# Physics - Statistical Mechanics Publications (50)

## Search

## Physics - Statistical Mechanics Publications

Kramers problem for a dimer in a bistable piecewise linear potential is studied in the presence of correlated noise processes. The distribution of first passage times from one minima to the basin of attraction of the other minima is found to have exponentially decaying tails with the parameter dependent on the amount of correlation and the coupling between the particles. Strong coupling limit of the problem is analyzed using adiabatic elimination, where it is found that the initial probability density relaxes towards stationary value on the same time scale as the mean escape time. Read More

We present a technique to compute the microcanonical thermodynamical properties of a manybody quantum system using tensor networks. The Density Of States (DOS), and more general spectral properties, are evaluated by means of a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation performed on top of a real-time evolution, which is carried out via numerical methods based on tensor networks. As a consequence, the free energy and thermal averages can be also calculated. Read More

D. Ruelle considered a general setting where he is able to describe a formulation of the concept of Gibbs state based on conjugating homeomorphism in the so called Smale spaces. On this setting he shows a relation of KMS states of $C^*$-algebras and equilibrium probabilities of Thermodynamic Formalism. Read More

There is a long-standing experimental observation that the melting of topologically constrained DNA, such as circular-closed plasmids, is less abrupt than that of linear molecules. This finding points to an intriguing role of topology in the physics of DNA denaturation, which is however poorly understood. Here, we shed light on this issue by combining large-scale Brownian Dynamics simulations with an analytically solvable phenomenological Landau mean field theory. Read More

The syntactic structure of a sentence can be modelled as a tree, where vertices correspond to words and edges indicate syntactic dependencies. It has been claimed recurrently that the number of edge crossings in real sentences is small. However, a baseline or null hypothesis has been lacking. Read More

We investigate the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) in an open quantum XXZ chain with strong $XY$ plane boundary polarization gradient. Using the general theory developed in [1], we show that in the critical $XXZ$ $|\Delta|<1$ easy plane case, the steady current in large systems under strong driving shows resonance-like behaviour, by an infinitesimal change of the spin chain anisotropy or other parameters. Alternatively, by fine tuning the system parameters and varying the boundary dissipation strength, we observe a change of the NESS current from diffusive (of order $1/N$, for small dissipation strength) to ballistic regime (of order 1, for large dissipation strength). Read More

The microtubule (MT) motor Kip3p is very processive kinesin that promotes catastrophes and pausing in particular on cortical contact. These properties explain the role of Kip3p in positioning the mitotic spindle in budding yeast and potentially other processes controlled by kinesin-8 family members. We present a theoretical approach to positioning of a MT network in a cell. Read More

We study a dissipative Langevin dynamics in the path integral formulation using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism. The effective action is supersymmetric and we identify the supercharges and derive corresponding Ward identities. We explicitly study the Ohrnstein-Uhlenbeck process, a Gaussian example of Langevin dynamics and show that two Ward identities are anomalous. Read More

We further explore the connection between holographic $O(n)$ tensor models and random matrices. First, we consider the simplest non-trivial uncolored tensor model and show that the results for the density of states, level spacing and spectral form factor are qualitatively identical to the colored case studied in arXiv:1612.06330. Read More

We study the ground-state entanglement Hamiltonian for an interval of $N$ sites in a free-fermion chain with arbitrary filling. By relating it to a commuting operator, we find explicit expressions for its matrix elements in the large-$N$ limit. The results agree with numerical calculations and show that deviations from the conformal prediction persist even for large systems. Read More

Scrambling is a process by which the state of a quantum system is effectively randomized. Scrambling exhibits different complexities depending on the degree of randomness it produces. For example, the complete randomization of a pure quantum state (Haar scrambling) implies the inability to retrieve information of the initial state by measuring only parts of the system (Page/information scrambling), but the converse is not necessarily the case. Read More

The flow of the low energy eigenstates of a $U_q[sl(2|1)]$ superspin chain with alternating fundamental ($3$) and dual ($\bar{3}$) representations is studied as function of a twist angle determining the boundary conditions. The finite size spectrum is characterized in terms of scaling dimensions and quasi momenta representing the two families of commuting transfer matrices for the model which are even and odd under the interchange $3\leftrightarrow \bar{3}$, respectively. Varying boundary conditions from periodic to antiperiodic for the fermionic degrees of freedom levels from the continuous part of the finite size spectrum are found to flow into discrete levels and vice versa. Read More

