Physics - Statistical Mechanics Publications (50)

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Physics - Statistical Mechanics Publications

We consider an exclusion process with long jumps in the box $\Lambda_N=\{1, \ldots,N-1\}$, for $N \ge 2$, in contact with infinitely extended reservoirs on its left and on its right. The jump rate is described by a transition probability $p(\cdot)$ which is symmetric, with infinite support but with finite variance. The reservoirs add or remove particles with rate proportional to $\kappa N^{-\theta}$, where $\kappa>0$ and $\theta \in \mathbb{R}$. Read More


The ensemble properties and time-averaged observables of a memory-induced diffusive-superdiffusive transition are studied. The model consists in a random walker whose transitions in a given direction depend on a weighted linear combination of the number of both right and left previous transitions. Depending on the characteristic memory parameters, the ensemble behavior may be normal, superdiffusive, or ballistic. Read More


It is well known that interpreting the cosmological constant as the pressure, the AdS black holes behave as van der Waals thermodynamic system. In this case, like a phase transition from vapor to liquid in a usual van der Waals system, black holes also changes phases about a critical point in $P$-$V$ picture, where $P$ is the pressure and $V$ is the thermodynamic volume. Here we give a geometrical description of this phase transition. Read More


Cooling oxygen-deficient strontium titanate to liquid-helium temperature leads to a decrease in its electrical resistivity by several orders of magnitude. The temperature dependence of resistivity follows a rough T$^{3}$ behavior before becoming T$^{2}$ in the low-temperature limit, as expected in a Fermi liquid. Here, we show that the roughly cubic resistivity above 100K corresponds to a regime where the quasi-particle mean-free-path is shorter than the electron wave-length and the interatomic distance. Read More


Soft particulate media include a wide range of systems involving athermal dissipative particles both in non-living and biological materials. Characterization of flows of particulate media is of great practical and theoretical importance. A fascinating feature of these systems is the existence of a critical rigidity transition in the dense regime dominated by highly intermittent fluctuations that severely affects the flow properties. Read More


We derive a new time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation(TDSE) for quantum models with non-hermitian Hamiltonian. Within our theory, the TDSE is symmetric in the two Hilbert spaces spanned by the left and the right eigenstates, respectively. The physical quantities are also identical in these two spaces. Read More


The statistics of work performed on a system by a sudden random quench is investigated. Considering systems with finite dimensional Hilbert spaces we model a sudden random quench by randomly choosing elements from a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) consisting of hermitean matrices with identically, Gaussian distributed matrix elements. A probability density function (pdf) of work in terms of initial and final energy distributions is derived and evaluated for a two-level system. Read More


We establish an exact mapping between (i) the equilibrium (imaginary time) dynamics of non-interacting fermions trapped in a harmonic potential at temperature $T=1/\beta$ and (ii) non-intersecting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) particles constrained to return to their initial positions after time $\beta$. Exploiting the determinantal structure of the process we compute the universal correlation functions both in the bulk and at the edge of the trapped Fermi gas. The latter corresponds to the top path of the non-intersecting OU particles, and leads us to introduce and study the time-periodic Airy$_2$ process, ${\cal A}^b_2(u)$, depending on a single parameter, the period $b$. Read More


We generate a crystal of skyrmions in two dimensions using a Heisenberg Hamiltonian including the ferromagnetic interaction J, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction D, and an applied magnetic field H. The ground state (GS) is determined by minimizing the interaction energy. We show that the GS is a skyrmion crystal in a region of (D, H). Read More


We investigate different mean-field-like approximations for stochastic dynamics on graphs, within the framework of a cluster-variational approach. In analogy with its equilibrium counterpart, this approach allows one to give a unified view of various (previously known) approximation schemes, and suggests quite a systematic way to improve the level of accuracy. We compare the different approximations with Monte Carlo simulations on a reversible (susceptible-infected-susceptible) discrete-time epidemic-spreading model on random graphs. Read More


