# Physics - Plasma Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Plasma Physics Publications

This work examines the formation of wake fields caused by ions streaming around a charged dust particle, using three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with charge-neutral collisions included. The influence of an external driving electric field, which leads to a non-Maxwellian distribution of ions, is investigated in detail. The wake features formed for non-Maxwellian ions exhibit significant deviations from those observed within the model of a shifted Maxwellian distribution. Read More

We demonstrate the application of the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) for the diagnostic analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetized plasma in resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The DMD method is an ideal spatio-temporal matrix decomposition that correlates spatial features of computational or experimental data while simultaneously associating the spatial activity with periodic temporal behavior. DMD can produce low-rank, reduced order surrogate models that can be used to reconstruct the state of the system and produce high-fidelity future state predictions. Read More

The effects that energetic trapped ions have on linear resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities are studied in a reduced model that captures the essential physics driving or damping the modes through variations in the magnetic shear. The drift-kinetic orbital interaction of a slowing down distribution of trapped energetic ions with a resistive MHD instability is integrated to a scalar contribution to the perturbed pressure, and entered into an asymptotic matching formalism for the resistive MHD dispersion relation. Toroidal magnetic field line curvature is included to model trapping in the particle distribution, in an otherwise cylindrical model. Read More

Microplasma generation using microwaves in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like metasurface composed of two types of radiatively coupled cut-wire resonators with slightly different resonance frequencies is investigated. Microplasma is generated in either of the gaps of the cut-wire resonators as a result of strong enhancement of the local electric field associated with resonance and slow microwave effect. The threshold microwave power for plasma ignition is found to reach a minimum at the EIT-like transmission peak frequency, where the group index is maximized. Read More

Electron dynamics surrounding the X-line in magnetopause-type asymmetric reconnection is investigated using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. We study electron properties of three characteristic regions in the vicinity of the X-line. The fluid properties, velocity distribution functions (VDFs), and orbits are studied and cross-compared. Read More

In this paper, the structural property of complex plasma and self-diffusion coefficient of dust particles in presence of such wake potential have been investigated using Langevin dynamics simulation in the subsonic regime of ion flow. The study reveals that the self-diffusion of dust grains is strongly affected by ion flow and it changes its character in the wake potential dominant to the Debye-H\"uckel potential dominant regimes. The dependence of self-diffusion coefficient on parameters such as neutral pressure, dust size, ion flow velocity, Coulomb coupling parameter have been calculated for subsonic regime using Green-Kubo expression which is based on integrated velocity autocorrelation function (VACF). Read More

The excitation of THz radiation by the interaction of an ultra short laser pulse with the modes of a miniature corrugated plasma waveguide is considered. The axially corrugated waveguide supports the electromagnetic (EM) modes with appropriate polarization and subluminal phase velocities that can be phase matched to the ponderomotive potential associated with laser pulse, making significant THz generation possible. This process is studied via full format Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations that, for the first time, model the nonlinear dynamics of the plasma and the self-consistent evolution of the laser pulse in the case where the laser pulse energy is entirely depleted. Read More

Whether Turbulence-induced anomalous resistivity (AR) can facilitate a fast magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasma is a subject of active debate for decades. A particularly difficult problem in experimental and numerical simulation studies of the problem is how to distinguish the effects of AR from those originating from Hall-effect and other non-turbulent processes in the generalized Ohm's. In this paper, using particle-in-cell simulations, we present a case study of how AR produced by Buneman Instability accelerates magnetic reconnection. Read More

The Principle of Maximum Entropy, a powerful and general method for inferring the distribution function given a set of constraints, is applied to deduce the overall distribution of plasmoids (flux ropes/tubes). The analysis is undertaken for the general 3D case, with mass, total flux and (3D) velocity serving as the variables of interest, on account of their physical and observational relevance. The distribution functions for the mass, width, total flux and helicity exhibit a power-law behavior with exponents of $-4/3$, $-2$, $-3$ and $-2$ respectively for small values, whilst all of them display an exponential falloff for large values. Read More