We introduce a modified molecular dynamics algorithm that allows one to freeze the dynamics of parts of a physical system, and thus concentrate the simulation effort on selected, central degrees of freedom. This freezing, in contrast to other multi-scale methods, introduces no approximations in the thermodynamic behaviour of the non-central variables while conserving the Newtonian dynamics of the region of physical interest. Read More

**Authors:**Haiping Huang

Synapses in real neural circuits can take discrete values, including zero (silent or potential) synapses. The computational role of zero synapses in unsupervised feature learning of unlabeled noisy data is still unclear, yet important to understand how the sparseness of synaptic activity is shaped during learning and its relationship with receptive field formation. Here, we formulate this kind of sparse feature learning by statistical mechanics approach. Read More

Thermal conductance of a homogeneous 1D nonlinear lattice system with neareast neighbor interactions has recently been computationally studied in detail by Li et al [Eur. Phys. J. Read More

Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic Ising (IA) and ferromagnetic spin ice (SI) models on a nanocluster with a `Star of David' topology, including next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions, are studied by an exact enumeration. In an external field applied in characteristic directions of the respective models, depending on the NNN interaction sign and magnitude, the ground state magnetization of the IA model is found to display up to three intermediate plateaus at fractional values of the saturation magnetization, while the SI model shows only one zero-magnetization plateau and only for the antiferromagnetic NNN coupling. A giant magnetocaloric effect is revealed in the the IA model with the NNN interaction either absent or equal to the nearest-neighbor coupling. Read More

The special limit of the Totaly Asymmetric Zero Range Process of the low dimensional non-equilibrium statistical mechanics described by the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is considered. The calculation of the conditional probabilities of the model are based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach. We demonstrate that the conditional probabilities may be considered as the generating functions of the random multi-dimensional lattice walks bounded by a hyperplane. Read More

We present results of the numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys L\'evy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of $\mu$-stable L\'evy noise. e study the scaling properties of the global width and two point correlation functions, we then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent $\beta$ and the roughness exponent $\alpha$. Read More

Understanding the thermally activated escape from a metastable state is at the heart of important phenomena such as the folding dynamics of proteins, the kinetics of chemical reactions or the stability of mechanical systems. In 1940 Kramers calculated escape rates both in the high damping and the low damping regime and suggested that the rate must have a maximum for intermediate damping. This phenomenon, today known as the Kramers turnover, has triggered important theoretical and numerical studies. Read More

Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis have been performed to study the jamming and percolation behavior of linear $k$-mers (also known as rods or needles) on the two-dimensional triangular lattice, considering an isotropic RSA process on a lattice of linear dimension $L$ and periodic boundary conditions. Extensive numerical work has been done to extend previous studies to larger system sizes and longer $k$-mers, which enables the confirmation of a nonmonotonic size dependence of the percolation threshold and the estimation of a maximum value of $k$ from which percolation would no longer occurs. Finally, a complete analysis of critical exponents and universality have been done, showing that the percolation phase transition involved in the system is not affected, having the same universality class of the ordinary random percolation. Read More

Beginning with the foundational work of Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann in the 19th c., the concept of entropy has played a key role in thermodynamics. It is the focus of the second law of thermodynamics, which constrains other physical laws and has many practical consequences, such as ruling out perpetual-motion machines that convert heat to work without any side effect. Read More

We demonstrate that the measurement of $1/f^{\alpha}$ noise at the single unit limit is remarkably distinct if compared with the macroscopic measurement over a large sample. The microscopical measurements yield a time dependent spectrum. However the number of units fluctuating on the time scale of the experiment is increasing in such a way that the macroscopic measurements appear perfectly stationary. Read More

These lectures provide an introduction to the directed percolation and directed animals problems, from a physicist's point of view. The probabilistic cellular automaton formulation of directed percolation is introduced. The planar duality of the diode-resistor-insulator percolation problem in two dimensions, and relation of the directed percolation to undirected first passage percolation problem are described. Read More

We study the critical behavior of a continuous opinion model, driven by kinetic exchanges in a fully-connected population. Opinions range in the real interval $[-1,1]$, representing the different shades of opinions against and for an issue under debate. Individual's opinions evolve through pairwise interactions, with couplings that are typically positive, but a fraction $p$ of negative ones is allowed. Read More

We study the heat transport properties of a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators in contact at its ends with two heat reservoirs at distinct temperatures. Our approach is based on the use of an evolution equation for the density operator which is a canonical quantization of the classical Fokker-Planck-Kramers equation. We set up the evolution equation for the covariances and obtain the stationary covariances at the stationary states from which we determine the thermal conductance in closed form when the interparticle interaction is small. Read More