Fluctuation Theorems are central in stochastic thermodynamics, as they allow for quantifying the irreversibility of single trajectories. Although they have been experimentally checked in the classical regime, a practical demonstration in the framework of quantum open systems is still to come. Here we propose a realistic platform to probe fluctuation theorems in the quantum regime. Read More


Thermodynamic potential of a neutral two-dimensional (2D) Cou\-lomb fluid, confined to a large domain with a smooth boundary, exhibits at any (inverse) temperature $\beta$ a logarithmic finite-size correction term whose universal prefactor depends only on the Euler number of the domain and the conformal anomaly number $c=-1$. A minimal free boson conformal field theory, which is equivalent to the 2D symmetric two-component plasma of elementary $\pm e$ charges at coupling constant $\Gamma=\beta e^2$, was studied in the past. It was shown that creating a non-neutrality by spreading out a charge $Q e$ at infinity modifies the anomaly number to $c(Q,\Gamma) = - 1 + 3\Gamma Q^2$. Read More


We obtain the solutions of the generic bilinear master equation for a quantum oscillator with constant coefficients in the Gaussian form. The well-behavedness and positive semidefiniteness of the stationary states could be characterized by a three-dimensional Minkowski vector. By requiring the stationary states to satisfy a factorized condition, we obtain a generic class of master equations that includes the well-known ones and their generalizations, some of which are completely positive. Read More


We consider self-avoiding lattice polygons, in the square and cubic lattices, as a model of a ring polymer adsorbed at a surface and either being desorbed by the action of a force, or pushed towards the surface. We show that, when there is no interaction with the surface, then the response of the polygon to the applied force is identical (in the thermodynamic limit) for two ways in which we apply the force. When the polygon is attracted to the surface then, when the dimension is at least 3, we have a complete characterization of the critical force{temperature curve in terms of the behaviour, (a) when there is no force, and, (b) when there is no surface interaction. Read More


We discuss, in the context of energy flow in high-dimensional systems and Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser (KAM) theory, the behavior of a chain of rotators (rotors) which is purely Hamiltonian, apart from dissipation at just one end. We derive bounds on the dissipation rate which become arbitrarily small in certain physical regimes, and we present numerical evidence that these bounds are sharp. We relate this to the decoupling of non-resonant terms as is known in KAM problems. Read More


The shear viscosity $\eta$ for a dilute classical gas of hard-sphere particles is calculated by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation in terms of the weakly absorbed plane waves. For the rare collision regime, the viscosity $\eta$ as function of the equilibrium gas parameters -- temperature $T$, particle number density $n$, particle mass $m$, and hard-core particle diameter $d$ -- is quite different from that of the frequent collision regime, e.g. Read More


We analyze diffusion at low temperatures by bringing the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to bear on a response-function which, given current technology, can be realized in a laboratory with ultra cold atoms. As with our earlier analysis, the new response-function also leads to a logarithmic diffusion law in the quantum domain, indicating that this behavior is robust. The new response function has the additional advantage of yielding a positive mean square displacement even in the regime of ultrashort times, and more generally of complying with both "Wightman positivity" and "passivity", whose interrelationship we also discuss. Read More


Zika virus (ZIKV) exhibits unique transmission dynamics in that it is concurrently spread by a mosquito vector and through sexual contact. We show that this sexual component of ZIKV transmission induces novel processes on networks through the highly asymmetric durations of infectiousness between males and females -- it is estimated that males are infectious for periods up to ten times longer than females -- leading to an asymmetric percolation process on the network of sexual contacts. We exactly solve the properties of this asymmetric percolation on random sexual contact networks and show that this process exhibits two epidemic transitions corresponding to a core-periphery structure. Read More


Quantum integrable systems, such as the interacting Bose gas in one dimension and the XXZ quantum spin chain, have an extensive number of local conserved quantities that endow them with exotic thermalization and transport properties. We review recently introduced hydrodynamic approaches for such integrable systems in detail and extend them to finite times and arbitrary initial conditions. We then discuss how such methods can be applied to describe non-equilibrium steady states involving ballistic heat and spin currents. Read More