A novel capsule target design to improve the hot-spot pressure in the high-adiabat implosion for inertial confinement fusion is proposed, where a layer of comparatively high-density material is used as a pusher between the fuel and the ablator. This design is based on our theoretical finding of the stagnation scaling laws, which indicates that the hot spot pressure can be improved by increasing the kinetic energy density $\rho_d V_{imp}^2/2$ ($\rho_d$ is the shell density when the maximum shell velocity is reached, $V_{imp}$ is the implosion velocity.) of the shell. Read More

We present a theory of the nonlinear growth of zonal flows in magnetized plasma turbulence, by the mechanism of secondary instability. The theory is derived for general magnetic geometry, and is thus applicable to both tokamaks and stellarators. The predicted growth rate is shown to compare favorably with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, with the error scaling as expected with the small parameter of the theory. Read More

Long range frequency chirping of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes, whose existence is determined by the fast particles, is investigated in cases where these particles do not move freely and their motion is bounded to restricted orbits. An equilibrium oscillating potential, which creates different orbit topologies of energetic particles, is included into the bump-on-tail instability problem of a plasma wave. With respect to fast particles dynamics, the extended model captures the range of particles motion (trapped/passing) with energy and thus represents a more realistic 1D picture of the long range sweeping events observed for weakly damped modes, e. Read More

In simulations of plasmas using particle-in-cell methods, it is often advantageous to resample the particle distribution function to increase simulation accuracy, to reduce the computing cost, or to avoid numerical instabilities. An algorithm for down-sampling the particles to a smaller number is proposed here. To minimize noise introduced by the down-sampling, the algorithm is designed to preserve important properties of the particle distribution, particularly low-order moments and local features of the distribution. Read More

As an alternative option to kinetic electrons, the gyrokinetic total-f particle-in-cell (PIC) code XGC1 has been extended to the MHD/fluid type electromagnetic regime by combining gyrokinetic PIC ions with massless drift-fluid electrons analogous to Chen and Parker, Physics of Plasmas 8, 441 (2001). Two representative long wavelength modes, shear Alfv\'en waves and resistive tearing modes, are verified in cylindrical and toroidal magnetic field geometries. Read More

SMILEI is a collaborative, open-source, object-oriented (C++) particle-in-cell code. To benefit from the latest advances in high-performance computing (HPC), SMILEI is co-developed by both physicists and HPC experts. The code's structures, capabilities, parallelization strategy and performances are discussed. Read More

We study the nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma with the effects of electron and ion Landau damping in the weak quantum (semiclassical) regime, i.e., when the typical ion-acoustic (IA) length scale is larger than the thermal de Broglie wavelength. Read More

The propagation characteristics of small-amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) and shocks are studied in an unmagnetized dusty plasma with a pair of trapped positive and negative ions. Using the standard reductive perturbation technique with two different scaling of stretched coordinates, the evolution equations for DA SWs and shocks are derived in the forms of complex Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and complex Burgers' equations. The effects of dust charge variation, the dust thermal pressure, and the ratios of positive to negative ion number densities as well as the free to trapped ion temperatures on the profiles of SWs and shocks are analysed and discussed. Read More

We investigate the nonlinear propagation of multidimensional magnetosonic shock waves (MSWs) in a dissipative quantum magnetoplasma. A macroscopic quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is used to include the quantum force associated with the Bohm potential, the pressure-like spin force, the exchange and correlation force of electrons, as well as the dissipative force due to the kinematic viscosity of ions and the magnetic diffusivity. The effects of these forces on the properties of arbitrary amplitude MSWs are examined numerically. Read More

The Eulerian variational principle for the nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations is presented in the parallel-symplectic representation, where the gyrocenter Poisson bracket contains contributions from the perturbed magnetic field. Read More

Numerical heating in particle-in-cell (PIC) codes currently precludes the accurate simulation of cold, relativistic plasma over long periods, severely limiting their applications in astrophysical environments. We present a spatially higher order accurate relativistic PIC algorithm in one spatial dimension which conserves charge and momentum exactly. We utilize the smoothness implied by the usage of higher order interpolation functions to achieve a spatially higher order accurate algorithm (up to 5th order). Read More

In the present paper we introduce a full and closed system of atomic kinetic equations on fractions of atomic energy levels taking into account the effect of the plasma ions electric microfield mixing dynamics. The system of equations that we present is deduced from a full quantum multi-atomic states density matrix master equation. The analytical derivation of this atomic kinetic system of equations is based on the introduction of a new hierarchy chain of equations involving a new set of statistical atomic variables. Read More