We show how a gradient in the motility properties of non-interacting point-like active particles can cause a pressure gradient that pushes a large inert object. We calculate the force on an object inside a system of active particles with position dependent motion parameters, in one and two dimensions, and show that a modified Archimedes' principle is satisfied. We characterize the system, both in terms of the model parameters and in terms of experimentally measurable quantities: the spatial profiles of the density, velocity and pressure. Read More

We develope a two-species exclusion process with a distinct pair of entry and exit sites for each species of rigid rods. The relatively slower forward stepping of the rods in an extended bottleneck region, located in between the two entry sites, controls the extent of interference of the co-directional flow of the two species of rods. The relative positions of the sites of entry of the two species of rods with respect to the location of the bottleneck are motivated by a biological phenomenon. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}M2P2,

^{2}LMA AMU, IMATH

Thanks to an expansion with respect to densities of energy, mass and entropy, we discuss the concept of thermocapillary fluid for inhomogeneous fluids. The non-convex state law valid for homogeneous fluids is modified by adding terms taking into account the gradients of these densities. This seems more realistic than Cahn and Hilliard's model which uses a density expansion in mass-density gradient only. Read More

A non-equilibrium theory of optical conductivity of dirty-limit superconductors and commensurate charge density wave is presented. We discuss the current response to different experimentally relevant light-field probe pulses and show that a single frequency definition of the optical conductivity $\sigma(\omega)\equiv j(\omega)/E(\omega)$ is difficult to interpret out of the adiabatic limit. We identify characteristic time domain signatures distinguishing between superconducting, normal metal and charge density wave states. Read More

We study an ensemble of strongly coupled electrons under continuous microwave irradiation interacting with a dissipative environment, a problem of relevance to the creation of highly polarized non-equilibrium states in nuclear magnetic resonance. We analyse the stationary states of the dynamics, described within a Lindblad master equation framework, at the mean-field approximation level. This approach allows us to identify steady state phase transitions between phases of high and low polarization controlled by the distribution of electronic interactions. Read More

A continuous time random walk (CTRW) model with waiting times following the Levy-stable distribution with exponential cut-off in equilibrium is a simple theoretical model giving rise to normal, yet non-Gaussian diffusion. The distribution of the particle displacements is explicitly time-dependent and does not scale. Since fluorescent correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is often used to investigate diffusion processes, we discuss the influence of this lack of scaling on the possible outcome of the FCS measurements and calculate the FCS autocorrelation curves for such equilibrated CTRWs. Read More

In this paper, we investigate and develop a new approach to the numerical analysis and characterization of random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution function (PDF), such as turbulent heat flow and solar flare fluctuations. We identify the heavy-tailed random fluctuations based on the scaling properties of the tail exponent of the PDF, power-law growth of $q$th order correlation function and the self-similar properties of the contour lines in two-dimensional random fields. Moreover, this work leads to a substitution for fractional Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation that works in presence of $\mu$-stable L\'evy noise. Read More

We study the coupling between conventional (Maxwell) and emergent electrodynamics in quantum spin ice, a 3+1-dimensional $U(1)$ quantum spin liquid. We find that a uniform electric field can be used to tune the properties of both the ground state and excitations of the spin liquid. In particular, it induces emergent birefringence, rendering the speed of the emergent light anisotropic and polarization-dependent. Read More

First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density uctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. Read More

We model an enclosed system of bacteria, whose motility-induced phase separation is coupled to slow population dynamics. Without noise, the system shows both static phase separation and a limit cycle, in which a rising global population causes a dense bacterial colony to form, which then declines by local cell death, before dispersing to re-initiate the cycle. Adding fluctuations, we find that static colonies are now metastable, moving between spatial locations via rare and strongly nonequilibrium pathways, whereas the limit cycle becomes quasi-periodic such that after each redispersion event the next colony forms in a random location. Read More

We show that a newly proposed Shannon-like entropic measure of shape complexity applicable to spatially-localized or periodic mathematical functions known as configurational entropy (CE) can be used as a predictor of spontaneous decay rates for one-electron atoms. The CE is constructed from the Fourier transform of the atomic probability density. For the hydrogen atom with degenerate states labeled with the principal quantum number n, we obtain a scaling law relating the n-averaged decay rates to the respective CE. Read More

Two-dimensional turbulent flows, and to some extent, geophysical flows, are systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, which, albeit fluctuating, exhibit some degree of organization: coherent structures emerge spontaneously at large scales. In this short course, we show how the principles of equilibrium statistical mechanics apply to this problem and predict the condensation of energy at large scales and allow for computing the resulting coherent structures. We focus on the structure of the theory using the language of large deviation theory. Read More

