Physics - Optics Publications (50)

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Physics - Optics Publications

A new scheme for an OAM communications system which exploits the radial component p of Laguerre Gauss modes in addition to the azimuthal component l generally used is presented. We derive a new encoding algorithm which makes use of the spatial distribution of intensity to create an alphabet dictionary for communication. We investigate the probability of error in decoding, for several detector options. Read More


A tunable, all-optical, coupling method has been realized for a high-\textit{Q} silica microsphere and an optical waveguide. By means of a novel optical nanopositioning method, induced thermal expansion of an asymmetric microsphere stem for laser powers up to 171~mW has been observed and used to fine tune the microsphere-waveguide coupling. Microcavity displacements ranging from (0. Read More


Formation of dressed light-matter states in optical structures, manifested as Rabi splitting of the eigen energies of a coupled system, is one of the key effects in quantum optics. In pursuing this regime with semiconductors, light is usually made to interact with excitons $-$ electrically neutral quasiparticles of semiconductors, meanwhile interactions with charged three-particle states $-$ trions $-$ have received little attention. Here, we report on strong interaction between plasmons in silver nanoprisms and charged excitons $-$ trions $-$ in monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS$_{2}$). Read More


Intersubband (ISB) polarons result from the interaction of an ISB transition and the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in a semiconductor quantum well (QW). Their observation requires a very dense two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the QW and a polar or highly ionic semiconductor. Here we show that in ZnO/MgZnO QWs the strength of such a coupling can be as high as 1. Read More


Controlling artificial Pearcey and swallowtail beams allows realizing caustic lattices in nonlinear photosensitive media at very low light intensities. We examine their functionality as 2D and 3D waveguiding structures, and show the potential of exploiting these lattices as a linear beam splitter, which we name a Pearcey-Y-splitter. For symmetrized Pearcey beams as auto-focusing beams, the formation of solitons in focusing nonlinearity is observed. Read More


We experimentally realize higher-order catastrophic structures in light fields to access the rich class of caustic swallowtail and butterfly beams. These beams present solutions of paraxial diffraction catastrophe integrals that are determined by potential functions, whose singular mapping manifests as caustic hypersurfaces in control parameter space. We systematically analyze the swallowtail and butterfly beams' caustics analytically and observe their field distributions experimentally in real and Fourier space. Read More


Understanding the thermally activated escape from a metastable state is at the heart of important phenomena such as the folding dynamics of proteins, the kinetics of chemical reactions or the stability of mechanical systems. In 1940 Kramers calculated escape rates both in the high damping and the low damping regime and suggested that the rate must have a maximum for intermediate damping. This phenomenon, today known as the Kramers turnover, has triggered important theoretical and numerical studies. Read More


Specific features of the defect modes of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with an isotropic defect, as well as their photonic density of states, Q factor, and emission, have been investigated. The effect of the thicknesses of the defect layer and the system as a whole, the position of the defect layer, and the dielectric boundaries on the features of the defect modes have been analyzed. Read More


We show that it is possible to add or subtract many photons from a cavity field by interacting it resonantly with a two-level atom. The atom, after entangling with the field inside the cavity and exiting it, may be measured in one of the Schmidt states, producing a multiphoton process (in the sense that can add or annihilate more photons than a single transition allows), i.e. Read More


We theoretically investigate Klein tunneling processes in photonic artificial graphene. Klein tunneling is a phenomenon in which a particle with Dirac dispersion going through a potential step shows a characteristic angle- and energy-dependent transmission. We consider a generic photonic system consisting of a honeycomb-shaped array of sites with losses, illuminated by coherent monochromatic light. Read More


We explore spin dynamics of isotopically purified $^{166}$Er:$^{7}$LiYF$_4$ crystal below 1 Kelvin and at weak magnetic fields $<$0.3 T. Crystals grown in our lab demonstrate record-narrow inhomogeneous optical broadening down to 16~MHz. Read More


Drift-diffusion model is an indispensable modeling tool to understand the carrier dynamics (transport, recombination, and collection) and simulate practical-efficiency of solar cells (SCs) through taking into account various carrier recombination losses existing in multilayered device structures. Exploring the way to predict and approach the SC efficiency limit by using the drift-diffusion model will enable us to gain more physical insights and design guidelines for emerging photovoltaics, particularly perovskite solar cells. Our work finds out that two procedures are the prerequisites for predicting and approaching the SC efficiency limit. Read More


The axis tilt of light beam in optical system would introduce the dispersion of orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum. To deal with it, a two-step method is proposed and demonstrated. First, the tilt angle of optical axis is identified with a deduced relation between the tilt angle and the variation of OAM topological charges with different reference axes, which is obtained with the help of a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Read More


