Physics - Statistical Mechanics Publications (50)

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Physics - Statistical Mechanics Publications

We consider the dynamics of a system of free fermions on a 1D lattice in the presence of a defect moving at constant velocity. The defect has the form of a localized time-dependent variation of the chemical potential and induces at long times a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS), which spreads around the defect. We present a general formulation which allows recasting the time-dependent protocol in a scattering problem on a static potential. Read More


Real non-symmetric matrices may have either real or complex conjugate eigenvalues. These matrices can be seen to be pseudo-symmetric as $\eta M \eta^{-1} = M^t$, where the metric $\eta$ could be secular (a constant matrix) or depending upon the matrix elements of $M$. Here, we construct ensembles of a large number $N$ of pseudo-symmetric $n \times n$ ($n$ large) matrices using ${\cal N}$ $(n(n+1)/2 \le {\cal N} \le n^2)$ independent and identically distributed (iid) random numbers as their elements. Read More


We construct the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) density operator of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain with non-diagonal boundary magnetic fields coupled to boundary dissipators. The Markovian boundary dis- sipation is found with which the NESS density operator is expressed in terms of the product of the Lax operators by relating the dissipation parameters to the boundary parameters of the spin chain. The NESS density operator can be expressed in terms of a non-Hermitian transfer operator (NHTO) which forms a commuting family of quasilocal charges. Read More


This article is a brief introduction to the rapidly evolving field of many-body localization. Rather than giving an in-depth review of the subject, our aspiration here is simply to introduce the problem and its general context, outlining a few directions where notable progress has been achieved in recent years. We hope that this will prepare the readers for the more specialized articles appearing in the forthcoming dedicated volume of Annalen der Physik, where these developments are discussed in more detail. Read More


Rheology of cohesive dilute granular gases is theoretically and numerically studied. The flow curve between the shear viscosity and the shear rate is derived from the inelastic Boltzmann equation for particles under the influence of square-well potentials in a simple uniform shear state. It is found that the stable uniformly sheared state only exists above a critical shear rate in which the viscosity is almost identical to that for uniformly sheared hard core granular particles. Read More


We introduce and study dynamical probes of band structure topology in the post-quench time-evolution from mixed initial states of quantum many-body systems. Our construction generalizes the notion of dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), a real-time counterpart of conventional equilibrium phase transitions in quantum dynamics, to finite temperatures and generalized Gibbs ensembles. The non-analytical signatures hallmarking these mixed state DQPTs are found to be characterized by observable phase singularities manifesting in the dynamical formation of vortex-antivortex pairs in the interferometric phase of the density matrix. Read More


Random quantum circuits yield minimally structured models for chaotic quantum dynamics, able to capture for example universal properties of entanglement growth. We provide exact results and coarse-grained models for the spreading of operators by quantum circuits made of Haar-random unitaries. We study both 1+1D and higher dimensions, and argue that the coarse-grained pictures carry over to operator spreading in generic many-body systems. Read More


We establish a scenario where fluctuations of new degrees of freedom at a quantum phase transition change the nature of a transition beyond the standard Landau-Ginzburg paradigm. To this end we study the quantum phase transition of gapless Dirac fermions coupled to a $\mathbb{Z}_3$ symmetric order parameter within a Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model in 2+1 dimensions, appropriate for the Kekul\'e transition in honeycomb lattice materials. For this model the standard Landau-Ginzburg approach suggests a first order transition due to the symmetry-allowed cubic terms in the action. Read More


The boundary algebraic Bethe Ansatz for a supersymmetric nineteen vertex-model constructed from a three-dimensional representation of the twisted quantum affine Lie superalgebra $U_{q}[\mathrm{osp}(2|2)^{(2)}]$ is presented. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Sklyanin's transfer matrix, with diagonal reflection $K$-matrices, are calculated and the corresponding Bethe Ansatz equations are obtained. Read More


