Physics - Physics and Society Publications (50)

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Physics - Physics and Society Publications

This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal phases of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. Read More


With a core-periphery structure of networks, core nodes are densely interconnected, peripheral nodes are connected to core nodes to different extents, and peripheral nodes are sparsely interconnected. Core-periphery structure composed of a single core and periphery has been identified for various networks. However, analogous to the observation that many empirical networks are composed of densely interconnected groups of nodes, i. Read More


In the last few years, microblogging platforms such as Twitter have given rise to a deluge of textual data that can be used for the analysis of informal communication between millions of individuals. In this work, we propose an information-theoretic approach to geographic language variation using a corpus based on Twitter. We test our models with tens of concepts and their associated keywords detected in Spanish tweets geolocated in Spain. Read More


With the tremendous increase of the Internet traffic, achieving the best performance with limited resources is becoming an extremely urgent problem. In order to address this concern, in this paper, we build an optimization problem which aims to maximize the total utility of traffic flows with the capacity constraint of nodes and links in the network. Based on Duality Theory, we propose an iterative algorithm which adjusts the rates of traffic flows and capacity of nodes and links simultaneously to maximize the total utility. Read More


According to the theory of urban scaling, urban indicators scale with city size in a predictable fashion. In particular, indicators of social and economic productivity are expected to have a superlinear relation. This behavior was verified for many urban systems, but recent findings suggest that this pattern may not be valid for England and Wales (E&W) where income has a linear relation with city size. Read More


In many domains, a latent competition among different conventions determines which one will come to dominate. One sees such effects in the success of community jargon, of competing frames in political rhetoric, or of terminology in technical contexts. These effects have become widespread in the online domain, where the data offers the potential to study competition among conventions at a fine-grained level. Read More


Presented data contains the record of five spreading campaigns that occurred in a virtual world platform. During these campaigns, users were distributing the avatars between each other. The processes were either incentivized or not incentivized, and varying in time and range. Read More


Given a network, the statistical ensemble of its graph-Voronoi diagrams with randomly chosen cell centers exhibits properties convertible into information on the network's large scale structures. We define a node-pair level measure called {\it Voronoi cohesion} which describes the probability for sharing the same Voronoi cell, when randomly choosing $g$ centers in the network. This measure provides information based on the global context (the network in its entirety) a type of information that is not carried by other similarity measures. Read More


Our century has unprecedented new challenges, which need creative solutions and deep thinking. Contemplative, deep thinking became an "endangered species" in our rushing world of Tweets, elevator pitches and fast decisions. Here we describe that important aspects of both creativity and deep thinking can be understood as network phenomena of conceptual and social networks. Read More


Zika virus (ZIKV) exhibits unique transmission dynamics in that it is concurrently spread by a mosquito vector and through sexual contact. We show that this sexual component of ZIKV transmission induces novel processes on networks through the highly asymmetric durations of infectiousness between males and females -- it is estimated that males are infectious for periods up to ten times longer than females -- leading to an asymmetric percolation process on the network of sexual contacts. We exactly solve the properties of this asymmetric percolation on random sexual contact networks and show that this process exhibits two epidemic transitions corresponding to a core-periphery structure. Read More


The rising attention to the spreading of fake news and unsubstantiated rumors on online social media and the pivotal role played by confirmation bias led researchers to investigate different aspects of the phenomenon. Experimental evidence showed that confirmatory information gets accepted even if containing deliberately false claims while dissenting information is mainly ignored or might even increase group polarization. It seems reasonable that, to address misinformation problem properly, we have to understand the main determinants behind content consumption and the emergence of narratives on online social media. Read More


We present a model that takes into account the coupling between evolutionary game dynamics and social influence. Importantly, social influence and game dynamics take place in different domains, which we model as different layers of a multiplex network. We show that the coupling between these dynamical processes can lead to cooperation in scenarios where the pure game dynamics predicts defection. Read More


