# Physics - Plasma Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Plasma Physics Publications

The XGC1 edge gyrokinetic code is used for a high fidelity prediction for the width of the heat-flux to divertor plates in attached plasma condition. The simulation results are validated against the empirical scaling $\lambda_q \propto 1/B_P^\gamma$ obtained from present tokamak devices, where $\lambda_q$ is the divertor heat-flux width mapped to the outboard midplane and $\gamma=1.19$ as defined by T. Read More

Simulations using the fully kinetic neoclassical code XGCa were undertaken to explore the impact of kinetic effects on scrape-off layer (SOL) physics in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. XGCa is a total-f, gyrokinetic code which self-consistently calculates the axisymmetric electrostatic potential and plasma dynamics, and includes modules for Monte Carlo neutral transport. Previously presented XGCa results showed several noteworthy features, including large variations of ion density and pressure along field lines in the SOL, experimentally relevant levels of SOL parallel ion flow (Mach number~0. Read More

Transport barrier formation and its relation to sheared flows in fluids and plasmas are of fundamental interest in various natural and laboratory observations and of critical importance in achieving an economical energy production in a magnetic fusion device. Here we report the first observation of an edge transport barrier formation event in a gyrokinetic simulation carried out in a realistic tokamak edge geometry. The results show that turbulent Reynolds stress driven sheared ExB flows act in concert with neoclassical orbit loss to quench turbulent transport and form a transport barrier just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface. Read More

In a wide class of physical systems, diffeomorphisms in the state space leave the amount of entropy produced per unit time inside the bulk of the system unaffected [M. Polettini et al., 12th Joint European Thermodynamics Conference, Brescia, Italy, July 1-5, 2013]. Read More

Magnetic turbulence in the solar wind is treated from the point of view of electrodynamics. This can be done based on the use of Poynting's theorem attributing all turbulent dynamics to the spectrum of turbulent conductivity. For two directions of propagation of the turbulent fluctuations of the electromagnetic field with respect to the mean plus external magnetic fields an expression is constructed for the spectrum of turbulent dissipation. Read More

We report an accessible and robust tool for evaluating the effects of Coulomb collisions on a test particle in a plasma that obeys Maxwell-J\"uttner statistics. The implementation is based on the Beliaev-Budker collision integral which allows both the test particle and the background plasma to be relativistic. The integration method supports adaptive time stepping, which is shown to greatly improve the computational efficiency. Read More

The wealth of work in backward Raman amplification in plasma has focused on the extreme intensity limit, however backward Raman amplification may also provide an effective and practical mechanism for generating intense, broad bandwidth, long-wavelength infrared radiation (LWIR). An electromagnetic simulation coupled with a relativistic cold fluid plasma model is used to demonstrate the generation of picosecond pulses at a wavelength of 10 microns with terawatt powers through backward Raman amplification. The effects of collisional damping, Landau damping, pump depletion, and wave breaking are examined, as well as the resulting design considerations for a LWIR Raman amplifier. Read More

The anti-Stokes scattering and Stokes scattering in stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cascade have been researched by the Vlasov-Maxwell simulation. In the high-intensity laser-plasmas interaction, the stimulated anti-Stokes Brillouin scattering (SABS) will occur after the second stage SBS rescattering. The mechanism of SABS has been put forward to explain this phenomenon. Read More

In this work, we study the outward propagation of temperature perturbations. For this purpose, we apply an advanced analysis technique, the Transfer Entropy, to ECE measurements performed in ECR heated discharges at the low-shear stellarator TJ-II. We observe that the propagation of these perturbations is not smooth, but is slowed down at specific radial positions, near 'trapping zones' characterized by long time lags with respect to the perturbation origin. Read More

We study the dynamics of seeded plasma blobs and depletions in an (effective) gravitational field. For incompressible flows the radial center of mass velocity of blobs and depletions is proportional to the square root of their initial cross-field size and amplitude. If the flows are compressible, this scaling holds only for ratios of amplitude to size larger than a critical value. Read More

