# Physics - Plasma Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Plasma Physics Publications

Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. Read More

The Gr\"uneisen parameter is evaluated for three-dimensional Yukawa systems in the strongly coupled regime. Simple analytical expression is derived from the thermodynamic consideration and its structure is analysed in detail. Possible applications are briefly discussed. Read More

We report on laser-based ion acceleration using freely suspended liquid crystal film targets, formed with thicknesses varying from 100 $nm$ to 2 $\mu m$ for this experiment. Optimization of Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) of protons is shown using a 1 $\times$ $10^{20}$ $W/cm^2$, 30 fs laser with intensity contrast better than $10^{-7}:1$. The optimum thickness was near 700 $nm$, resulting in a proton energy maximum of 24 $MeV$. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Chicago,

^{2}Princeton University,

^{3}Princeton University

We study the thermalization, injection, and acceleration of ions with different mass/charge ratios, $A/Z$, in non-relativistic collisionless shocks via hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations. In general, ions thermalize to a post-shock temperature proportional to $A$. When diffusive shock acceleration is efficient, ions develop a non-thermal tail whose extent scales with $Z$ and whose normalization is enhanced as $(A/Z)^2$, so that incompletely-ionized heavy ions are preferentially accelerated. Read More

Advances in ultra-intense laser technology are enabling, for the first time, relativistic intensities at mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths. Anticipating further experimental research in this domain, we present high-resolution two dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation results using the Large- Scale Plasma (LSP) code that explore intense mid-IR laser interactions with dense targets. We present the results of thirty PIC simulations over a wide range of intensities (0. Read More

To properly describe heating in weakly collisional turbulent plasmas such as the solar wind, inter-particle collisions should be taken into account. Collisions can convert ordered energy into heat by means of irreversible relaxation towards the thermal equilibrium. Recently, Pezzi et al. Read More

In this paper, by comparing the time scales associated with the velocity relaxation and correlation time of the random force due to dust charge fluctuations, memory effects in the velocity relaxation of an isolated dust particle exposed to the random force due to dust charge fluctuations are considered, and the velocity relaxation process of the dust particle is considered as a non-Markovian stochastic process. Considering memory effects in the velocity relaxation process of the dust particle yields a retarded friction force, which is introduced by a memory kernel in the fractional Langevin equation. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the dust grain is derived from this equation. Read More

The effect of radiative heat-loss function and finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) corrections on the thermal instability of infinite homogeneous viscous plasma has been investigated incorporating the effects of thermal conductivity and finite electrical resistivity for the formation of a molecular cloud. The general dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode analysis method with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Furthermore the wave propagation along and perpendicular to the direction of external magnetic field has been discussed. Read More

A general relation is derived between the linear and second-order nonlinear ac conductivities of an electron system at frequencies below the interparticle scattering rate. In this hydrodynamic regime the temperature dependence and the tensorial structure of the nonlinear conductivity are shown to be different from their counterparts in the more familiar kinetic regime of higher frequencies. The obtained formulas are valid for systems with an arbitrary Dirac-like dispersion, either massive or massless, and subsume known results for free-space plasmas and solid-state electron gases. Read More

In this paper, a reduced model of quasilinear diffusion by a small Larmor radius approximation is derived to couple the Maxwell's equations and the Fokker-Planck equation self-consistently for ion cyclotron range of frequency waves in a tokamak. The reduced model ensures the important properties of the full model by Kennel-Engelmann diffusion, such as diffusion directions, wave polarizations, and H-theorem. The kinetic energy change (W-dot) is used to derive the reduced model diffusion coefficients for the fundamental damping and the second harmonic damping to the lowest order of the finite Larmor radius expansion. Read More

The radiation emission from electrons wiggling in a laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) process, being initially considered as a parasitic effect for the electron energy gain, can eventually serve as a novel X-ray source, that could be used for diagnostic purposes. Although several schemes for enhancing the X-ray emission in LWFA has been recently proposed and analyzed, finding an efficient way to use and control these radiation emissions remains an important problem. Based on analytical estimates and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we here propose and examine a new method utilizing two colliding LWFA patterns with an angle in-between their propagation directions. Read More

It's well-known that due to the fact that the inverse-square structure of Coulomb force determines Poisson's equation which associates the electrostatic potential with the charge density on particle's coordinates, the fundamental Lagrangian 1-form, which determines the dynamics of all ions and electrons contained in the magnetized plasma with electrostatic perturbations, can be modeled by the Distribution-Poisson models (Klimontovich-Poisson model and Vlasov-Poisson model). By transforming this Lagrangian 1-form to the new one on gyrocenter coordinates up to the second order, the new potential includes the potential generated by Coulomb force on the new coordinates plus a finite Larmor radius term. It's shown that the fundamental Lagrangian 1-form on the new coordinates can still be modeled by the gyrokinetic Distribution-Poisson models with the polarization density recovered on the new coordinates. Read More