In this paper, we extend several time reversible numerical integrators to solve the Lorentz force equations from second order accuracy to higher order accuracy for relativistic charged particle tracking in electromagnetic fields. A fourth order algorithm is given explicitly and tested with numerical examples. Such high order numerical integrators can significantly save the computational cost by using a larger step size in comparison to the second order integrators. Read More

**Authors:**T. R. Joshi, P. Hakel, S. C. Hsu, E. L. Vold, M. J. Schmitt, N. M. Hoffman, R. M. Rauenzahn, G. Kagan, X. -Z. Tang, R. C. Mancini, Y. Kim, H. W. Herrmann

**Category:**Physics - Plasma Physics

We report first direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive ICF experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility via spectrally, temporally and spatially resolved imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data [S. C. Hsu et al. Read More

Excitation of relativistic electron beam driven wakefield in a cold plasma is studied using 1-D fluid simulation techniques where the effect of ion motion is included. We have excited the wakefield using a ultra-relativistic, homogeneous, rigid electron beam with different beam densities and mass-ratios (ratio of electron's to ion's mass). We have shown that the numerically excited wakefield is in a good agreement with the analytical results of Rosenzweig et al. Read More

The most important part of a railgun launch package is the armature where the electromagnetic force is generated leading to the acceleration of the launch package. In case of metal armatures, the most commonly used armature types are the C-shape and the multi-fiber brush technology. However, rarely both armature types were systematically compared under similar experimental conditions. Read More

The main difficulty for path integral Monte Carlo studies of Fermi systems results from the requirement of antisymmetrization of the density matrix and is known in literature as the 'sign problem'. To overcome this issue the new numerical version of the %{\large {\tiny {\Huge }}} Wigner approach to quantum mechanics for treatment thermodynamic properties of degenerate systems of fermions has been developed. The new path integral representation of quantum Wigner function in the phase space has been obtained for canonical ensemble. Read More

We report the recent upgrade of gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC), which enables global simulations coupling the core and scrape-off layer (SOL) across the separatrix by using cylindrical coordinates with field-aligned particle-grid interpolation. With the interfacing with EFIT equilibrium and LamyRidge equilibrium, GTC code can be applied for the global geometry simulation for both tokamak and field reversed configuration (FRC). The fully kinetic particle trajectory integrator is also implemented in cylindrical coordinates by using Boris push method with conserving energy and canonical angular momentum. Read More

A general methodology is proposed to differentiate the likelihood of energetic-particle-driven instabilities to produce frequency chirping or fixed-frequency oscillations. The method employs numerically calculated eigenstructures and multiple resonance surfaces of a given mode in the presence of energetic ion drag and stochasticity (due to collisions and micro-turbulence). Toroidicity-induced, reversed-shear and beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes are used as examples. Read More

Many magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere evolve rather slowly so that they can be assumed as (quasi-)static or (quasi-)stationary and represented via magneto-hydrostatic (MHS) or stationary magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, respectively. While exact 3D solutions would be desired, they are extremely difficult to find in stationary MHD. We construct solutions with magnetic and flow vector fields that have three components depending on all three coordinates. Read More

Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) is considered as one of the most competitive candidates for the accelerators of the next generation. With the development of high power laser technologies, LWFA has shown its potential of replacing the conventional radio-frequency (RF) accelerators due to its flexibility and adjustability. In this paper, we will study the potential high flux electron beam productions of LWFA driven by petawatt-level laser pulses. Read More

MMS observations recently confirmed that crescent-shaped electron velocity distributions in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field occur in the electron diffusion region near reconnection sites at Earth's magnetopause. In this paper, we re-examine the origin of the crescent-shaped distributions in the light of our new finding that ions and electrons are drifting in opposite directions when displayed in magnetopause boundary-normal coordinates. Therefore, ExB drifts cannot cause the crescent shapes. Read More

In low-collisionality scenarios exhibiting mitigation of edge localized modes (ELMs), stable ideal kink modes at the edge are excited by externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP)-fields. At ASDEX Upgrade these modes can cause three-dimensional (3D) boundary displacements up to the centimeter range. These displacements have been measured using toroidally localized high resolution diagnostics and rigidly rotating n = 2 MP-fields with various applied poloidal mode spectra. Read More