The nonlinear thin-shell instability (NTSI) may explain some of the turbulent hydrodynamic structures that are observed close to the collision boundary of energetic astrophysical outflows. It develops in nonplanar shells that are bounded on either side by a hydrodynamic shock, provided that the amplitude of the seed oscillations is sufficiently large. The hydrodynamic NTSI has a microscopic counterpart in collisionless plasma. Read More

A scheme with gold cone-capillary is proposed to improve the protons acceleration and involved problems are investigated by using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is demonstrated that the cone-capillary can efficiently guide and collimate the protons to a longer distance and lead to a better beam quality with a dense density $\geq10n_c$, monoenergetic peak energy $E_k \sim 1.51~\mathrm{GeV}$, spatial emittance $\sim0. Read More

A recently proposed technique correlating electric fields and particle velocity distributions is applied to single-point time series extracted from linearly unstable, electrostatic numerical simulations. The form of the correlation, which measures the transfer of phase-space energy density between the electric field and plasma distributions and had previously been applied to damped electrostatic systems, is modified to include the effects of drifting equilibrium distributions of the type that drive counter-streaming and bump-on-tail instabilities. By using single-point time series, the correlation is ideal for diagnosing dynamics in systems where access to integrated quantities, such as energy, is observationally infeasible. Read More

The magnetic reconnection process is analyzed for relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas around rotating black holes. A simple generalization of the Sweet-Parker model is used as a first approximation to the problem. The reconnection rate, as well as other important properties of the reconnection layer, have been calculated taking into account the effect of spacetime curvature. Read More

Using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations we study the competition between the continuously driven parallel proton temperature anisotropy and fire hose instabilities in collisionless homogeneous plasmas. For quasi radial ambient magnetic field the expansion drives $T_{\mathrm{p}\|}>T_{\mathrm{p}\perp}$ and the system becomes eventually unstable with respect to the dominant parallel fire hose instability. This instability is generally unable to counteract the induced anisotropization and the system typically becomes unstable with respect to the oblique fire hose instability later on. Read More

From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers. Read More

We present a 2.5-dimensional charge-conservative electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) algorithm optimized for the analysis of vacuum electronic devices (VED) with cylindrical symmetry (axisymmetry). We explore the axisymmetry present in the device geometry, fields, and sources to reduce the dimensionality of the problem from 3D to 2D. Read More

**Authors:**Pavlo Kochkin

^{1}, Nikolai Lehtinen

^{2}, Alexander

^{3}, P. J. van Deursen, Nikolai Østgaard

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Lex,

^{2}Lex,

^{3}Lex

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

The pilot system development in metre-scale negative laboratory discharges is studied with ns-fast photography. The systems appear as bipolar structures in the vicinity of the negative high-voltage electrode. They appear as a result of a single negative streamer propagation and determine further discharge development. Read More

The wake-mediated propulsion of an "extra" particle in a channel of two neighboring rows of a two-dimensional plasma crystal, observed experimentally by Du et al. [Phys. Rev. Read More

We report an experimental observation of multiple co--rotating vortices in a extended dust column in the background of non--uniform diffused plasma. Inductively coupled RF discharge is initiated in the background of argon gas in the source region which later found to diffuse in the main experimental chamber. A secondary DC glow discharge plasma is produced to introduce the dust particles into the plasma. Read More

This work, which extends Squire et al. [ApJL, 830 L25 (2016)], explores the effect of self-generated pressure anisotropy on linearly polarized shear-Alfv\'en fluctuations in low-collisionality plasmas. Such anisotropies lead to stringent limits on the amplitude of magnetic perturbations in high-beta plasmas, above which a fluctuation can destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. Read More

In this letter, we report a new type of instability of electron holes (EHs) interacting with passing ions. The nonlinear interaction of EHs and ions is investigated using a new theory of hole kinematics. It is shown that the oscillation in the velocity of the EH parallel to the magnetic field direction becomes unstable when the hole velocity in the ion frame is slower than a few times the cold ion sound speed. Read More