We investigate a role of the Hall-effect in the current sheet evolution and onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability in the framework of the incompressible resistive Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The model under consideration is a force-free modification of the Taylor's problem. Thus, the first part of the paper is devoted to a detailed analytical study of the Hall-MHD forced magnetic reconnection in a tearing stable force-free magnetic configuration. Read More

Magnetic field (B) distribution of the magnetron was measured and discussed its effect on plasma parameters and deposition rate. Plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te), electron number density (ne) were estimated using electron flux (EF) and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) methods as function of axial, radial distances from the cathode. Te and ne decreased with increasing of axial, radial distances from the cathode. Read More

We present a generalization of the Debye-H\"uckel free-energy-density functional of simple fluids to the case of two-component systems with arbitrary interaction potentials. It allows one to obtain the two-component Debye-H\"uckel integral equations through its minimization with respect to the pair correlation functions, leads to the correct form of the internal energy density, and fulfills the virial theorem. It is based on our previous idea, proposed for the one-component Debye-H\"uckel approach, and which was published recently \cite{Piron16}. Read More

The collisionless axisymmetric zonal flow residual calculation for a tokamak plasma is generalized to include electromagnetic perturbations. We formulate and solve the complete initial value zonal flow problem by retaining the fully self-consistent axisymmetric spatial perturbations in the electric and magnetic fields. Simple expressions for the electrostatic, shear- and compressional magnetic residual responses are derived that provide a fully electromagnetic test of the zonal flow residual in gyrokinetic codes. Read More

Conventionally, space-charge (SC) limited current is defined as the maximal current allowed to traverse a diode under a DC voltage when a time-invariant current is injected from cathode. In this work, we study the SC limited current under the time-varying injection for both classical and relativistic regimes and determine the maximal amount of limited current under certain conditions. Our simulations show that it is unlikely that a time-varying injection current emitted from cathode exceeds the known SC limits, in either classical or relativistic regime. Read More

We study the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a plasma, where we include the cases of both transverse photons and plasmons. We consider four-wave mixing processes of photon and plasmon modes in a relativistic isotropic plasma to determine the coupling constant to lowest order. We further show that photon condensation is possible in an unbounded plasma because, in contrast with other optical media, plasmas introduce an effective photon mass. Read More

The motion of energetic particles in magnetic turbulence across a mean magnetic field is explored analytically. The approach presented here allows for a full time-dependent description of the transport, including compound sub-diffusion. The first time it is shown systematically that as soon as there is transverse structure of the turbulence, diffusion is restored even if no Coulomb collisions are invoked. Read More

The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomena persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. Analytic progress on the truncated system is reported, focused on determining the growth rates of zonal flows and calculating the upper bound of the Dimits shift. Read More

This letter presents the results of an advanced parametrization of the solar wind electron temperature anisotropy and the instabilities resulting from the interplay of the (bi-)Maxwellian core and (bi-)Kappa halo populations in the slow solar wind. A large set of observational data (from the Ulysses, Helios and Cluster missions) is used to parametrize these components and establish their correlations. The instabilities are significantly stimulated in the presence of suprathermals, and the instability thresholds shape the limits of the temperature anisotropy for both the core and halo populations re-stating the incontestable role that the selfgenerated instabilities can play in constraining the electron anisotropy. Read More

We perform first-principles path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) calculations to explore warm dense matter states of LiF. Our simulations cover a wide density-temperature range of $2.08-15. Read More

Existing theoretical and observational constraints on the abundance of magnetic monopoles are limited. Here we demonstrate that an ensemble of monopoles forms a plasma whose properties are well determined and whose collective effects place new tight constraints on the cosmological abundance of monopoles. In particular, the existence of micro-Gauss magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and radio relics implies that the scales of these structures are below the Debye screening length, thus setting an upper limit on the cosmological density parameter of monopoles, $\Omega_M\lesssim3\times10^{-4}$, which precludes them from being the dark matter. Read More

The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. Read More

We obtain analytic solutions of a generalised Grad-Shafranov equation describing steady states with incompressible plasma flow of arbitrary direction, toroidal current reversal and either nested or non-nested magnetic surfaces. It turns out that the component of the flow velocity non parallel to the magnetic field can result in normal equilibria with central current-reversal, i.e. Read More

We investigated the efficiency of coherent upstream large-amplitude electromagnetic wave emission via synchrotron maser instability at relativistic magnetized shocks by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We considered the purely perpendicular shock in an electron-positron plasma. The coherent wave emission efficiency was measured as a function of the magnetization parameter {\sigma}, which is defined by the ratio of the Poynting flux to the kinetic energy flux. Read More