Fractionalization is a hallmark of spin-liquid behavior; it typically leads to response functions consisting of continua instead of sharp modes. However, microscopic processes can enable the formation of short-distance bound states of fractionalized excitations, despite asymptotic deconfinement. Here we study such bound-state formation for the $Z_2$ spin liquid realized in Kitaev's honeycomb compass model, supplemented by a kekule distortion of the lattice. Read More


Close to equilibrium, the exchange of particles and heat between macroscopic systems at different temperatures and different chemical potentials is known to be governed by a matrix of transport coefficients which is positive and symmetric. We investigate the amounts of heat and particles that are exchanged between two small quantum systems within a given time, and find them characterized by a transport matrix which neither needs to be symmetric nor positive. At larger times even spontaneous transport can be observed in the total absence of temperature and chemical potential differences provided that the two systems are different in size. Read More


Starting from a Langevin formulation of a thermally perturbed nonlinear elastic model of the ferroelectric smectic-C$^*$ (SmC${*}$) liquid crystals in the presence of an electric field, this article characterizes the hitherto unexplored dynamical phase transition from a thermo-electrically forced ferroelectric SmC${}^{*}$ phase to a chiral nematic liquid crystalline phase and vice versa. The theoretical analysis is based on a combination of dynamic renormalization (DRG) and numerical simulation of the emergent model. While the DRG architecture predicts a generic transition to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class at dynamic equilibrium, in agreement with recent experiments, the numerical simulations of the model show simultaneous existence of two phases, one a "subdiffusive" (SD) phase characterized by a dynamical exponent value of 1, and the other a KPZ phase, characterized by a dynamical exponent value of 1. Read More


Recent experiments on mixed liquid crystals have highlighted the hugely significant role of ferromagnetic nanoparticle impurities in defining the nematic-smectic-A phase transition point. Structured around a Flory-Huggins free energy of isotropic mixing and Landau-de Gennes free energy, this article presents a phenomenological mean-field model that quantifies the role of such impurities in analyzing thermodynamic phases, in a mixture of thermotropic smectic liquid crystal and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. First we discuss the impact of ferromagnetic nanoparticles on the isotropic-ferronematic and ferronematic-ferrosmectic phase transitions and their transition temperatures. Read More


Cell state determination is the outcome of intrinsically stochastic biochemical reactions. Tran- sitions between such states are studied as noise-driven escape problems in the chemical species space. Escape can occur via multiple possible multidimensional paths, with probabilities depending non-locally on the noise. Read More


In the tensor-network framework, the expectation values of two-dimensional quantum states are evaluated by contracting a double-layer tensor network constructed from initial and final tensor-network states. The computational cost for carrying out this contraction is generally very high, which limits the largest bond dimension of tensor-network states that can be accurately studied to a relatively small value. We propose a dimension reduction scheme to solve this problem by mapping the double-layer tensor network onto an intersected single-layer tensor network. Read More


We analyze universal terms that appear in the large system size scaling of the overlap between the N\'eel state and the ground state of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic regime. In a critical theory, the order one term of the asymptotics of such an overlap may be expressed in terms of $g$-factors, known in the context of boundary conformal field theory. In particular, for the XXZ model in its gapless phase, this term provides access to the Luttinger parameter. Read More


In a recent work on fluid infiltration in a Hele-Shaw cell with the pore-block geometry of Sierpinski carpets (SCs), the area filled by the invading fluid was shown to scale as F~t^n, with n<1/2, thus providing a macroscopic realization of anomalous diffusion [Filipovitch et al, Water Resour. Res. 52 5167 (2016)]. Read More


The present work concerns a version of the Fisher-KPP equation where the nonlinear term is replaced by a saturation mechanism, yielding a free boundary problem with mixed conditions. Following an idea proposed in [BrunetDerrida.2015], we show that the Laplace transform of the initial condition is directly related to some functional of the front position $\mu_t$. Read More