Compared to present experiments, tokamak and stellarator reactors will be subject to higher heat loads, sputtering, erosion and subsequent coating, tritium retention, higher neutron fluxes, and a number of radiation effects. Additionally, neutral beam penetration in tokamak reactors will only be limited to the plasma edge. As a result, several optical, beam-based and magnetic diagnostics of today's plasmas might not be applicable to tomorrow's reactors, but the present discussion suggests that reactors could largely rely on microwave diagnostics, including techniques based on mode conversions and Collective Thomson Scattering. Read More

High-frequency photons traveling in plasma exhibit a linear polarizability that can influence the dispersion of linear plasma waves. We present a detailed calculation of this effect for Langmuir waves as a characteristic example. Two alternative formulations are given. Read More

Classical plasma with arbitrary degree of degeneration of electronic gas is considered. In plasma N (N>2) collinear electromagnatic waves are propagated. It is required to find the response of plasma to these waves. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IRFM,

^{2}IRFM

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

We investigate theoretically how sheath radio-frequency (RF) oscillations relate to the spatial structure of the near RF parallel electric field E// emitted by Ion Cyclotron (IC) wave launchers. We use a simple model of Slow Wave (SW) evanescence coupled with Direct Current (DC) plasma biasing via sheath boundary conditions in a 3D parallelepiped filled with homogeneous cold magnetized plasma. Within a "wide sheaths" asymptotic regime, valid for large-amplitude near RF fields, the RF part of this simple RF+DC model becomes linear: the sheath oscillating voltage VRF at open field line boundaries can be re-expressed as a linear combination of individual contributions by every emitting point in the input field map. Read More

It is shown by particle-in-cell simulation that intense circularly polarized (CP) laser light can be contained in the cavity of a solid-density circular Al-plasma shell for hundreds of light-wave periods before it is dissipated by laser-plasma interaction. A right-hand CP laser pulse can propagate almost without reflection into the cavity through a highly magnetized overdense H-plasma slab filling the entrance hole. The entrapped laser light is then multiply reflected at the inner surfaces of the slab and shell plasmas, gradually losing energy to the latter. Read More

Due to their capability to reduce turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas, understanding the dynamics of zonal flows is an important problem in the fusion programme. Since the pioneering work by Rosenbluth and Hinton in axisymmetric tokamaks, it is known that studying the linear and collisionless relaxation of zonal flow perturbations gives valuable information and physical insight. Recently, the problem has been investigated in stellarators and it has been found that in these devices the relaxation process exhibits a characteristic feature: a damped oscillation. Read More

The bootstrap current and flow velocity of a low-collisionality stellarator plasma are calculated. As far as possible, the analysis is carried out in a uniform way across all low-collisionality regimes in general stellarator geometry, assuming only that the confinement is good enough that the plasma is approximately in local thermodynamic equilibrium. It is found that conventional expressions for the ion flow speed and bootstrap current in the low-collisionality limit are accurate only in the $1/\nu$-collisionality regime and need to be modified in the $\sqrt{\nu}$-regime. Read More

In this work, we study optical self-focusing that leads to collapse events for the time-independent model of co-propagating beams with different wavelengths. We show that collapse events depend on the combined critical power of two beams for both fundamental, vortex and mixed configurations as well as on the ratio of their individual powers. Read More

Predicting the dynamics of a thermonuclear plasma during a magnetic confinement experiment is fundamental in order to make nuclear fusion a reliable source of energy. The development of a set of equations describing the plasma evolution on a given time scale is the main requirement to reach this goal. A limited amount of works have studied in a self-consistent way collisional transport and fluctuation induced transport. Read More

