Physics - Superconductivity Publications (50)


Physics - Superconductivity Publications

We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-temperature superconductor, La$_2$CuO$_{4+y}$. We find that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. We conclude that the dynamic stripes observed in neutron scattering experiments are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the simultaneously observed static stripes, but rather that the signals originate from different domains in the sample. Read More

We present a detailed study of the phase diagram of copper intercalated TiSe$_2$ single crystals, combining local Hall-probe magnetometry, tunnel diode oscillator technique (TDO), specific heat and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. A series of the Cu$_x$TiSe$_2$ samples from three different sources with various copper content $x$ and superconducting critical temperatures $T_c$ have been investigated. We first show that the vortex penetration mechanism is dominated by geometrical barriers enabling a precise determination of the lower critical field, $H_{c1}$. Read More

To date, the Hubbard model and its strong coupling limit, the t-J model, serve as the canonical model for strongly correlated electron systems in solids. Approximating the Coulomb interaction by only the on-site term (Hubbard U-term), however, may not be sufficient to describe the essential physics of interacting electron systems. We develop a more complete model in which all the next leading order terms besides the on-site term are retained. Read More

Motivated by the recent observations of small Fermi energies and comparatively large superconducting gaps, present also on bands not crossing the Fermi energy (incipient bands) in iron-based superconductors, we analyse the doping evolution of superconductivity in a four-band model across the Lifshitz transition including BCS-BEC crossover effects on the shallow bands. Similar to the BCS case we find that with hole doping the phase difference between superconducting order parameters of the hole bands changes from $0$ to $\pi$ through an intermediate $s+is$ state breaking time-reversal symmetry. The transition however occurs in the region where electron bands are incipient and chemical potential renormalization in the superconducting state leads to a significant broadening of the $s+is$ region. Read More

Existing concepts of reversible superconducting circuits as well as demonstrated adiabatic circuits require three-phase bias/clock signals generated by room temperature sources. A while ago, we suggested that a multi-phase bias/clock could be provided by a local Josephson junction-based generator. The generator looks like a long annular Josephson junction, only composed of discreet elements - junctions and inductors, and closed into a ring via a flux pump to inject any required number of vortices into the ring. Read More

We calculate the effect of a static electric field on the critical temperature of a s-wave one band superconductor in the framework of proximity effect Eliashberg theory. In the weak electrostatic field limit the theory has no free parameters while, in general, the only free parameter is the thickness of the surface layer where the electric field acts. We conclude that the best situation for increasing the critical temperature is to have a very thin film of a superconducting material with a strong increase of electron-phonon (boson) constant upon charging. Read More

We look for unifying aspects behind superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbon and fullerene family K$_3$X (X: picene, .. p-terphenyl, . Read More

In layered transition metal dichalcogenides (LTMDCs) that display both charge density waves (CDWs) and superconductivity, the superconducting state generally emerges directly on suppression of the CDW state. Here, however, we report a different observation for pressurized TaTe2, a non-superconducting CDW-bearing LTMDC at ambient pressure. We find that a superconducting state does not occur in TaTe2 after the full suppression of its CDW state, which we observe at about 3 GPa, but, rather, a non-superconducting semimetal state is observed. Read More

We argue that quantum fluctuations of the phase of the order parameter may strongly affect the electron density of states (DOS) in ultrathin superconducting wires. We demonstrate that the effect of such fluctuations is equivalent to that of a quantum dissipative environment formed by sound-like plasma modes propagating along the wire. We derive a non-perturbative expression for the local electron DOS in superconducting nanowires which fully accounts for quantum phase fluctuations. Read More

The quasi-skutterudite superconductors $A_3T_4$Sn$_{13}$ ($A$=Sr, Ca; $T$=Ir, Rh, Co) are highly tunable featuring a structural quantum critical point. We construct a temperature-lattice constant phase diagram for these isovalent compounds, establishing Ca$_{3}$Rh$_4$Sn$_{13}$ and Ca$_{3}$Co$_4$Sn$_{13}$ as members close to and far away from the structural quantum critical point, respectively. Deconvolution of the lattice specific heat and the electrical resistivity provide an approximate phonon density of states $F(\omega)$ and the electron-phonon transport coupling function $\alpha_{tr}^2F(\omega)$ for Ca$_{3}$Rh$_4$Sn$_{13}$ and Ca$_{3}$Co$_4$Sn$_{13}$, enabling us to investigate the influence of the structural quantum critical point. Read More