We address anew the random dynamics in a bounded domain, while focusing on somewhat unexplored affinities between the presence of absorbing and/or inaccessible boundaries. For the Brownian motion (L\'{e}vy-stable cases are briefly mentioned) model-independent features of the long-term survival, including these of the permanent trapping, are established. Generalization of these arguments to stochastic processes with killing in an unbounded domain is provided as well. Read More


Granular materials are an important physical realization of active matter. In vibration-fluidized granular matter, both diffusion and self-propulsion derive from the same collisional forcing, unlike many other active systems where there is a clean separation between the origin of single-particle mobility and the coupling to noise. Here we present experimental studies of single-particle motion in a vibrated granular monolayer, along with theoretical analysis that compares grain motion at short and long time scales to the assumptions and predictions, respectively, of the active Brownian particle (ABP) model. Read More


Athermal disordered systems can exhibit a remarkable response to an applied oscillatory shear: after a relatively few shearing cycles, the system falls into a configuration that had already been visited in a previous cycle. After this point the system repeats its dynamics periodically despite undergoing many particle rearrangements during each cycle. We study the behavior of orbits as we approach the jamming point in simulations of jammed particles subject to oscillatory shear at fixed pressure and zero temperature. Read More


We study transient behaviour in the dynamics of complex systems described by a set of non-linear ODE's. Destabilizing nature of transient trajectories is discussed and its connection with the eigenvalue-based linearization procedure. The complexity is realized as a random matrix drawn from a modified May-Wigner model. Read More


We have revisited the mean-field treatment for the Blume-Capel model under the presence of a discrete random magnetic field as introduced by Kaufman and Kanner. The magnetic field ($H$) versus temperature ($T$) phase diagrams for given values of the crystal field $D$ were recovered in accordance to Kaufman and Kanner original work. However, our main goal in the present work was to investigate the distinct structures of the crystal field versus temperature phase diagrams as the random magnetic field is varied because similar models have presented reentrant phenomenon due to randomness. Read More


Even though the evolution of an isolated quantum system is unitary, the complexity of interacting many-body systems prevents the observation of recurrences of quantum states for all but the smallest systems. For large systems one can not access the full complexity of the quantum states and the requirements to observe a recurrence in experiments reduces to being close to the initial state with respect to the employed observable. Selecting an observable connected to the collective excitations in one-dimensional superfluids, we demonstrate recurrences of coherence and long range order in an interacting quantum many-body system containing thousands of particles. Read More


2017May
Affiliations: 1Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55128 Mainz, Germany, 2Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55128 Mainz, Germany, 3Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55128 Mainz, Germany, 4Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55128 Mainz, Germany

Monte Carlo simulations of crystal nuclei coexisting with the fluid phase in thermal equilibrium in finite volumes are presented and analyzed, for fluid densities from dense melts to the vapor. Generalizing the lever-rule for two-phase coexistence in the canonical ensemble to finite volume, "measurements" of the nucleus volume together with the pressure and chemical potential of the surrounding fluid allows to extract the surface free energy of the nucleus. Neither the knowledge of the (in general non-spherical) nucleus shape nor of the angle-dependent interface tension is required for this task. Read More


Diffusion in a two-species 2D system has been simulated using a lattice approach. Rodlike particles were considered as linear $k$-mers of two mutually perpendicular orientations ($k_x$- and $k_y$-mers) on a square lattice. These $k_x$- and $k_y$-mers were treated as species of two kinds. Read More


Based on the method of hydrodynamic projections we derive a concise formula for the Drude weight of the repulsive Lieb-Liniger $\delta$-Bose gas. Our formula contains only quantities which are obtainable from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. The Drude weight is an infinite-dimensional matrix, or bilinear functional: it is bilinear in the currents, and each current may refer to a general linear combination of the conserved charges of the model. Read More


What are the conditions for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) to outperform classical computation? We consider the strong quantum speedup: scaling advantage in computational time over the best classical algorithms. Although there exist several quantum adiabatic algorithms achieving the strong quantum speedup, the essential keys to their speedups are still unclear. Here, we propose a necessary condition for the quantum speedup in AQC. Read More