The learning rate is an information-theoretical quantity for bipartite Markov chains describing two coupled subsystems. It is defined as the rate at which transitions in the downstream subsystem tend to increase the mutual information between the two subsystems, and is bounded by the dissipation arising from these transitions. Its physical interpretation, however, is unclear, although it has been used as a metric for the sensing performance of the downstream subsystem. Read More


We study phase transitions in classical spin ice at nonzero magnetization, by introducing a mean-field theory designed to capture the interplay between confinement and topological constraints. The method is applied to a model of spin ice in an applied magnetic field along the [100] crystallographic direction and yields a phase diagram containing the Coulomb phase as well as a set of magnetization plateaux. We argue that the lobe structure of the phase diagram, strongly reminiscent of the Bose-Hubbard model, is generic to Coulomb spin liquids. Read More


A classification of SU(2)-invariant Projected Entangled Paired States (PEPS) on the square lattice, based on a unique site tensor, has been recently introduced by Mambrini et al. (2016). It is not clear whether such SU(2)-invariant PEPS can either i) exhibit long-range magnetic order (like in the N\'eel phase) or ii) describe a genuine Quantum Critical Point (QCP) separating two ordered phases. Read More


In kinetic theory, a system is usually described by its one-particle distribution function $f(\mathbf{r},\mathbf{v},t)$, such that $f(\mathbf{r},\mathbf{v},t)d\mathbf{r} d\mathbf{v}$ is the fraction of particles with positions and velocities in the intervals $(\mathbf{r}, \mathbf{r}+d\mathbf{r})$ and $(\mathbf{v}, \mathbf{v}+d\mathbf{v})$, respectively. Therein, global stability and the possible existence of an associated Lyapunov function or $H$-theorem are open problems when non-conservative interactions are present, as in granular fluids. Here, we address this issue in the framework of a lattice model for granular-like velocity fields. Read More


It has been proposed to investigate the equilibration properties of a small isolated quantum system by means of the matrix of asymptotic transition probabilities in some preferential basis. The trace $T$ of this matrix measures the degree of equilibration of the system prepared in a typical state of the preferential basis. This quantity may vary between unity (ideal equilibration) and the dimension $N$ of the Hilbert space (no equilibration at all). Read More


The free fermion nature of interacting spins in one dimensional (1D) spin chains still lacks a rigorous study. In this letter we show that the length-$1$ spin strings significantly dominate critical properties of spinons, magnons and free fermions in the 1D antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain. Using the Bethe ansatz solution we analytically calculate exact scaling functions of thermal and magnetic properties of the model, providing a rigorous understanding of the quantum criticality of spinons. Read More


The one-dimensional symmetric exclusion process, the simplest interacting particle process, is a lattice-gas made of particles that hop symmetrically on a discrete line respecting hard-core exclusion. The system is prepared on the infinite lattice with a step initial profile with average densities $\rho_{+}$ and $\rho_{-}$ on the right and on the left of the origin. When $\rho_{+} = \rho_{-}$, the gas is at equilibrium and undergoes stationary fluctuations. Read More


Despite well over a century of effort, the proper expression for the classical entropy in statistical mechanics remains a subject of debate. The Boltzmann entropy (calculated from a surface in phase space) has been criticized as not being an adiabatic invariant. It has been suggested that the Gibbs entropy (volume in phase space) is correct, which would forbid the concept of negative temperatures. Read More


The Principle of Maximum Entropy, a powerful and general method for inferring the distribution function given a set of constraints, is applied to deduce the overall distribution of plasmoids (flux ropes/tubes). The analysis is undertaken for the general 3D case, with mass, total flux and (3D) velocity serving as the variables of interest, on account of their physical and observational relevance. The distribution functions for the mass, width, total flux and helicity exhibit a power-law behavior with exponents of $-4/3$, $-2$, $-3$ and $-2$ respectively for small values, whilst all of them display an exponential falloff for large values. Read More


We give an overview of various Markov processes that reproduce statistics of established models of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Kolmogorov scaling, extended self-similarity and a class of random cascade models are represented by a Markov cascade process for the velocity increment $u(r)$ in scale $r$ that follows from two properties of the Navier-Stokes equation. The fluctuation theorem of this Markov process implies a "second law" that puts a loose bound on the multipliers of random cascade models. Read More


