigated using a point-contact technique based on the Andreev reflection from a normal (N)-superconductor (S) boundary, where N is Ag. The observed differential resistance $dV/dI$ is well described by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory based on the BSC density of states with zero broadening parameter. Typically, the intensity of the gap structure amounts to several percentage of the normal state resistance, which is an order of magnitude less than predicted by the theory. Read More

We investigate the proximity effect in junctions between $N=3$ superconductors under commensurate voltage bias. The bias is chosen to highlight the role of transport processes that exchange multiple Cooper pairs coherently between more than two superconductors. Such non-local processes can be studied in the D. Read More

We report a high-resolution laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (laser-ARPES) study of single crystals of FeSe, focusing on the temperature-dependence of the hole-like bands around the ${\rm \Gamma}$ point. As the system cools through the tetragonal-orthorhombic "nematic" structural transition at 90~K, the splitting of the $d_{xz}$/$d_{yz}$ bands is observed to increase by a magnitude of 13 meV. Moreover, the onset of a $\sim$10 meV downward shift of the $d_{xy}$ band is also at 90~K. Read More

The magnetic field noise in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) used for biomagnetic research such as magnetoencephalography or ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is usually limited by instrumental dewar noise. We constructed a wideband, ultra-low noise system with a 45 mm diameter superconducting pick-up coil inductively coupled to a current sensor SQUID. Thermal noise in the liquid helium dewar is minimized by using aluminized polyester fabric as superinsulation and aluminum oxide strips as heat shields, respectively. Read More

We have studied disordering effects on the coefficients of Ginzburg - Landau expansion in powers of superconducting order - parameter in attractive Anderson - Hubbard model within the generalized $DMFT+\Sigma$ approximation. We consider the wide region of attractive potentials $U$ from the weak coupling region, where superconductivity is described by BCS model, to the strong coupling region, where superconducting transition is related with Bose - Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs formed at temperatures essentially larger than the temperature of superconducting transition, and the wide range of disorder - from weak to strong, where the system is in the vicinity of Anderson transition. In case of semi - elliptic bare density of states disorder influence upon the coefficients $A$ and $B$ before the square and the fourth power of the order - parameter is universal for any value of electron correlation and is related only to the general disorder widening of the bare band (generalized Anderson theorem). Read More

In this paper we demonstrate the necessity of including the generally omitted collective mode contributions in calculations of the Meissner effect for non-uniform superconductors. We consider superconducting pairing with non-zero center of mass momentum, as is relevant to high transition temperature cuprates, cold atoms, and quantum chromodynamic superconductors. For the concrete example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase we present a quantitative calculation of the superfluid density, showing the collective mode contributions are not only appreciable but that they derive from the amplitude mode of the order parameter. Read More

We study the conductance of a junction between the normal and superconducting segments of a nanowire, both of which are subject to spin-orbit coupling and an external magnetic field. We directly compare the transport properties of the nanowire assuming two different models for the superconducting segment: one where we put superconductivity by hand into the wire, and one where superconductivity is induced through a tunneling junction with a bulk s-wave superconductor. While these two models are equivalent at low energies and at weak coupling between the nanowire and the superconductor, we show that there are several interesting qualitative differences away from these two limits. Read More

The ancient phrase, "All roads lead to Rome" applies to Chemistry and Physics. Both are highly evolved sciences, with their own history, traditions, language, and approaches to problems. Despite all these differences, these two roads generally lead to the same place. Read More

The admittance of two types of Josephson weak links is calculated, i.e., of a one-dimensional superconducting wire with a local suppression of the order parameter, and the second is a short S-c-S structure, where S denotes a superconductor and c---a constriction. Read More