3D2V continuum gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in a straight, open-field-line geometry have been performed using the full-$f$ discontinuous-Galerkin code Gkeyll. These simulations include the basic elements of a fusion-device scrape-off layer: localized sources to model plasma outflow from the core, cross-field turbulent transport, parallel flow along magnetic field lines, and parallel losses at the limiter or divertor with sheath model boundary conditions. The set of sheath boundary conditions used in the model allows currents to flow through the walls. Read More

**Authors:**P. Tzeferacos, A. Rigby, A. Bott, A. R. Bell, R. Bingham, A. Casner, F. Cattaneo, E. M. Churazov, J. Emig, F. Fiuza, C. B. Forest, J. Foster, C. Graziani, J. Katz, M. Koenig, C. -K. Li, J. Meinecke, R. Petrasso, H. -S. Park, B. A. Remington, J. S. Ross, D. Ryu, D. Ryutov, T. G. White, B. Reville, F. Miniati, A. A. Schekochihin, D. Q. Lamb, D. H. Froula, G. Gregori

Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Universe. Extragalactic disks, halos and clusters have consistently been shown, via diffuse radio-synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measurements, to exhibit magnetic field strengths ranging from a few nG to tens of $\mu$G. The energy density of these fields is typically comparable to the energy density of the fluid motions of the plasma in which they are embedded, making magnetic fields essential players in the dynamics of the luminous matter. Read More

**Authors:**P. Tzeferacos, A. Rigby, A. Bott, A. R. Bell, R. Bingham, A. Casner, F. Cattaneo, E. M. Churazov, J. Emig, N. Flocke, F. Fiuza, C. B. Forest, J. Foster, C. Graziani, J. Katz, M. Koenig, C. -K. Li, J. Meinecke, R. Petrasso, H. -S. Park, B. A. Remington, J. S. Ross, D. Ryu, D. Ryutov, K. Weide, T. G. White, B. Reville, F. Miniati, A. A. Schekochihin, D. H. Froula, G. Gregori, D. Q. Lamb

The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Read More

Alfv\'enic fluctuations in the solar wind display many properties reflecting an ongoing nonlinear cascade, e.g. a well-defined spectrum in frequency, together with some characteristics more commonly associated with the linear propagation of waves from the Sun, such as the variation of fluctuation amplitude with distance, dominated by solar wind expansion effects. Read More

In the present paper we propose to update the standard calculation of Stark line profiles for autoionizing atomic states in dense plasmas, i.e. warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas. Read More

The intermittent small-scale structure of turbulence governs energy dissipation in many astrophysical plasmas and is often believed to have universal properties for sufficiently large systems. In this work, we argue that small-scale turbulence in accretion disks is universal in the sense that it is insensitive to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and background shear, and therefore indistinguishable from standard homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at small scales. We investigate the intermittency of current density, vorticity, and energy dissipation in numerical simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence driven by the MRI in a shearing box. Read More

The global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) has been recently upgraded to do simulations in non-axisymmetric equilibrium configuration, such as stellarators. Linear simulation of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven instabilities has been done in Wendelstein7-X (W7-X) and Large Helical Device (LHD) stellarators using GTC. Several results are discussed to study characteristics of ITG in stellarators, including toroidal grids convergence, nmodes number convergence, poloidal and parallel spectrums, and electrostatic potential mode structure on flux surface. Read More

Nonlinear edge localized modes in a tokamak are examined using global three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Coherent current-carrying filament (ribbon-like) structures wrapped around the torus are nonlinearly formed due to nonaxisymmetric reconnecting current sheet instabilities, the so called peeling-like edge localized modes. These fast growing modes saturate by breaking axisymmetric current layers isolated near the plasma edge and go through repetitive relaxation cycles by expelling current radially outward and relaxing it back. Read More

We present the results of three-dimensional (3D) ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations on the dynamics of a perpendicularly inhomogeneous plasma disturbed by propagating Alfv\'enic waves. Simpler versions of this scenario have been extensively studied as the phenomenon of phase mixing. We show that, by generalizing the textbook version of phase mixing, interesting phenomena are obtained, such as turbulence-like behavior and complex current-sheet structure, a novelty in longitudinally homogeneous plasma excited by unidirectionally propagating waves. Read More