We elucidate the pivotal role of the bandstructure's orbital content in deciding the type of commensurate magnetic order stabilized within the itinerant scenario of iron-pnictides. Recent experimental findings in the tetragonal magnetic phase attest to the existence of the so-called charge and spin ordered density wave over the spin-vortex crystal phase, the latter of which tends to be favored in simplified band models of itinerant magnetism. Here we show that employing a multiorbital itinerant Landau approach based on realistic bandstructures can account for the experimentally observed magnetic phase, and thus shed light on the importance of the orbital content in deciding the magnetic order. Read More

The competition between the length scales associated with the periodicity of a lattice potential and the cyclotron radius of a uniform magnetic field is known to have dramatic effects on the single-particle properties of a quantum particle, e.g., the fractal spectrum is known as the Hofstadter butterfly. Read More

The copper oxides present the highest superconducting temperature and properties at odds with other compounds, suggestive of a fundamentally different superconductivity. In particular, the Abrikosov vortices fail to exhibit localized states expected and observed in all clean superconductors. We have explored the possibility that the elusive vortex-core signatures are actually present but weak. Read More

We are developing a superconductor electronics fabrication process with up to nine planarized superconducting layers, stackable stud vias, self-shunted Nb/AlOx-Al/Nb Josephson junctions, and one layer of MoNx kinetic inductors. The minimum feature size of resistors and inductors in the process is 250 nm. We present data on the mutual inductance of Nb stripline and microstrip inductors with linewidth and spacing from 250 nm to 1 {\mu}m made on the same or adjacent Nb layers, as well as the data on the linewidth and resistance uniformity. Read More

We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of $\mathrm{MoS_2}$ thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with $\mathrm{Li^+}$ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with $\mathrm{K^+}$ leads instead to a disorder-induced incipient metal-to-insulator transition. Read More

Scanning superconducting quantum interference device measurements reveal large-scale modulations of the superfluid density and the critical temperature in superconducting Nb, NbN, and underdoped $YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-{\delta}}$ films deposited on $SrTiO_{3}$ (STO). We show that these modulations are a result of the STO domains and domain walls, forming below the 105 K structural phase transition of STO. We found that the flow of normal current, measured above the superconducting transition, is also modulated over the same domain structure, suggesting a modified carrier density. Read More

A newly discovered family of high-Tc Fe-based superconductors, AeAFe4As4 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Eu and A = K, Rb, Cs), offers further opportunities to understand unconventional superconductivity in these materials. In this Rapid Communication, we report on the superconducting and magnetic properties of CaKFe4As4, studied using muon spectroscopy. Zero-field muon spin relaxation studies carried out on the CaKFe4As4 superconductor do not show any detectable magnetic anomaly at Tc or below, implying that time-reversal symmetry is preserved in the superconducting ground state. Read More

Based on recent high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurement in monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO$_{3}$, we constructed a tight-binding model and proposed a superconducting (SC) pairing function which can well fit the observed band structure and SC gap anisotropy. Then we investigated the spin excitation spectra in order to determine the possible sign structure of the SC order parameter. We found that a resonance-like spin excitation may occur if the SC order parameter changes sign along the Fermi surfaces. Read More

We study the effect of exchange splitting of repulsive interactions on electronic phase transitions in the multiorbital topological crystalline insulator ${\rm Pb}_{1-x}{\rm Sn}_{x}{\rm Te}$, when the chemical potential is tuned to the vicinity of low-lying Type-II Van Hove singularities. Nontrivial Berry phases associated with the Bloch states impart momentum-dependence to electron interactions in the relevant band. We use a "multipatch" parquet renormalization group analysis for studying the competition of different electronic phases, and find that if the dominant fixed-point interactions correspond to antiparallel spin configurations, then a chiral p-wave Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state is favoured, otherwise, no phase transition takes place. Read More