Kitaev interactions underlying a quantum spin liquid have been long sought, but experimental data from which their strengths can be determined directly is still lacking. Here, by carrying out inelastic neutron scattering measurements on high-quality single crystals of $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$, we observe spin-wave spectra with a gap of $\sim$2 meV around the M point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone. We derive an effective-spin model in the strong-coupling limit based on energy bands obtained from first-principle calculations, and find that the anisotropic Kitaev interaction $K$ term and the isotropic antiferromagentic off-diagonal exchange interaction $\Gamma$ term are significantly larger than the Heisenberg exchange coupling $J$ term. Read More

We discuss thermal transport through a Josephson junction in a time-dependent situation. We write the spectral representation of the heat current pumped by a generic drive. This enables separation of the dissipative and reactive contributions, of which the latter do not contribute to long-time averages. Read More

Nonuniform strain distributions in a graphene lattice can give rise to uniform pseudomagnetic fields and associated pseudo-Landau levels without breaking time-reversal symmetry. We demonstrate that by inducing superconductivity in a nonuniformly strained graphene sheet, the lowest pseudo-Landau levels split by a pairing gap can be inverted by changing the sign of the pairing potential. As a consequence of this inversion, we predict that a Josephson $\pi$ junction deposited on top of a strained graphene sheet exhibits one-dimensional gapless modes propagating along the junction. Read More

Ultrafast perturbations offer a unique tool to manipulate correlated systems due to their ability to promote transient behaviors with no equilibrium counterpart. A widely employed strategy is the excitation of coherent optical phonons, as they can cause significant changes in the electronic structure and interactions on short time scales. Here, we explore a promising alternative route: the non-equilibrium excitation of acoustic phonons. Read More

We investigate the formation of non-equilibrium superconducting states in driven alkali-doped fullerides A$_3$C$_{60}$. Within a minimal three-orbital model for the superconductivity of these materials, it was recently demonstrated theoretically that an orbital-dependent imbalance of the interactions leads to an enhancement of superconductivity at equilibrium [M. Kim et al. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, Graz University of Technology, NAWI Graz, Austria, 2Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, Graz University of Technology, NAWI Graz, Austria, 3Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Austria

BaBiO3 is a well-known example of a 3D charge density wavecompound, in which the CDW behavior is induced by charge disproportionation at the Bi site. At ambient pressure, this compound is a charge-ordered insulator, but little is known about its high-pressure behavior. In this work, we study from first-principles the high-pressure phase diagram of BaBiO3 using phonon modes analysis and evolutionary crystal structure prediction. Read More

We report the transverse relaxation rates 1/$T_2$'s of the $^{63}$Cu nuclear spin-echo envelope for double-layer high-$T_c$ cuprate superconductors HgBa$_{2}$CaCu$_{2}$O$_{6+d}$ from underdoped to overdoped. The relaxation rate 1/$T_{2L}$ of the exponential function (Lorentzian component) shows a peak at 220$-$240 K in the underdoped ($T_c$ = 103 K) and the optimally doped ($T_c$ = 127 K) samples but no peak in the overdoped ($T_c$ = 93 K) sample. The enhancement in 1/$T_{2L}$ suggests development of the zero frequency components of local field fluctuations. Read More

An intriguing connection was noticed recently by Kitaev between a simple model of Majorana zero modes with random infinite range interactions -- the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model -- and the horizons of extremal black holes in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS$_2$) space. This connection provides a rare example of holographic duality between a solvable quantum-mechanical model and dilaton gravity. Here we propose a physical realization of the SYK model in a solid state system. Read More

The low-temperature states of bosonic condensates exhibit fundamental quantum effects at the macroscopic scale. The combined effects of interaction and disorder in these can have drastic consequences, leading to the Mott insulator and Bose-Anderson glass. The latter is thought to describe helium-4 in porous media, cold atoms in disordered optical potentials, disordered magnetic insulators, and thin superconducting films. Read More