We study a mass transport model on a ring with parallel update, where a continuous mass is randomly redistributed along distinct links of the lattice, choosing at random one of the two partitions at each time step. The redistribution process on a given link depends on the masses on both sites, at variance with the Zero Range Process and its continuous mass generalizations. We show that the steady-state distribution takes a simple non-factorized form that can be written as a sum of two inhomogeneous product measures. Read More


We investigate critical $N$-component scalar field theories and the spontaneous breaking of scale invariance in three dimensions using functional renormalisation. Global and local renormalisation group flows are solved analytically in the infinite $N$ limit to establish the phase diagram including the Wilson-Fisher fixed point and a line of asymptotically safe UV fixed points characterised by an exactly marginal sextic coupling. We also study the Bardeen-Moshe-Bander phenomenon of spontaneously broken scale invariance and the stability of the vacuum for general regularisation. Read More


As an unusual type of anomalous diffusion behavior, the (transient) superballistic transport has been experimentally observed recently but it is not well understood yet. In this paper, we investigate the white noise effect (in Markov approximation) on the quantum diffusion in 1D tight-binding model with periodic, disordered and quasi-periodic region of size L attached to two perfect lattices at both ends in which the wave packet is initially located at the center of the sublattice. We find that in some completely localized system inducing noise could delocalize the system to desirable diffusion phase. Read More


A theory of feedback controlled heat transport in quantum systems is presented. It is based on modelling heat engines as driven multipartite systems subject to projective quantum measurements and measurement-conditioned unitary evolutions. The theory unifies various results presented in the previous literature. Read More


Assuming a steady-state condition within a cell, metabolic fluxes satisfy an under-determined linear system of stoichiometric equations. Characterizing the space of fluxes that satisfy such equa- tions along with given bounds (and possibly additional relevant constraints) is considered of utmost importance for the understanding of cellular metabolism. Extreme values for each individual flux can be computed with Linear Programming (as Flux Balance Analysis), and their marginal distribu- tions can be approximately computed with Monte-Carlo sampling. Read More


We propose a new computational method of the Loschmidt amplitude in a generic spin system on the basis of the complex semiclassical analysis on the spin-coherent state path integral. We demonstrate how the dynamical transitions emerge in the time evolution of the Loschmidt amplitude for the infinite-range transverse Ising model with a longitudinal field, exposed by a quantum quench of the transverse field $\Gamma$ from $\infty$ or $0$. For both initial conditions, we obtain the dynamical phase diagrams that show the presence or absence of the dynamical transition in the plane of transverse field after a quantum quench and the longitudinal field. Read More


We study a frequency-dependent damping model of hyper-diffusion within the generalized Langevin equation. The model allows for the colored noise defined by its spectral density, assumed to be proportional to $\omega^{\delta-1}$ at low frequencies with $0<\delta<1$ (sub-Ohmic damping) or $1<\delta<2$ (super-Ohmic damping), where the frequency-dependent damping is deduced from the noise by means of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is shown that for super-Ohmic damping and certain parameters, the diffusive process of the particle in a titled periodic potential undergos sequentially four time-regimes: thermalization, hyper-diffusion, collapse and asymptotical restoration. Read More


Thermodynamics of rotating black holes described by the R\'enyi formula as equilibrium and zeroth law compatible entropy function is investigated. We show that similarly to the standard Boltzmann approach, isolated Kerr black holes are stable with respect to axisymmetric perturbations in the R\'enyi model. On the other hand, when the black holes are surrounded by a bath of thermal radiation, slowly rotating black holes can also be in stable equilibrium with the heat bath at a fixed temperature, in contrast to the Boltzmann description. Read More


We consider an open quantum system generalization of the well-known linear Aubry-Andr\'e-Harper (AAH) Model by putting it out-of-equilibrium with the aid of two baths (at opposite ends) at unequal temperatures and chemical potentials. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) properties are computed by a fully exact non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find sub-diffusive scaling of NESS current with system-size at the critical point. Read More