We demonstrate a spin-based, all-dielectric electrometer based on an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) defects in diamond. An applied electric field causes energy level shifts symmetrically away from the NV$^-$'s degenerate triplet states via the Stark effect; this symmetry provides immunity to temperature fluctuations allowing for shot-noise-limited detection. Using an ensemble of NV$^-$s, we demonstrate shot-noise limited sensitivities approaching 1 V/cm/$\sqrt{\text{Hz}}$ under ambient conditions, at low frequencies ($<$10 Hz), and over a large dynamic range (20 dB). Read More


Since the orbital angular momentum (OAM) being investigated intensively in the optical region, there are growing interests in employing OAM to solve the problem in wireless communications as a new method. It is found that the independence between different OAM modes is crucial to wireless communications. Motivated by the tremendous potential of OAM in communication systems, we propose a novel method to generate vortex beams by spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Read More


We demonstrate that a semiconductor laser perturbed by the distributed feedback from a fiber random grating can emit light chaotically without the time delay signature. A theoretical model is developed based on the Lang-Kobayashi model in order to numerically explore the chaotic dynamics of the laser diode subjected to the random distributed feedback. It is predicted that the random distributed feedback is superior to the single reflection feedback in suppressing the time-delay signature. Read More


We demonstrate that a flat-band state in a quasi-one-dimensional rhombic lattice is robust in the presence of external drivings along the lattice axis. The lattice was formed by periodic arrays of evanescently coupled optical waveguides, and the external drivings were realized by modulating the paths of the waveguides. We excited a superposition of flat-band eigenmodes at the input and observed that this state does not diffract in the presence of static as well as high-frequency sinusoidal drivings. Read More


Non-Hermitian systems exhibit phenomena that are qualitatively different from those of Hermitian systems and have been exploited to achieve a number of ends, including the generation of exceptional points, nonreciprocal dynamics, non-orthogonal normal modes, and topological operations. However to date these effects have only been accessible with nearly-degenerate modes (i.e. Read More


We propose a laser-controlled plasma shutter technique to generate sharp laser pulses using a process analogous to electromagnetically-induced transparency in atoms. The shutter is controlled by a laser with moderately strong intensity, which induces a transparency window below the cutoff frequency, and hence enables propagation of a low frequency laser pulse. Numerical simulations demonstrate it is possible to generate a sharp pulse wavefront (sub-ps) using two broad pulses in high density plasma. Read More


We introduce a wavefront shaping protocol for focusing inside disordered media based on a generalization of the established Wigner-Smith time-delay operator. The key ingredient for our approach is the scattering (or transmission) matrix of the medium and its derivative with respect to the position of the target one aims to focus on. A specifc experimental realization in the microwave regime is presented showing that the eigenstates of a corresponding operator are sorted by their focusing strength - ranging from strongly focusing on the designated target to completely bypassing it. Read More


The ability to cool and manipulate levitated nano-particles in vacuum is a promising new tool for exploring macroscopic quantum mechanics\cite{WanPRL2016,Scala2013,Zhang2013}, precision measurements of forces, \cite{GambhirPRA2016} and non-equilibrium thermodynamics \cite{GieselerNatNano2014,MillenNat2014}. The extreme isolation afforded by optical levitation offers a low noise, undamped environment that has to date been used to measure zeptonewton forces \cite{GambhirPRA2016}, radiation pressure shot noise,\cite{Jain2016} and to demonstrate the cooling of the centre-of-mass motion \cite{LiNatPhys2011,Gieseler2012}. Ground state cooling, and the creation and measurement of macroscopic quantum superpositions, are now within reach, but control of both the center-of-mass and internal temperature is required. Read More


We resolve the thermal motion of a high-stress silicon nitride nanobeam at frequencies far below its fundamental flexural resonance (3.4 MHz) using cavity-enhanced optical interferometry. Over two decades, the displacement spectrum is well-modeled by that of a damped harmonic oscillator driven by a $1/f$ thermal force, suggesting that the loss angle of the beam material is frequency-independent. Read More


Strong light-matter coupling manifested by vacuum Rabi splitting has attracted tremendous attention due to its fundamental importance in cavity quantum-electrodynamics research and great potentials in quantum information applications. A prerequisite for practical applications of the strong coupling in future quantum information processing and coherent manipulation is an all-solid-state system exhibiting room-temperature vacuum Rabi splitting with active control. Here we realized such a system in heterostructure consisting of monolayer WS2 and an individual plasmonic gold nanorod. Read More