We compute the orbital angular momentum $L_z$ of an s-wave paired superfluid in the presence of an axisymmetric multiply quantized vortex. For vortices with winding number $|k| > 1$, we find that in the weak-pairing BCS regime $L_z$ is significantly reduced from its value $\hbar N k/2$ in the BEC regime, where $N$ is the total number of fermions. This deviation results from the presence of unpaired fermions in the BCS ground state, which arise as a consequence of spectral flow along the vortex sub-gap states. Read More

In the presence of an applied magnetic field introducing Zeeman spin splitting, a superconducting (SC) proximitized one-dimensional (1D) nanowire with spin-orbit coupling can pass through a topological quantum phase transition developing zero-energy topological Majorana bound states (MBSs) on the wire ends. One of the promising experimental platforms in this context is a Coulomb blockaded island, where by measuring the two-terminal conductance one can in principle investigate the MBS properties. We theoretically study the tunneling transport of a single electron across the superconducting Coulomb blockaded nanowire at finite temperature to obtain the generic conductance equation. Read More

Angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments on copper oxide superconductors revealed enigmatic kinks in electronic dispersions near 10 meV presumably due to phonons or impuritites. We used inelastic neutron scattering to measure phonon branches below 15 meV in a large single crystal sample of optimally-doped $Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_{8+\delta}$ (BSCCO). The high quality dataset covered several Brilloiun zones with different final energies. Read More

Two rings with currents ia and ib become magnets that can either attract or repel each other. If mechanical work is extracted from this ring system, either by bringing closer the rings during an attraction or by separating them as the result of a repulsion, the energy of the rings, the only existing source of energy in the system, decreases: $\frac{1}{2}LI_{a}^{2}+\frac{1}{2}LI_{b}^{2}$ If an energy either of attraction or repulsion is communicated to the system, (working against the forces) its energy increases, i.e. Read More

Physics of many-body systems where particles are restricted to move in two spatial dimensions is challenging and even controversial: On one hand, neither long-range order nor Bose condensation may appear in infinite uniform 2D systems at finite temperature, on the other hand this does not prohibit superfluidity or superconductivity. Moreover, 2D superconductors, such as cuprates, are among the systems with highest critical temperatures. Ultracold atoms are a platform for studying 2D physics. Read More

Potassium is introduced into the crystalline herringbone structure of pentacene searching for a compound showing metallic electronic transport properties and, hopefully, superconductivity at small enough temperatures. Several possible structures for stoichiometric KPentacene (1:1), K2Pentacene (2:1) and K3Pentacene (3:1) compounds are theoretically investigated. Detailed densities of states for all of them are presented. Read More

We report evidence for a reentrant spin glass phase in electron-doped $\text{EuFe}_2\text{As}_2$ single crystals and first traces of the superconductivity re-entrance in optics. In the close-to-optimal doped $\text{Eu}(\text{Fe}_{0.91}\text{Ir}_{0. Read More

Among the family of TMDs, ReS2 takes a special position, which crystalizes in a unique distorted low-symmetry structure at ambient conditions. The interlayer interaction in ReS2 is rather weak, thus its bulk properties are similar to that of monolayer. However, how does compression change its structure and electronic properties is unknown so far. Read More

A minimal model for the hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire Majorana platform is developed that fully captures the effects of the low-energy renormalization of the nanowire modes arising from the presence of the parent superconductor. In this model, the parent superconductor is an active component that participates explicitly in the low-energy physics, not just a passive partner that only provides proximity-induced Cooper pairs for the nanowire. This treatment on an equal footing of the superconductor and the semiconductor has become necessary in view of recent experiments, which do not allow a consistent interpretation based just on the bare semiconductor properties. Read More

Bipartite charge fluctuations (BCF) have been introduced to provide an experimental indication of many-body entanglement. They have proved themselves to be a very efficient and useful tool to characterize quantum phase transitions in a variety of quantum models conserving the total number of particles (or magnetization for spin systems). In this Letter, we study the BCF in generic one-dimensional $\mathbb{Z}_2$ (topological) models including the Kitaev superconducting wire model, the Ising chain or various topological insulators such as the SSH model. Read More