We examine the heterogeneous responses of individual nodes in sparse networks to the random removal of a fraction of edges. Using the message-passing formulation of percolation, we discover considerable variation across the network in the probability of a particular node to remain part of the giant component, and in the expected size of small clusters containing that node. In the vicinity of the percolation threshold, weakly non-linear analysis reveals that node-to-node heterogeneity is captured by the recently introduced notion of non-backtracking centrality. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}JAD, UCA,

^{2}IMPA,

^{3}IMPA

In [2] it has been proved that a linear Hamiltonian lattice field perturbed by a conservative stochastic noise belongs to the 3/2-L\'evy/Diffusive universality class in the nonlinear fluctuating theory terminology [15], i.e. energy superdiffuses like an asymmetric stable 3/2-L\'evy process and volume like a Brownian motion. Read More

Every network scientist knows that preferential attachment combines with growth to produce networks with power-law in-degree distributions. So how, then, is it possible for the network of American Physical Society journal collection citations to enjoy a log-normal citation distribution when it was found to have grown in accordance with preferential attachment? This anomalous result, which we exalt as the preferential attachment paradox, has remained unexplained since the physicist Sidney Redner first made light of it over a decade ago. In this paper we propose a resolution to the paradox. Read More

We enquire into the quasi-many-body localization in topologically ordered states of matter, revolving around the case of Kitaev toric code on ladder geometry, where different types of anyonic defects carry different masses induced by environmental errors. Our study verifies that random arrangement of anyons generates a complex energy landscape solely through braiding statistics, which suffices to suppress the diffusion of defects in such multi-component anyonic liquid. This non-ergodic dynamic suggests a promising scenario for investigation of quasi-many-body localization. Read More

We have determined the thermal conductance of a system consisting of a two-level atom coupled to two quantum harmonic oscillators in contact with heat reservoirs at distinct temperatures. The calculation of the heat flux as well as the atomic population and the rate of entropy production are obtained by the use of a quantum Fokker-Planck-Kramers equation and by a Lindblad master equation. The calculations are performed for small values of the coupling constant. Read More

Upon hydrogen bond formation, electronic charge density is transferred between the donor and acceptor, impacting processes ranging from hydration to spectroscopy. Here we use ab initio path integral simulations to elucidate the role of nuclear quantum effects in determining the charge transfer in a range of hydrogen bonded species in the gas and liquid phase. We show that the quantization of the nuclei gives rise to large changes in the magnitude of the charge transfer as well as its temperature dependence. Read More

An exact result concerning the energy transfers between non-linear waves of thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the F\"oppl-von K\'arm\'an equation for thin plates, the corresponding K\'arm\'an-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the $\frac{4}{5}$-Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to $-\varepsilon\, \ell$, where $\ell$ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and $\varepsilon$ the energy dissipation rate. Read More

The Carnot heat engine sets an upper bound on the efficiency of a heat engine. As an ideal, reversible engine, a single cycle must be performed in infinite time, and so the Carnot engine has zero power. However, there is nothing in principle forbidding the existence of a heat engine whose efficiency approaches that of Carnot while maintaining finite power. Read More

We theoretically investigate the impact of the excited state quantum phase transition on the adiabatic dynamics for the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. Using a time dependent protocol, we continuously change a model parameter and then discuss the scaling properties of the system especially close to the excited state quantum phase transition where we find that these depend on the energy eigenstate. On top, we show that the mean-field dynamics with the time dependent protocol gives the correct scaling and expectation values in the thermodynamic limit even for the excited states. Read More

In this paper we discuss how the information contained in atomistic simulations of homogeneous nucleation should be used when fitting the parameters in macroscopic nucleation models. We show how the number of solid and liquid atoms in such simulations can be determined unambiguously by using a Gibbs dividing surface and how the free energy as a function of the number of solid atoms in the nucleus can thus be extracted. We then show that the parameters of a model based on classical nucleation theory can be fit using the information contained in these free-energy profiles but that the parameters in such models are highly correlated. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}EACH/USP,

^{2}IME/USP

We investigate one-dimensional elementary probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) whose dynamics in first-order mean field approximation yield discrete logistic-like growth models for a single-species unstructured population with nonoverlapping generations. Beginning with a general six-parameter model, we find constraints on the transition probabilities of the PCA that guarantee that the ensuing approximations make sense in terms of population dynamics and classify the valid combinations thereof. Several possible models display a negative cubic term that can be interpreted as a weak Allee factor. Read More