Various hypotheses exist about the paths used for communication between the nodes of complex networks. Most studies simply suppose that communication goes via shortest paths, while others have more explicit assumptions about how routing (alternatively navigation or search) works or should work in real networks. However, these assumptions are rarely checked against real data. Read More


Multiplayer online battle arena has become a popular game genre. It also received increasing attention from our research community because they provide a wealth of information about human interactions and behaviors. A major problem is extracting meaningful patterns of activity from this type of data, in a way that is also easy to interpret. Read More


Sampling from large networks represents a fundamental challenge for social network research. In this paper, we explore the sensitivity of different sampling techniques (node sampling, edge sampling, random walk sampling, and snowball sampling) on social networks with attributes. We consider the special case of networks (i) where we have one attribute with two values (e. Read More


Social contact networks underlying epidemic processes in humans and animals are highly dynamic. The spreading of infections on such temporal networks can differ dramatically from spreading on static networks. We theoretically investigate the effects of concurrency, the number of neighbors that a node has at a given time point, on the epidemic threshold in the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on temporal network models. Read More


Understanding human migration is of great interest to demographers and social scientists. User generated digital data has made it easier to study such patterns at a global scale. Geo coded Twitter data, in particular, has been shown to be a promising source to analyse large scale human migration. Read More


We identify the "organization" of a human social group as the communication network(s) within that group. We then introduce three theoretical approaches to analyzing what determines the structures of human organizations. All three approaches adopt a group-selection perspective, so that the group's network structure is (approximately) optimal, given the information-processing limitations of agents within the social group, and the exogenous welfare function of the overall group. Read More


Transport generates a large and growing component of global greenhouse gas emissions contributing to climate change. Effective transport emissions reduction policies are needed in order to reach a climate target well below 2$^{\circ}$C. Representations of technology evolution in current Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) make use of systems optimisations that do not provide sufficient insight on detailed consumer response to specific policy instruments for extensive use in policy-making. Read More


Several growth models have been proposed in the literature for scale-free complex networks, with a range of fitness-based attachment models gaining prominence recently. However, the processes by which such fitness-based attachment behaviour can arise are less well understood, making it difficult to compare the relative merits of such models. This paper analyses an evolutionary mechanism that would give rise to a fitness-based attachment process. Read More


In the animal world, the competition between individuals belonging to different species for a resource often requires the cooperation of several individuals in groups. This paper proposes a generalization of the Hawk-Dove Game for an arbitrary number of agents: the N-person Hawk-Dove Game. In this model, doves exemplify the cooperative behavior without intraspecies conflict, while hawks represent the aggressive behavior. Read More


This article proposes a numerical scheme for computing the evolution of vehicular traffic on a road network over a finite time horizon. The traffic dynamics on each link is modeled by the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) partial differential equation (PDE), which is an equivalent form of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE. The main contribution of this article is the construction of a single convex optimization program which computes the traffic flow at a junction over a finite time horizon and decouples the PDEs on connecting links. Read More


This study is concerned with the dynamical behaviors of epidemic spreading over a two-layered interconnected network. Three models in different levels are proposed to describe cooperative spreading processes over the interconnected network, wherein the disease in one network can spread to the other. Theoretical analysis is provided for each model to reveal that the global epidemic threshold in the interconnected network is not larger than the epidemic thresholds for the two isolated layered networks. Read More


We introduce a framework to navigate agents in buildings, inspired by the concept of "the cognitive map". It allows to route agents depending on their spacial knowledge. With help of an event-driven mechanism, agents acquire new information about their surroundings, which expands their individual cognitive map. Read More


This work presents a collapsed generalized Aw-Rascle-Zhang (CGARZ) model, which fits into a generic second order model (GSOM) framework. GSOMs augment the evolution of the traffic density by a second state variable characterizing a property of vehicles or drivers. A cell transmission model for the numerical solution of GSOMs is derived, which is based on analyzing the sending and receiving functions of the traffic density and total property. Read More