We report on large thermoelectric effects in superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions in proximity contact with the ferromagnetic insulator europium sulfide. The combination of a spin-splitting field and spin-polarized tunnel conductance in these systems breaks the electron-hole symmetry and leads to spin-dependent thermoelectric currents. We show that the exchange splitting induced by the europium sulfide boosts the thermoelectric effect in small applied fields and can therefore eliminate the need to apply large magnetic fields, which might otherwise impede applications in thermometry or cooling. Read More

We have investigated the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of PdTe2 and 4% Cu intercalated PdTe2 compounds. Electrical resistivity for the compounds shows Bloch-Gruneisen type linear temperature (T) dependence for 100 K < T < 480 K, and Fermi liquid behavior (~ T^2) below 50 K. Seebeck coefficient data exhibit strong competition between Normal (N) and Umklapp (U) scattering processes at low T. Read More

High-pressure neutron powder diffraction, muon-spin rotation and magnetization studies of the structural, magnetic and the superconducting properties of the Ce-underdoped superconducting (SC) electron-doped cuprate system T'-Pr_1.3-xLa_0.7Ce_xCuO_4 with x = 0. Read More

The quest to create superconductors with higher transition temperatures is as old as superconductivity itself. One strategy, popular after the realization that (conventional) superconductivity is mediated by phonons, is to chemically combine different elements within the crystalline unit cell to maximize the electron-phonon coupling. This led to the discovery of NbTi and Nb3Sn, to name just the most technologically relevant examples. Read More

Recent transport experiments in the cuprate superconductors linked the opening of the pseudogap to a change in electronic dispersion [S. Badoux et al., Nature 531, 210 (2015)]. Read More

A systematic Raman study in the visible carried out on the YBa2Cu316,18Ox (x=6-7) compounds, with isotopic substitution of 18O for 16O, has detected a doping dependent deviation from harmonic behavior for the frequency shift of the in-phase mode, a smaller amount of anharmonicity for the apex mode, and almost no effect for the out-of-phase B1g-symmetry phonon. It appears that the amount of anharmonicity depends strongly on the oxygen concentration; it diminishes close to the tetragonal to orthorhombic structural phase transition and close to optimal doping, while it reaches its maximum value for the ortho-II and a tetragonal phase. The almost zero anharmonicity at optimal doping persists even at 77K. Read More

In the 80th anniversary book for Alex M\"uller I wrote a story of our scientific collaboration, Shared Fascinations. This time I will be more personal, about the human side of our collaboration and encounters, while also referring to episodes mentioned in Shared Fascinations. Read More

Since its proposal by Anderson, resonating valence bonds (RVB) formed by a superposition of fluctuating singlet pairs have been a paradigmatic concept in understanding quantum spin liquids (QSL). Here, we show that excitations related to singlet breaking on nearest-neighbor bonds describe the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum in YbMgGaO4, the effective spin-1/2 frustrated antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice, as originally considered by Anderson. By a thorough single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study, we demonstrate that nearest-neighbor RVB excitations account for the bulk of the spectral weight above 0. Read More

Atomic metallic hydrogen with a lattice with FDDD symmetry is shown to have a stable phase under hydrostatic compression in the range of pressure 350 - 500 GPa. Read More

The Usadel equation is the standard theoretical tool for the description of superconducting structures in the diffusive limit. Here I derive the Usadel equation for gyrotropic materials with a generic linear in momentum spin-orbit coupling. It accounts for the spin-charge/singlet-triplet coupling and in the normal state reduces to the system of spin-charge diffusion equations describing various magneto-electric effects, such as the spin Hall effect (SHE), the spin-galvanic effect (SGE) and their inverses. Read More

To explore material dependence of layered cuprate superconductors, we examine effective two-particle interactions for Hg1201 and Tl1201, where Tl1201 having a nearly half value of Tc of Hg1201 even at the optimal oxygen concentration. Although the 3dx_2-y_2 band, the Fermi surface, and its Wannier-orbitals are similar for these superconductors, there is an apparent difference in the unoccupied levels above EF. Based on a multi-reference density-functional-theory formulation, effective two-particle exchange interactions are estimated to derive enhancement in intra-layer exchange interactions for HgBa2CuO4, while it is weakened in TlBaLaCuO5 and furthermore it is weak in TlBa2CuO5. Read More