We theoretically propose that Weyl semimetals may exhibit negative refraction at some frequencies close to the plasmon frequency, allowing electromagnetic waves with frequencies smaller than the plasmon frequency to propagate through the Weyl semimetals. The idea is justified by the calculation of reflection spectra, in which negative (not positive) refractive index at such frequencies give physically correct spectra. In this case, when entering a Weyl semimetal, an electromagnetic wave incident to the surface of the Weyl semimetal will be bent with a negative angle of refraction. Read More


We demonstrate a practical scalable approach to the fabrication of tunable metamaterials. Designed for THz wavelengths, the metamaterial is comprised of polyurethane filled with an array of indium wires using the well-established fiber drawing technique. Modification of the dimensions of the metamaterial provides tunability: by compressing the metamaterial we demonstrated a 50% plasma frequency shift using THz time domain spectroscopy. Read More


Interaction between plasmonic nanostructures and molecules is modeled based on the concept of quantized optical cavity for surface enhanced Raman scattering process. We have found that the background emission from plasmonic nanostructures is not constant as speculated ordinarily, it is enhanced accompanying with the molecules Raman scattering. The plasmonic nanostructures not only scatter elastically the energy coupling from the molecules excited states, but also radiate it inelastically as surface plasmon emission partly resulting an enhanced background. Read More


We study the ultrafast Kerr effect and high-harmonic generation in type-II superconductors by formulating a new model for a time-varying electromagnetic pulse normally incident on a thin-film superconductor. It is found that type-II superconductors exhibit exceptionally large $\chi^{(3)}$ due to the progressive destruction of Cooper pairs, and display high-harmonic generation at low incident intensities, and the highest nonlinear susceptibility of all known materials in the THz regime. Our theory opens up new avenues for accessible analytical and numerical studies of the ultrafast dynamics of superconductors. Read More


The laser-plasma accelerator has attracted great interest for constituting an alternative in the production of the relativistic electron beams of high peak current. But the generated electron beam has poor monochrome and emittance, which make it difficult to produce high brightness radiation. Here we propose a compact flexible laser undulator based on ponderomotive force to constitute a millimeter-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-ray. Read More


Relativistic quantum theory of induced scattering of 2D Dirac particles by electrostatic field of impurity ion (in the Born approximation) in the doped graphene at the presence of an external electromagnetic radiation field (actually terahertz radiation, to exclude the valence electrons excitations at high Fermi energies) has been developed. It is shown that the strong coupling of massless quasiparticles in the quantum nanostructures to a strong electromagnetic radiation field leads to the strongly nonlinear response of graphene, which opens diverse ways for manipulating the electronic transport properties of conductive electrons by coherent radiation fields. Read More


Both classical and quantum waves can form vortices: with helical phase fronts and azimuthal current densities. These features determine the intrinsic orbital angular momentum carried by localized vortex states. In the past 25 years, optical vortex beams have become an inherent part of modern optics, with many remarkable achievements and applications. Read More


We theoretically discuss the physical origin of the dielectric constants [{\epsilon}({\omega})] and second harmonic generation coefficients [\{chi}(2)({\omega})] of the ABA-stacked two-dimensional graphene-like silicon carbide (2D-SiC) with the number of layers up to 5. It is found that the intensities of the pronounced peaks of both {\epsilon}({\omega}) and \{chi}(2)({\omega}) exhibit a clear layer number dependence. For the light polarization parallel to the 2DSiC plane, the monolayer SiC (ML-SiC) and multilayer SiC (MuL-SiC) have very similar pronounced peak positions of {\epsilon}({\omega}), which are attributed to the {\pi}->{\pi}* and {\sigma}->{\sigma}* transitions. Read More


We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of bianisotropic Huygens' metasurfaces (BHMSs) for refraction of normally incident beams towards 71.8 degrees. As previously shown, all three BHMS degrees of freedom, namely, electric polarizability, magnetic polarizability and omega-type magnetoelectric coupling, are required to ensure no reflections occur for such wide-angle impedance mismatch. Read More


We demonstrate that not only plasmonic nanostructures can enhance light emission of fluorescent emitters but also the emitters can increase light emission from the plasmonic nanostructures in turn. With the help of atomic force microscope, hybrid system consisting of a fluorescent nanodiamond and a gold nanoparticle was assembled step-by-step for in-situ optical measurements. We found that the direct emission from the gold nanoparticle and nanodiamond both increased with comparison to that before coupling. Read More


All physical interactions are mediated by forces. Ultra-sensitive force measurements are therefore a crucial tool for investigating the fundamental physics of magnetic, atomic, quantum, and surface phenomena. Laser cooled trapped atomic ions are a well controlled quantum system and a standard platform for precision metrology. Read More