We theoretically investigate the interaction and propagation characteristics of two co/counter propagating Mach cones triggered by two projectile particles moving with supersonic velocities in the same/opposite directions through a dusty plasma medium. The Mach cone solutions are obtained by solving a model set of fluid equations for a heavily charged dust fluid that includes the contributions of the projectile particles in the Poisson equation. The density profiles and velocity vector maps of the Mach wings show interesting structural changes when they interact with each other and form patterns similar to interference fringes. Read More

The misalignment of the solar rotation axis and the magnetic axis of the Sun produces a periodic reversal of the Parker spiral magnetic field and the sectored solar wind. The compression of the sectors is expected to lead to reconnection in the heliosheath (HS). We present particle-in-cell simulations of the sectored HS that reflect the plasma environment along the Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories, specifically including unequal positive and negative azimuthal magnetic flux as seen in the Voyager data \citep{Burlaga03}. Read More

Calculations of the heat flux carried by plasma to the wall of a magnetic fusion machine often assume that power flows only along the field lines, but this cannot be true in general. Instead, we treat the plasma as an anisotropic non-linear thermally conducting medium. The model is physically relevant if parallel and cross-field transport are driven at least in part by temperature gradients, which means they are affected by the proximity of material surfaces. Read More

Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is detected during edge localised modes (ELMs) in the KSTAR tokamak at harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency in the outer plasma edge. The emission typically chirps downward (occasionally upward) during ELM crashes, and is driven by confined 3MeV fusion-born protons that have large drift excursions from the plasma core. We exploit fully kinetic simulations at multiple plasma densities to match the time-evolving features of the chirping ICE. Read More

The primary goal of this paper is to build upon the machinery usually employed to study the salt finger instability in order to address the onset of the similar double diffusive convection phenomenon in the intracluster medium --- the weakly-collisional magnetized inhomogeneous plasma permeating galaxy clusters; and subsequently, to investigate the nature of the width of the analogous Helium fingers in the supercritical regime of the instability. Specifically, we conclude that the width of the Helium fingers scales as one-fourth power of the radius of the inner region of the ICM. In the process, we also find out the explicit mathematical expression of the criterion for the onset of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability modified by the presence of inhomogeneously distributed Helium ions in the galaxy cluster. Read More

The kinetic effects of electrons are important to long wavelength magnetohydrodynamic(MHD)instabilities and short wavelength drift-Alfvenic instabilities responsible for turbulence transport in magnetized plasmas, since the non-adiabatic electron can interact with, modify and drive the low frequency instabilities. A novel conservative split weight scheme is proposed for the electromagnetic simulation with drift kinetic electrons in tokamak plasmas, which shows great computational advantages that there is no numerical constrain of electron skin depth on the perpendicular grid size without sacrificing any physics. Both kinetic Alfven wave and collision-less tearing mode are verified by using this model, which has already been implemented into the gyrokinetic toroidal code(GTC). Read More

A new explanation has been made for the well-known numerical difficulty for the electromagnetic simulations of magnetized plasmas with drift kinetic electrons. It is found that the perturbed density and current integrated from the kinetic particles do not satisfy the continuity equation for the perturbative {\delta}f method. Consequently, the electrostatic potential calculated from the density and the scalar potential calculated from the current are not consistent with each other, which results in an unphysically large parallel electric field. Read More

We estimated the brightness temperature of radio zebras (zebra pattern - ZP), considering that ZPs are generated in the loops having in their cross-section the exponential density profile. We took into account that when in plasma there is the source emitting in all directions then in an escape process from the plasma the emission obtains directional character nearly perpendicular to the constant density profile. Owing to a high directivity of the plasma emission the region from which the emission escapes can be very small. Read More

Fluctuations in the boundary region of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been analyzed using gas puff imaging data from a set of Ohmically heated plasma density scan experiments. It is found that the relative fluctuation amplitudes are modest and close to normally distributed at the separatrix but become increasingly larger and intermittent towards the main chamber wall. The frequency power spectra are nevertheless similar for all radial positions and line-averaged densities. Read More