The velocity dispersion of cold interstellar gas, sigma, is one of the quantities that most radically affect the onset of gravitational instabilities in galaxy discs, and the quantity that is most drastically approximated in stability analyses. Here we analyse the stability of a large sample of nearby star-forming spirals treating molecular gas, atomic gas and stars as three distinct components, and using radial profiles of sigma_CO and sigma_HI derived from HERACLES and THINGS observations. We show that the radial variations of sigma_CO and sigma_HI have a weak effect on the local stability level of galaxy discs, which remains remarkably flat and well above unity, but is low enough to ensure (marginal) instability against non-axisymmetric perturbations and gas dissipation. Read More

The collision of ultra-relativistic electron beams with intense short laser pulses makes possible to study QED in the high-intensity regime. Present day high-intensity lasers mostly operate with short pulse durations of several tens of femtoseconds, i.e. Read More

Magnetized plasma jets are generally modeled as magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We outline here a more fundamental approach based on flux tubes of canonical vorticity, where canonical vorticity is defined as the circulation of the species canonical momentum. This approach extends the concept of magnetic flux tube evolution to include the effects of finite particle momentum and enables visualization of the topology of plasma jets in regimes beyond MHD. Read More

An intense X wave propagating perpendicularly to dc magnetic field is unstable with respect to a parametric decay into an electron Bernstein wave and a lower-hybrid wave. A modified theory of this effect is proposed that extends to the high-intensity regime, where the instability rate $\gamma$ ceases to be a linear function of the incident-wave amplitude. An explicit formula for $\gamma$ is derived and expressed in terms of cold-plasma parameters. Read More

The work investigates the coupling between ion-acoustic waves and neutrino flavor oscillations in a non-relativistic electron-ion plasma under the influence of a mixed neutrino beam. Neutrino oscillations are mediated by the flavor polarization vector dynamics in a material medium. The linear dispersion relation around homogeneous static equilibria is developed. Read More

Experiments have revealed a nontrivial cancer-inhibiting capability of liquid media treated by the plasma jet capable of forming thinly stratified self-organized patterns at a plasma-liquid interface. A pronounced cancer depressing activity towards at least two kinds of human cancer cells, namely breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human glioblastoma U87 cancer lines, was demonstrated. After a short treatment at the thinly stratified self-organized plasma-liquid interface pattern, the cancer inhibiting media demonstrate well pronounced depression and apoptosis activities towards tumor cells, not achievable without interfacial stratification of plasma jet to thin (of several um) current filaments, which therefore play a pivotal (yet still not completely clear) role in building up the cancer inhibition properties. Read More

Poynting's theorem is used to obtain an expression for the turbulent power-spectral density as function of frequency in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. No reference is made to Elsasser variables as is usually done in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence mixing mechanical and electromagnetic turbulence. We rather stay with an implicit form of the mechanical part of turbulence as suggested by electromagnetic theory in arbitrary media. Read More

Intrinsic flow in plasma physics is a long-standing puzzle, since it is difficult to understand its origin without contradiction to momentum conservation in conventional wisdom. It is proved that the electromagnetic turbulent acceleration as a candidate for intrinsic parallel flow generation driven by pressure gradient along the total magnetic field line does not contradict momentum conservation. The conserved quantity corresponding to axial symmetry is the total gyrocenter parallel canonical momentum carried by both species or the total gyrocenter parallel momentum including the ion gyrocenter kinematic momentum and electromagnetic fields momentum, but not the ion kinematic momentum, or even the ion parallel flow. Read More

The boundary problem about behaviour (oscillations) of the electronic plasmas with arbitrary degree of degeneration of electronic gas in half-space with diffusion boundary conditions is analytically solved. The kinetic equation of Vlasov - Boltzmann with integral of collisions of type BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross, Krook) and Maxwell equation for electric field are applied. Distribution function for electrons and electric field in plasma in the form of expansion under eigen solutions of the initial system of equations are received. Read More