In this study, we propose a mechanical model of a plurality election based on a mean field voter model. We assume that there are three candidates in each electoral district, i.e. Read More


Innovation is a key ingredient for the evolution of several systems, as social and biological ones. Focused investigations, and lateral thinking may lead to innovation, as well as serendipity, and other random processes. Some individuals are talented at proposing innovation (say innovators), while others at deeply exploring proposed novelties, then getting further insights on a theory, or developing products, services, and so on (say developers). Read More


Social media are transforming global communication and coordination. The data derived from social media can reveal patterns of human behavior at all levels and scales of society. Using geolocated Twitter data, we have quantified collective behaviors across multiple scales, ranging from the commutes of individuals, to the daily pulse of 50 major urban areas and global patterns of human coordination. Read More


The purpose of this note is to explain what is "analytical history", a modular and testable analysis of historical events introduced in a book published in 2002 (Roehner and Syme 2002). Broadly speaking, it is a comparative methodology for the analysis of historical events. Comparison is the keystone and hallmark of science. Read More


In a recent series of papers, we proposed a mathematical model for the dynamics of a group of interacting pedestrians. The model is based on a non-Newtonian potential, that accounts for the need of pedestrians to keep both their interacting partner and their walking goal in their vision field, and to keep a comfortable distance between them. These two behaviours account respectively for the angular and radial part of the potential from which the force providing the pedestrian acceleration is derived. Read More


In spite of recent advances in field delineation methods, bibliometricians still don't know the extent to which their topic detection algorithms reconstruct `ground truths', i.e. thematic structures in the scientific literature. Read More


Subject of research is complex networks and network systems. The network system is defined as a complex network in which flows are moved. Classification of flows in the network is carried out on the basis of ordering and continuity. Read More


Networks of interdependent nodes support phenomena such as epidemics, product adoption, cascading failure, ecosystem collapse, congestion, and bandwagon effects. We consider the problem of using observational data to estimate the sensitivity of individual nodes to the activation of their network neighbors. We prove that---in the case of binary activation decisions---activation thresholds are impossible to correctly measure for some nodes in virtually all contagion processes on complex networks. Read More


This paper studies scenarios of cyclic dominance in a coevolutionary spatial model in which game strategies and links between agents adaptively evolve over time. The Optional Prisoner's Dilemma (OPD) game is employed. The OPD is an extended version of the traditional Prisoner's Dilemma where players have a third option to abstain from playing the game. Read More


We present an integrated microsimulation framework to estimate the pedestrian movement over time and space with limited data on directional counts. Using the activity-based approach, simulation can compute the overall demand and trajectory of each agent, which are in accordance with the available partial observations and are in response to the initial and evolving supply conditions and schedules. This simulation contains a chain of processes including: activities generation, decision point choices, and assignment. Read More


In human societies, people's willingness to compete and strive for better social status as well as being envious of those perceived in some way superior lead to social structures that are intrinsically hierarchical. Here we propose an agent-based, network model to mimic the ranking behaviour of individuals and its possible repercussions in human society. The main ingredient of the model is the assumption that the relevant feature of social interactions is each individual's keenness to maximise his or her status relative to others. Read More


Multidimensional systems coupled via complex networks are widespread in nature and thus frequently invoked for a large plethora of interesting applications. From ecology to physics, individual entities in mutual interactions are grouped in families, homogeneous in kind. These latter interact selectively, through a sequence of self-consistently regulated steps, whose deeply rooted architecture is stored in the assigned matrix of connections. Read More


The rich club organization (the presence of highly connected hub core in a network) influences many structural and functional characteristics of networks including topology, the efficiency of paths and distribution of load. Despite its major role, the literature contains only a very limited set of models capable of generating networks with realistic rich club structure. One possible reason is that the rich club organization is a divisive property among complex networks which exhibit great diversity, in contrast to other metrics (e. Read More