Two-dimensional electron gases with strong spin-orbit coupling covered by a superconducting layer offer a flexible and potentially scalable platform for Majorana networks. We predict Majorana bound states (MBSs) to appear for experimentally achievable parameters and realistic gate potentials in two designs: either underneath a narrow stripe of a superconducting layer (S-stripes) or where a narrow stripe has been removed from a uniform layer (N-stripes). The coupling of the MBSs can be tuned for both types in a wide range (< 1 neV to >10 $\mu$eV) using gates placed adjacent to the stripes. Read More

The challenge of understanding high-temperature superconductivity has led to a plethora of ideas, but 30 years after its discovery in cuprates, very few have achieved convincing experimental validation. While Hubbard and t-J models were given a lot of attention, a number of recent experiments appear to give decisive support to the model of real-space inter-site pairing and percolative superconductivity in cuprates. Systematic measurements of the doping dependence of the superfluid density show a linear dependence on superfluid density - rather than doping - over the entire phase diagram, in accordance with the model's predictions. Read More

Recent angle-resolved spectroscopy in BiS$_2$-based superconductors has indicated that the superconducting gap amplitude possesses remarkable anisotropy and/or a sign change on a small Fermi pocket around $X$ point. It implies a possibility of an unconventional pairing state. Here we study the gap anisotropy in superconductivity mediated by inherent charge/quadrupole fluctuations in an extended Hubbard model, which includes inter-site interaction between Bi and S atoms. Read More

The planar oxygen isotope effect coefficient measured as a function of hole doping in the Pr- and La-doped YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and the Ni-doped La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 (LSCO) superconductors quantitatively and qualitatively follows the form originally proposed by Kresin and Wolf, which was derived for polarons perpendicular to the superconducting planes. Read More

It is a great pleasure to be invited to join the chorus on this auspicious occasion to celebrate Professor K. Alex Mueller's 90th birthday by Professors Annette Bussman-Holder, Hugo Keller, and Antonio Bianconi. As a student in high temperature superconductivity, I am forever grateful to Professor Alex Mueller and Dr. Read More

The proof of the Luttinger theorem, which was originally given for a normal Fermi liquid with equal spin populations formally described by the exact many-body theory at zero temperature, is here extended to an approximate theory given in terms of a "conserving" approximation also with spin imbalanced populations. The need for this extended proof, whose underlying assumptions are here spelled out in detail, stems from the recent interest in superfluid trapped Fermi atoms with attractive inter-particle interaction, for which the difference between two spin populations can be made large enough that superfluidity is destroyed and the system remains normal even at zero temperature. In this context, we will demonstrate the validity of the Luttinger theorem separately for the two spin populations for any "$\Phi$-derivable" approximation, and illustrate it in particular for the self-consistent $t$-matrix approximation. Read More

High temperature superconductivity appears in the cuprates when a spin order is destroyed, while the role of charge is less known. Recent experimental progress suggests that the spin and charge degrees of freedom are highly entangled, which may lead to the enigmatic normal-state pseudogap that spans from the parent antiferromagnetic (AF) insulating phase to the overdoped superconducting regime. For example, short-range charge density wave (CDW) sets in right at the pseudogap temperature $T^{*}$ in single-layered Bi$_2$Sr$_{2-x}$La$_x$CuO$_{6+\delta}$, below which spin fluctuations are suppressed. Read More

We report point contact Andreev Reflection (PCAR) measurements on a high-quality single crystal of the non-centrosymmetric superconductor Re6Zr. We observe that the PCAR spectra can be fitted by taking two isotropic superconducting gaps with Delta_1 ~ 0.79 meV and Delta_2 ~ 0. Read More

Iron pnictides are the only known family of unconventional high-temperature superconductors besides cuprates. Until recently, it was widely accepted that superconductivity is spin-fluctuation driven and intimately related to their fermiology, specifically, hole and electron pockets separated by the same wave vector that characterizes the dominant spin fluctuations, and supporting order parameters (OP) of opposite signs. This picture was questioned after the discovery of a new family, based on the FeSe layers, either intercalated or in the monolayer form. Read More