**Authors:**S. Göde, C. Rödel, K. Zeil, R. Mishra, M. Gauthier, F. Brack, T. Kluge, M. J. MacDonald, J. Metzkes, L. Obst, M. Rehwald, C. Ruyer, H. -P. Schlenvoigt, W. Schumaker, P. Sommer, T. E. Cowan, U. Schramm, S. Glenzer, F. Fiuza

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

We report experimental evidence that multi-MeV protons accelerated in relativistic laser-plasma interactions are modulated by strong filamentary electromagnetic fields. Modulations are observed when a preplasma is developed on the rear side of a $\mu$m-scale solid-density hydrogen target. Under such conditions, electromagnetic fields are amplified by the relativistic electron Weibel instability and are maximized at the critical density region of the target. Read More

**Authors:**Jonathan Tennyson, Sara Rahimi, Christian Hill, Lisa Tse, Anuradha Vibhakar, Dolica Akello-Egwel, Daniel B. Brown, Anna Dzarasova, James R. Hamilton, Dagmar Jaksch, Sebastian Mohr, Keir Wren-Little, Johannes Bruckmeier, Ankur Agarwal, Klaus Bartschat, Annemie Bogaerts, Jean-Paul Booth, Matthew J. Goeckner, Khaled Hassouni, Yukikazu Itikawa, Bastiaan J Braams, E. Krishnakumar, Annarita Laricchiuta, Nigel J. Mason, Sumeet Pandey, Zoran Lj. Petrovic, Yi-Kang Pu, Alok Ranjan, Shahid Rauf, Julian Schulze, Miles M. Turner, Peter Ventzek, J. Christopher Whitehead, Jung-Sik Yoon

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

One of the most challenging and recurring problems when modelling plasmas is the lack of data on key atomic and molecular reactions that drive plasma processes. Even when there are data for some reactions, complete and validated datasets of chemistries are rarely available. This hinders research on plasma processes and curbs development of industrial applications. Read More

While propagating in transparent media, near-infrared multi-terawatt (TW) laser beams break up in a multitude of filaments of typically 100-200 um diameter with peak intensities as high as 10 to 100~TW/cm$^{2}$. We observe a phase transition at incident beam intensities of 0.4~TW/cm$^2$, where the interaction between filaments induce solid-like 2-dimensional crystals with a 2. Read More

In ideal compressible hydrodynamics there is an isomorphism between spatially one-dimensional unstea- dy and two-dimensional steady supersonic flow called piston analogy [7]. This notice shows that this is also true for non-equilibrium magnetosonic flow under alignment of undisturbed flow and magnetic field in case of steady flow. An example for two generic problems, i. Read More

The nonlinear fluid theory developed by Schamel suggests a modified KdV equation to describe the temporal evolution of ion acoustic (IA) solitons in the presence of trapped electrons. The validity of this theory is studied here by verifying solitons main characteristic, i.e. Read More

We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a non-perturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and P\'eclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. Read More

The last few years have seen an explosion of interest in hydrodynamic effects in interacting electron systems in ultra-pure materials. In this paper we briefly review the recent advances, both theoretical and experimental, in the hydrodynamic approach to electronic transport in graphene, focusing on viscous phenomena, Coulomb drag, non-local transport measurements, and possibilities for observing nonlinear effects. Read More

We present an approach which allows the consistent treatment of bound states in the context of the dc conductivity in dense partially ionized noble gas plasmas. Besides electron-ion and electron-electron collisions, further collision mechanisms owing to neutral constituents are taken into account. Especially at low temperatures $T\approx 1 {\rm eV}$, electron-atom collisions give a substantial contribution to the relevant correlation functions. Read More

In this short communication, we draw the readers' attention to the inconsistency in the derivation of the Thomson scattering spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma, which leads to violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem and a substantial deviation from the results of the rigorous kinetic theory. Moreover, the self-consistent kinetic theory predicts the asymmetry of the spectral lines in inhomogeneous plasma. Read More

We explore a regime of laser-driven plasma acceleration of electrons where the radial envelope of the laser-pulse incident at the plasma entrance is strongly mismatched to the nonlinear plasma electron response excited by it. This regime has been experimentally studied with the gemini laser using f/40 focusing optics in August 2015 and f/20 in 2008. The physical mechanisms and the scaling laws of electron acceleration achievable in a laser-plasma accelerator have been studied in the radially matched laser regime and thus are not accurate in the strongly mismatched regime explored here. Read More

In this work we present a solution of the one-dimensional spherical symmetric time-dependent neutron transport equation (written for a moving system in lagrangian coordinates) by using the characteristic method. One of the objectives is to overcome the negative flux problem that arises when the system is very opaque and the angular neutron flux can become negative when it is extrapolated in spatial meshes --- as, for example, in diamond scheme adopted in many codes. Although there are recipes to overcome this problem, it can completely degrade the numerical solution if repeated many times. Read More