2017Feb
Affiliations: 1SciCom Research Group, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, 2SciCom Research Group, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, 3SciCom Research Group, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain

Critical analysis of the state of the art is a necessary task when identifying new research lines worthwhile to pursue. To such an end, all the available work related to the field of interest must be taken into account. The key point is how to organize, analyze, and make sense of the huge amount of scientific literature available today on any topic. Read More


Using a dataset of over 1.9 million messages posted on Twitter by about 25,000 ISIS members, we explore how ISIS makes use of social media to spread its propaganda and to recruit militants from the Arab world and across the globe. By distinguishing between violence-driven, theological, and sectarian content, we trace the connection between online rhetoric and key events on the ground. Read More


We show that real multiplex networks are unexpectedly robust against targeted attacks on high degree nodes, and that hidden interlayer geometric correlations predict this robustness. Without geometric correlations, multiplexes exhibit an abrupt breakdown of mutual connectivity, even with interlayer degree correlations. With geometric correlations, we instead observe a multistep cascading process leading into a continuous transition, which apparently becomes fully continuous in the thermodynamic limit. Read More


The critical infrastructures of the nation such as the power grid and the communication network are highly interdependent. Also, it has been observed that there exists complex interdependent relationships between individual entities of the power grid and the communication network that further obfuscates the analysis, and mitigation of faults in such multi-layered networks. In recent years, the research community has made significant efforts towards gaining insight and understanding of the interdependency relations in such multi-layered networks, and accordingly, a number of models have been proposed and analyzed towards realizing this goal. Read More


In this work we study the critical behavior of a three-state opinion model in the presence of noise. This noise represents the independent behavior, that plays the role of social temperature. Each agent on a regular D-dimensional lattice has a probability $q$ to act as independent, i. Read More


We introduce a statistical method to investigate the impact of dyadic relations on complex networks generated from repeated interactions. It is based on generalised hypergeometric ensembles, a class of statistical network ensembles developed recently. We represent different types of known relations between system elements by weighted graphs, separated in the different layers of a multiplex network. Read More


A national voting population, when segmented into groups like, for example, different states, can yield a counter-intuitive scenario where the winner may not necessarily get the most number of total votes. A recent example is the 2016 presidential election in the US. Analysis of the data of all previous elections between 1824-2016 reveal that there are clearly two different scaling regimes for the margin of votes of the two top ranked candidates as a function of the total votes cast. Read More


We define and examine a model of epidemic propagation for a virus such as Hepatitis C on a network of networks, namely the network of French urban areas. One network level is that of the individual interactions inside each urban area. The second level is that of the areas themselves, linked by individuals travelling between these areas and potentially helping the epidemic spread from one city to another. Read More


We investigate a graph probing problem in which an agent has only an incomplete view $G' \subsetneq G$ of the network and wishes to explore the network with least effort. In each step, the agent selects a node $u$ in $G'$ to probe. After probing $u$, the agent gains the information about $u$ and its neighbors. Read More


In this paper, we study crucial elements of a complex network, namely its nodes and connections, which play a key role in maintaining the network's structure and function under unexpected structural perturbations of nodes and edges removal. Specifically, we want to identify vital nodes and edges whose failure (either random or intentional) will break the most number of connected triples (or triangles) in the network. This problem is extremely important because connected triples form the foundation of strong connections in many real-world systems, such as mutual relationships in social networks, reliable data transmission in communication networks, and stable routing strategies in mobile networks. Read More


Recent years have seen tremendous growth of many online social networks such as Facebook, LinkedIn and MySpace. People connect to each other through these networks forming large social communities providing researchers rich datasets to understand, model and predict social interactions and behaviors. New contacts in these networks can be formed due to an individual's demographic attributes such as age group, gender, geographic location, or due to a network's structural dynamics such as triadic closure and preferential attachment, or a combination of both demographic and structural characteristics. Read More