We introduce a physically motivated theoretical approach to investigate the stochastic dynamics of a particle confined in a periodic potential. The particle motion is described through the Il'in Khasminskii model, which is close to the usual Brownian motion and reduces to it in the overdamped limit. Our approach gives access to the transient and the asymptotic dynamics in all damping regimes, which are difficult to investigate in the usual Brownian model. Read More


We study the matrix elements of few-body observables, focusing on the off-diagonal ones, in the eigenstates of the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model. By resolving all possible symmetries, we relate the onset of quantum chaos to the structure of the matrix elements. In particular, we show that a general result of the theory of random matrices, namely, the value 2 of the ratio of variances (diagonal to off-diagonal) of the matrix elements of Hermitian operators, occurs in the quantum chaotic regime. Read More


The study of energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials has attracted scientific interest for more than a century, and it continues to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the unanswered challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Specifically, the effect of strong nonlinearity has been largely unexplored experimentally, partly due to the paucity of testbeds that can combine the effect of disorder and nonlinearity in a controllable manner. Read More


Virtually all questions that one can ask about the behavioral and structural complexity of a stochastic process reduce to a linear algebraic framing of a time evolution governed by an appropriate hidden-Markov process generator. Each type of question---correlation, predictability, predictive cost, observer synchronization, and the like---induces a distinct generator class. Answers are then functions of the class-appropriate transition dynamic. Read More


A principled approach to understand network structures is to formulate generative models. Given a collection of models, however, an outstanding key task is to determine which one provides a more accurate description of the network at hand, discounting statistical fluctuations. This problem can be approached using two principled criteria that at first may seem equivalent: selecting the most plausible model in terms of its posterior probability; or selecting the model with the highest predictive performance in terms of identifying missing links. Read More


The process of pattern formation for a multi-species model anchored on a time varying network is studied. A non homogeneous perturbation superposed to an homogeneous stable fixed point can amplify, as follows a novel mechanism of instability, reminiscent of the Turing type, instigated by the network dynamics. By properly tuning the frequency of the imposed network evolution, one can make the examined system behave as its averaged counterpart, over a finite time window. Read More


We perform a thorough analysis of the spectral statistics of experimental molecular resonances, of bosonic Erbium $^{166}$Er and $^{168}$Er isotopes, produced as a function of magnetic field($B$) by Frisch {\it{et al.}} [{\it{Nature {\bf{507}}, (2014) 475}}], utilizing some recently derived surmises which interpolate between Poisson and GOE and without unfolding. Supplementing this with an analysis using unfolded spectrum, it is shown that the resonances are close to semi-Poisson distribution. Read More


Superbosonization formula aims at rigorously calculating fermionic integrals via employing supersymmetry. We derive such a supermatrix representation of superfield integrals and specify integration contours for the supermatrices. The derivation is essentially based on the supersymmetric generalization of the Itzikson-Zuber integral in the presence of anomalies in the Berezinian and shows how an integral over supervectors is eventually reduced to an integral over commuting variables. Read More


Thermal fluctuations can lift the degeneracy of a ground state manifold, producing a free energy landscape without accidentally degenerate minima. In a process known as order by disorder, a subset of states incorporating symmetry-breaking may be selected. Here, we show that such a free energy landscape can be controlled in a non-equilibrium setting as the slow motion within the ground state manifold is governed by the fast modes out of it. Read More


We study the relative entanglement entropy (EE) among various primary excited states in two critical spin chains: the S=1/2 XXZ chain and the transverse field Ising chain at criticality. For the S=1/2 XXZ chain, which corresponds to c=1 free boson conformal field theory (CFT), we numerically calculate the relative EE by exact diagonalization and find a perfect agreement with the predictions by the CFT. For the transverse field Ising chain at criticality, which corresponds to the c=1/2 Ising CFT, we analytically relate its relative EE to that of the S=1/2 XXZ chain and confirm the relation numerically. Read More