We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the flow shear lie close to the turbulence threshold. We demonstrate that the system is subcritical in the presence of flow shear, i. Read More

In this paper we analyze the effect of dynamical three-dimensional MHD turbulence on test particle acceleration, and compare how this evolving system affects particle energization by current sheets interaction, against frozen-in-time fields. To do this we analize the ensamble particle acceleration for static electromagnetic fields extracted from direct numerical simulations of the MHD equations, and compare with the dynamical fields. We show that a reduction in particle acceleration in the dynamical model results from the particle trapping in the field lines, which forces the particles to remain in a moving current sheet that suppress the longer exposure at the strong electric field gradients located between structures, which is an efficient particle acceleration mechanism. Read More

Reduced fluid models for collisionless plasmas, including electron inertia and finite Larmor radius corrections, are derived for scales ranging from the ion to the electron gyroradii. Based either on pressure balance or on the incompressibility of the electron fluid, they respectively capture kinetic Alfv\'en waves (KAWs) or whistler waves (WWs), and can provide suitable tools for both reconnection and turbulence. Isothermal and Landau-fluid closures are considered. Read More

Current models predict the hose instability to crucially limit the applicability of plasma-wakefield accelerators. By developing an analytical model which incorporates the evolution of the hose instability over long propagation distances, this work demonstrates that the inherent drive-beam energy loss, along with an initial beam energy spread detune the betatron oscillations of beam electrons, and thereby mitigate the instability. It is also shown that tapered plasma profiles can strongly reduce initial hosing seeds. Read More

The electric potential is an essential quantity for the confinement process of tokamak plasmas, with important impact on the performances of fusion reactors. Understanding its evolution in the peripheral region - the part of the plasma interacting with the wall of the device - is of crucial importance, since it governs the boundary conditions for the burning core plasma. The aim of the present paper is to study numerically the evolution of the electric potential in this peripheral plasma region. Read More

Recent upgrades in H-1 power supplies have enabled the operation of the H-1 experiment at higher heating powers than previously attainable. A heating power scan in mixed hydrogen/helium plasmas reveals a change in mode activity with increasing heating power. At low power (<50 kW) modes with beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) frequency scaling are observed. Read More

It is generally accepted that the dynamics of relativistic particles in the lab frame can be described by taking into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momenta on the velocity, with no reference to Lorentz transformations. The electrodynamics problem can then be treated within a "single inertial frame" description. To evaluate radiation fields from moving charged particles we need their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. Read More

While electron kinetic effects are well known to be of fundamental importance in several situations, the electron mean-flow inertia is often neglected when lengthscales below the electron skin depth become irrelevant. This has led to the formulation of different reduced models, where electron inertia terms are discarded while retaining some or all kinetic effects. Upon considering general full-orbit particle trajectories, this paper compares the dispersion relations emerging from such models in the case of the Weibel instability. Read More

We present hydrodynamic and magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of liquid sodium flow with the PLUTO compressible MHD code to investigate influence of magnetic boundary conditions on the collimation of helicoidal motions. We use a simplified cartesian geometry to represent the flow dynamics in the vicinity of one cavity of a multi-blades impeller inspired by those used in the Von-K\'{a}rm\'{a}n-Sodium (VKS) experiment. We show that the impinging of the large scale flow upon the impeller generates a coherent helicoidal vortex inside the blades, located at a distance from the upstream blade piloted by the incident angle of the flow. Read More

Energetic particle populations in nuclear fusion experiments can destabilize Alfv\' en Eigenmodes through inverse Landau damping and couplings with gap modes in the shear Alfv\' en continua. We use the reduced MHD equations to describe the linear evolution of the poloidal flux and the toroidal component of the vorticity in a full 3D system, coupled with equations of density and parallel velocity moments for the energetic particles. We add the Landau damping and resonant destabilization effects by a closure relation. Read More

The aim of this study is to analyze the feedback process between the magnetic turbulence and the pressure gradients in LHD inward-shifted configurations as well as its role in the transition between the soft-hard MHD regimes for instabilities driven by the mode $1/2$ in the middle plasma. In the present paper we summarize the results of two simulations with different Lundquist numbers, $S = 2.5 \times 10^5$ and $10^6$, assuming a plasma in the slow reconnection regime. Read More

The optimization of LHD discharges in inward-shifted configurations with $1/3$ sawtooth like activity is an open issue. These relaxation events limit the LHD performance driving a periodic plasma deconfinement. The aim of this study is to analyze the $1/3$ sawtooth like activity in plasmas with different stability properties to foreseen the best operation conditions and minimize its undesired effects. Read More

LHD inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes $1/2$ and $1/3$ in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. Read More