We propose a compact and highly-efficient scheme for complete Bell-state analysis using two-photon absorption in a superconducting proximity region of a semiconductor avalanche photodiode. One-photon transitions to the superconducting Cooper-pair based condensate in the conduction band are forbidden, whereas two-photon transitions are allowed and are strongly enhanced by superconductivity. This Cooper-pair based two-photon absorption results in a strong detection preference of a specified entangled state. Read More

The electronic structure and magnetism of a new magnetic intercalation compound (Li0.8Fe0.2)OHFeSe are investigated theoretically. Read More

We present a density-functional based analysis of magnetic interactions in Sr$_{2}$RuO$_{4}$ and discuss the role of magnetic anisotropy in its unconventional superconductivity. Our goal is twofold. First, we access the possibility of the superconducting order parameter rotation in an external magnetic field of 200 Oe, and conclude that the spin-orbit interaction in this material is several orders of magnitude too strong to be consistent with this hypothesis. Read More

Raman scattering experiments on LaFeAsO with splitted antiferromagnetic (T_AFM = 140 K) and tetragonal-orthorhombic (T_S = 155 K) transitions show a quasi-elastic peak (QEP) in B_2g symmetry (2 Fe tetragonal cell) that fades away below ~T_AFM and is ascribed to electronic nematic fluctuations. A scaling of the reported shear modulus with the T-dependence of the QEP height rather than the QEP area shows that magnetic degrees of freedom drive the structural transition. The large separation between T_S and T_{AFM} in LaFeAsO compared with their coincidence in BaFe2As2 manifests itself in slower dynamics of nematic fluctuations above T_S in the former. Read More

Superconducting properties change in confined geometries. Here we study the effects of strong confinement in nanosized Pb-islands on Si(111) 7x7. Small hexagonal islands with diameters less than 50 nm and a uniform height of 7 atomic layers are formed by depositing Pb at low temperature and annealing at 300 K. Read More

Two-dimensional (2D) superconductors have attracted great attention in recent years due to the possibility of new phenomena in lower dimensions. With many bulk transition metal carbides being well-known conventional superconductors, here we perform first-principles calculations to evaluate the possible superconductivity in a 2D monolayer Mo$_2$C. Three candidate structures (monolayer alpha-Mo$_2$C, 1T MXene-Mo$_2$C, and 2H MXene-Mo$_2$C) are considered and the most stable form is found to be the 2H MXene-Mo$_2$C. Read More

With the purpose of investigating coexistence between magnetic order and superconductivity, we consider a model in which conduction electrons interact with each other, via an attractive Hubbard on-site coupling $U$, and with local moments on every site, via a Kondo-like coupling, $J$. The model is solved on a simple cubic lattice through a Hartree-Fock approximation, within a `semi-classical' framework which allows spiral magnetic modes to be stabilized. For a fixed electronic density, $n_c$, the small $J$ region of the ground state ($T=0$) phase diagram displays spiral antiferromagnetic (SAFM) states for small $U$. Read More

We present an X-ray scattering study of charge-density-wave (CDW) order in simple tetragonal HgBa$_2$CuO$_{4+\delta}$ (Hg1201). Short-range order appears at a temperature that is distinctly lower than the pseudogap temperature and in excellent agreement with a prior transient reflectivity result. Despite considerable structural differences between Hg1201 and YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+\delta}$, the CDW correlations exhibit similar doping dependencies, and we demonstrate a universal relationship between CDW wave vector and the size of the reconstructed Fermi pocket observed in quantum oscillation experiments. Read More

One dimensional hybrid systems play an important role in the search for topological superconductivity. Nevertheless, all one dimensional hybrid systems so far have been externally defined. Here we show that one-dimensional domain wall in a nematic superconductor can serve as an emergent hybrid system in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. Read More