This paper revisits the classical problem of representing a thermal bath interacting with a system as a large collection of harmonic oscillators initially in thermal equilibrium. As is well known the system then obeys an equation, which in the bulk and in the suitable limit tends to the Kramers-Langevin equation of physical kinetics. I consider time-dependent system-bath coupling and show that this leads to an additional harmonic force acting on the system. Read More


We investigate the spin structure of a uni-axial chiral magnet near the transition temperatures in low fields perpendicular to the helical axis. We find a fan-type modulation structure where the clockwise and counterclockwise windings appear alternatively along the propagation direction of the modulation structure. This structure is often realized in a Yoshimori-type (non-chiral) helimagnet but it is rarely realized in a chiral helimagnet. Read More


The relationship between bulk and boundary properties is one of the founding features of (Rational) Conformal Field Theory. Our goal in this paper is to explore the possibility of having an equivalent relationship in the context of lattice models. We focus on models based on the Temperley-Lieb algebra, and use the concept of braid translation, which is a natural way to close an open spin chain by adding an interaction between the first and last spins using braiding to bring them next to each other. Read More


We consider a probe linearly coupled to the center of mass of a nonequilibrium bath. We study the induced motion on the probe for a model where a resetting mechanism is added to an overdamped bath dynamics with quadratic potentials. The fact that each bath-particle is at random times being reset to a fixed position is known for optimizing diffusive search strategies, but here stands for the nonequilibrium aspect of the bath. Read More


We introduce and physically motivate the following problem in geometric combinatorics, originally inspired by analysing Bell inequalities. A grasshopper lands at a random point on a planar lawn of area one. It then jumps once, a fixed distance $d$, in a random direction. Read More


Chaotic dynamics in quantum many-body systems scrambles local information so that at late times it can no longer be accessed locally. This is reflected quantitatively in the out-of-time-ordered correlator of local operators which is expected to decay to zero with time. However, for systems of finite size, out-of-time-ordered correlators do not decay exactly to zero and we show in this paper that the residue value can provide useful insights into the chaotic dynamics. Read More


We study a class of non-equilibrium quasi-stationary states for a Markov system interacting with two different thermal baths. We show that the work done under a slow, external change of parameters admits a potential, i.e. Read More


Density Functional Theory relies on universal functionals characteristic of a given system. Those functionals in general are different for the electron gas and for jellium (electron gas with uniform background). However, jellium is frequently used to construct approximate functionals for the electron gas (e. Read More


This thesis presents several aspects of the physics of disordered elastic systems and of the analytical methods used for their study. On one hand we will be interested in universal properties of avalanche processes in the statics and dynamics (at the depinning transition) of elastic interfaces of arbitrary dimension in disordered media at zero temperature. To study these questions we will use the functional renormalization group. Read More


Collective variable (CV) or order parameter based enhanced sampling algorithms have achieved great success due to their ability to efficiently explore the rough potential energy landscapes of complex systems. However, the degeneracy of microscopic configurations, originating from the orthogonal space perpendicular to the CVs, is likely to shadow "hidden barriers" and greatly reduce the efficiency of CV-based sampling. Here we demonstrate that systematic machine learning CV, through enhanced sampling, can iteratively lift such degeneracies on the fly. Read More


Fluctuations and response of nonequilibrium systems show both entropic and frenetic aspects. Under local detailed balance the expected entropy production rate can always be bounded in terms of the expected dynamical activity given the current system condition. The activity or frenetic contribution refers to the time-symmetric contribution in the action functional for path-space probabilities. Read More


Thermalized elastic membranes without distant self-avoidance are believed to undergo a crumpling transition when the microscopic bending stiffness is comparable to $kT$. Most potential physical realizations of such membranes have a bending stiffness well in excess of experimentally achievable temperatures and are therefore unlikely ever to access the crumpling regime. We propose a mechanism to tune the onset of the crumpling transition by altering the geometry and topology of the sheet itself. Read More