A perturbative renormalization group method is used to obtain steady-state density profiles of a particle non-conserving asymmetric simple exclusion process. This method allows us to obtain a globally valid solution for the density profile without the asymptotic matching of bulk and boundary layer solutions. In addition, we show a nontrivial scaling of the boundary layer width with the system size close to specific phase boundaries. Read More


We use molecular simulation to study the structural and dynamic properties of glassy nanoclusters formed both through the direct condensation of the vapor below the glass transition temperature, without the presence of a substrate, and \textit{via} the slow supercooling of unsupported liquid nanodroplets. An analysis of local structure using Voronoi polyhedra shows that the energetic stability of the clusters is characterized by a large, increasing fraction of bicapped square antiprism motifs. We also show that nanoclusters with similar inherent structure energies are structurally similar, independent of their history, which suggests the supercooled clusters access the same low energy regions of the potential energy landscape as the vapor condensed clusters despite their different methods of formation. Read More


Determining the solvation free energies of single ions in water is one of the most fundamental problems in physical chemistry and yet many unresolved questions remain. In particular, the ability to decompose the solvation free energy into simple and intuitive contributions will have important implications for coarse grained models of electrolyte solution. Here, we provide rigorous definitions of the various types of single ion solvation free energies based on different simulation protocols. Read More


The system of dynamic equations for Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature with account of pair correlations is obtained. The spectrum of small oscillations of the condensate in a spatially homogeneous state is explored. It is shown that this spectrum has two branches: the sound wave branch and branch with an energy gap. Read More


In apparent contradiction to the laws of thermodynamics, Maxwell's demon is able to cyclically extract work from a system in contact with a thermal bath exploiting the information about its microstate. The resolution of this paradox required the insight that an intimate relationship exists between information and thermodynamics. Here, we realize a Maxwell demon experiment that tracks the state of each constituent both in the classical and quantum regimes. Read More


Studying quantitatively the real time dynamics of quantum materials can be challenging. Here, we address dissipative and driven quantum impurities such as spin-1/2 particles. Integrating over the environmental degrees of freedom produces entropy, decoherence and disorder effects. Read More


We compute explicitly the critical exponents associated with logarithmic corrections (the so-called hatted exponents) starting from the renormalization group equations and the mean field behavior for a wide class of models at the upper critical behavior (for short and long range $\phi^n$-theories) and below it. This allows us to check the scaling relations among these critical exponents obtained by analysing the complex singularities (Lee-Yang and Fisher zeroes) of these models. Moreover, we have obtained an explicit method to compute the $\hat{\qq}$ exponent (defined by $\xi\sim L (\log L)^{\hat{\qq}}$) and, finally, we have found a new derivation of the scaling law associated with it. Read More


The free energy at zero temperature of Coulomb gas systems in generic dimension is considered as a function of a volume constraint. The transition between the 'pulled' and the 'pushed' phases is characterised as a third-order phase transition, in all dimensions and for a rather large class of isotropic potentials. This suggests that the critical behaviour of the free energy at the 'pulled-to-pushed' transition may be universal, i. Read More


The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic (AF) short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. Read More


We consider the technologically relevant costs of operating a reliable bit that can be erased rapidly. We find that both erasing and reliability times are non-monotonic in the underlying friction, leading to a trade-off between erasing speed and bit reliability. Fast erasure is possible at the expense of low reliability at moderate friction, and high reliability comes at the expense of slow erasure in the underdamped and overdamped limits. Read More


We study systems in which long-ranged van der Waals and critical Casimir interactions are present. We study the interplay between these forces, as well as the net total force (NTF) between a spherical colloid particle and a thick planar slab, and between two spherical colloid particles. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations utilizing the Derjaguin and the surface integration approaches. Read More


Ionic solutions are often regarded as fully dissociated ions dispersed in a polar solvent. While this picture holds for dilute solutions, at higher ionic concentrations, oppositely charged ions can associate into dimers, referred to as Bjerrum pairs. We consider the formation of such pairs within the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann framework, and investigate their effects on bulk and interfacial properties of electrolytes. Read More