In contact with a superconductor, a normal metal modifies its properties due to Andreev reflection. In the current work, the local density of states (LDOS) of superconductor - normal metal Mo$_{78}$Ge$_{22}$ - Au bilayers are studied by means of STM applied from the Au side. Three bilayers have been prepared on silicate glass substrate consisting of 100, 10 and 5 nm MoGe thin films covered always by 5 nm Au layer. Read More

From the very beginning K. Alex M\"uller emphasized that the materials he and George Bednorz discovered in 1986 were $hole$ superconductors. Here I would like to share with him and others what I believe to be $the$ key reason for why high $T_c$ cuprates as well as all other superconductors are hole superconductors, which I only came to understand a few months ago. Read More

We show that quantum interference effects mean that the effective spin model for the dimer Mott insulator phase of $\kappa$-(BEDT-TTF)$_2X$ salts is quasi-one-dimensional. We argue that the "spin liquid" phase observed in some of these materials is a remnant of the Tomonaga-Luttinger physics of a single chain. This is consistent with previous experiments and resolves some outstanding puzzles. Read More

Long after its discovery superconductivity in alkali fullerides A$_3$C$_{60}$ still challenges conventional wisdom. The freshest inroad in such ever-surprising physics is the behaviour under intense infrared (IR) excitation. Signatures attributable to a transient superconducting state extending up to temperatures ten times higher than the equilibrium $T_c\sim$ 20 K have been discovered in K$_3$C$_{60}$ after ultra-short pulsed IR irradiation -- an effect which still appears as remarkable as mysterious. Read More

We study the superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition in disordered Josephson junction chains. To this end, we derive the field theory from the lattice model that describes a chain of superconducting islands with a capacitive coupling to the ground ($C_0$) as well as between the islands ($C_1$). We analyze the theory in the short-range ($C_1 \ll C_0$) and in the long-range ($C_1 \gg C_0$) limits. Read More

The intricate interplay of interactions and Fermiology can give rise to a close competition between nodeless (e.g. s-wave) and nodal (e. Read More

We investigate the effect of annealing temperature on the crystalline structure and physical properties of tantalum-pentoxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. For this purpose, several tantalum films were deposited and the Ta$_2$O$_5$ crystalline phase was induced by exposing the samples to heat treatments in air in the temperature range from (575 to 1000)$^\circ$C. Coating characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Read More

We discuss dynamical response functions near quantum critical points, allowing for both a finite temperature and detuning by a relevant operator. When the quantum critical point is described by a conformal field theory (CFT), conformal perturbation theory and the operator product expansion can be used to fix the first few leading terms at high frequencies. Knowledge of the high frequency response allows us then to derive non-perturbative sum rules. Read More

We study the effect of critical pairing fluctuations on the electronic properties in the normal state of a clean superconductor in three dimensions. Using a functional renormalization group approach to take the non-Gaussian nature of critical fluctuations into account, we show microscopically that in the BCS regime, where the inverse coherence length is much smaller than the Fermi wavevector, critical pairing fluctuations give rise to a non-analytic contribution to the quasi-particle damping of order $ T_c \sqrt{Gi} \ln ( 80 / Gi )$, where the Ginzburg-Levanyuk number $Gi$ is a dimensionless measure for the width of the critical region. As a consequence, there is a temperature window above $T_c$ where the quasiparticle damping due to critical pairing fluctuations can be larger than the usual $T^2$-Fermi liquid damping due to non-critical scattering processes. Read More

Cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) have complex phase diagrams with multiple competing ordered phases. Understanding to which degree charge, spin, and superconducting orders compete or coexist is paramount for elucidating the microscopic pairing mechanism in the cuprate HTSs. Here, we report muon-spin rotation and neutron-scattering experiments on non-magnetic Zn impurity effects on the static spin-stripe order and superconductivity of the La214 cuprates. Read More

MoTe_2, with the orthorhombic T_d phase, is a new type (type-II) of Weyl semimetal, where the Weyl Fermions emerge at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. Non-saturating magnetoresistance (MR), and superconductivity were also observed in T_d-MoTe_2. Understanding the superconductivity in T_d-MoTe_2, which was proposed to be topologically non-trivial, is of eminent interest. Read More