This paper examines the behavior of the dimensionless dissipation rate $C_{\varepsilon}$ for stationary and nonstationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in presence of external forces. By combining with previous studies for freely decaying MHD turbulence, we obtain here both the most general model equation for $C_{\varepsilon}$ applicable to homogeneous MHD turbulence and a comprehensive numerical study of the Reynolds number dependence of the dimensionless total energy dissipation rate at unity magnetic Prandtl number. We carry out a series of medium to high resolution direct numerical simulations of mechanically forced stationary MHD turbulence in order to verify the predictions of the model equation for the stationary case. Read More

The ablation of solid tin surfaces by an 800-nanometer-wavelength laser is studied for a pulse length range from 500 fs to 4.5 ps and a fluence range spanning 0.9 to 22 J/cm^2. Read More

In hydrodynamic turbulence, it is well established that the length of the dissipation scale depends on the energy cascade rate, i.e., the larger the energy input rate per unit mass, the more the turbulent fluctuations need to be driven to increasingly smaller scales to dissipate the larger energy flux. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics,

^{2}SIOM and Helmholtz Institut-Jena

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

Laser beams with Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), however when interacting with plasmas, the net OAM acquired by plasmas is basically zero after interaction. Here, we find when there exist a small magetostatic seed along laser propagation direction, the barrier would be broken, giving rise to dramatic OAM transfer from LG lasers to plasmas. Hence, the net OAM remained in plasmas system would continuously enhance the magetostatic field, until the corresponding Larmor frequency of electrons is comparable to the laser frequency in vacuum. Read More

Decades of astrophysical observations have convincingly shown that soft X-ray (SXR; ~0.1--10 keV) emission provides unique diagnostics for the high temperature plasmas observed in solar flares and active regions. SXR observations critical for constraining models of energy release in these phenomena can be provided using instruments that have already been flown on sounding rockets and CubeSats, including miniaturized high-resolution photon-counting spectrometers and a novel diffractive spectral imager. Read More

Clebsch potential gauge field theory for magnetohydrodynamics is developed based in part on the theory of Calkin (1963). It is shown how the polarization vector ${\bf P}$ in Calkin's approach, naturally arises from the Lagrange multiplier constraint equation for Faraday's equation for the magnetic induction ${\bf B}$, or alternatively from the magnetic vector potential form of Faraday's equation. Gauss's equation, (divergence of ${\bf B}$ is zero), is incorporated in the variational principle by means of a Lagrange multiplier constraint. Read More

Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. Read More

**Authors:**S. Niyonzima, S. Ilie, N. Pop, J. Z. Mezei, K. Chakrabarti, V. Morel, B. Peres, D. A. Little, K. Hassouni, Å. Larson, A. E. Orel, D. Benredjem, A. Bultel, J. Tennyson, D. Reiter, I. F. Schneider

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

We provide cross sections and Maxwell rate coefficients for reactive collisions of slow electrons with BeH$^+$ ions on all the eighteen vibrational levels ($X{^{1}\Sigma^{+}},v_{i}^{+}=0,1,2,\dots,17$) using a Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) - type approach. These data on dissociative recombination, vibrational excitation and vibrational de-excitation are relevant for magnetic confinement fusion edge plasma modelling and spectroscopy, in devices with beryllium based main chamber materials, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Joint European Torus (JET). Our results are presented in graphical form and as fitted analytical functions, the parameters of which are organized in tables. Read More

Thunderstorms produce strong electric fields over regions on the order of kilometer. The corresponding electric potential differences are on the order of 100 MV. Secondary cosmic rays reaching these regions may be significantly accelerated and even amplified in relativistic runaway avalanche processes. Read More

The transport of the energy contained in suprathermal electrons in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of flare physics, from the spatial distributions of hard X-ray emission and energy deposition in the ambient atmosphere to global energetics. Historically the transport of these particles has been largely treated through a deterministic approach, in which first-order secular energy loss to electrons in the ambient target is treated as the dominant effect, with second-order diffusive terms (in both energy and angle) being generally either treated as a small correction or even neglected. We here critically analyze this approach, and we show that spatial diffusion through pitch-angle scattering necessarily plays a very significant role in the transport of electrons. Read More