An analytical discontinuity is reported in what was thought to be the discontinuity-free exact nonparaxial vortex beam phasor obtained within the complex source/sink model. This discontinuity appears for all odd values of the orbital angular momentum mode. Such discontinuities in the phasor lead to nonphysical discontinuities in the real electromagnetic field components. Read More


Space-division multiplexing (SDM), whereby multiple spatial channels in multimode and multicore optical fibers are used to increase the total transmission capacity per fiber, is being investigated to avert a data capacity crunch and reduce the cost per transmitted bit. With the number of channels employed in SDM transmission experiments continuing to rise, there is a requirement for integrated SDM components that are scalable. Here, we demonstrate a cladding-pumped SDM erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) that consists of six uncoupled multimode erbium-doped cores. Read More


Wave polarization contains valuable information for electromagnetic signal processing and the ability to manipulate it can be extremely useful in photonic devices. In this work, we propose designs comprised of one of the emerging and interesting two-dimensional media: Black Phosphorus. Due to substantial in-plane anisotropy, a single slab of Black Phosphorus can be very efficient for manipulating the polarization state of electromagnetic waves. Read More


In this paper we investigate the ground-state properties and related quantum phase transitions for the two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in a single-mode optical cavity. Apart from the usual normal and superradiant phases multi-stable macroscopic quantum states are realized by means of the spin-coherent-state variational method. We demonstrate analytically the stimulated radiation from collective state of atomic population inversion, which does not exist in the normal Dicke model with single-component atoms. Read More


The correlation holography reconstructs 3D objects as a distribution of two-point correlation of the random field detected by two dimensional detector arrays. Here, we describe a hybrid method, a combination of optical and computational channels, to reconstruct the objects from only a single pixel detector. An experimental arrangement is proposed and as a first step to realize the technique, we have simulated the experimental model for both scalar and vectorial objects. Read More


Left-handed materials usually are realized in artificial subwavelength structures. Here we show that some anisotropic superconductors, such as $\mathrm{Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_{8+\delta}}$, $\mathrm{YBa_2Cu_xO_y}$ and $\mathrm{La_{2-x}Sr_xCuO_4}$, are intrinsic left-handed materials. The condition is that the plasma frequency in the $c$ axis, $\omega_c$, and in the $ab$ plane, $\omega_{ab}$, and the operating frequency, $\omega$, satisfy $\omega_c<\omega<\omega_{ab}$. Read More


The Photonic Circuit has generally been a structure in which light propagates by unitary exchange and where photons transfer reversibly between channels. In contrast, the term diffusive is more akin to a chaotic propagation in scattering media, where light is driven out of coherence towards a thermal mixture. We have devised a way to unite these opposites, founded from the dynamics of open quantum systems and resulting in novel techniques for coherent light control. Read More


This paper provides a mathematical approach to study metasurfaces in non flat geometries. Analytical conditions between the curvature of the surface and the set of refracted directions are introduced to guarantee the existence of phase discontinuities. The approach contains both the near and far field cases. Read More


In this work, we study the transmission properties of one dimensional finite periodic systems with $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry. A simple closed form expression is obtained for the total transmittance from a lattice of N cells, that allows us to describe the transmission minima (maxima) when the system is in the $\mathcal{PT}$-unbroken (broken) phase. Utilizing this expression, we provide the necessary conditions, \textit{independent} of the number of cells, for the occurrence of a CPA-laser for any finite $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric periodic potential. Read More


Phase noise or frequency noise is a key metrics to evaluate the short term stability of a laser. This property is of a great interest for the applications but delicate to characterize, especially for narrow line-width lasers. In this letter, we demonstrate a digital cross correlation scheme to characterize the absolute phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers. Read More


We propose a scheme to simulate topological physics within a single degenerate cavity, whose modes are mapped to lattice sites. A crucial ingredient of the scheme is to construct a sharp boundary so that the open boundary condition can be implemented for this effective lattice system. In doing so, the topological properties of the system can manifest themselves on the edge states, which can be probed from the spectrum of an output cavity field. Read More


We present a quantum-mechanical model for surface-assisted carrier excitation by optical fields in plasmonic nanostructures of arbitrary shape. We derive an explicit expression, in terms of local fields inside the metal structure, for surface absorbed power and surface scattering rate that determine the enhancement of carrier excitation efficiency near the metal-dielectric interface. We show that surface scattering is highly sensitive to the local field polarization, and can be incorporated into metal dielectric function along with phonon and impurity scattering. Read More


Recently the spectacular result was derived quantum mechanically that the total angular momentum of photons in light beams with finite lateral extensions can have half-integer quantum numbers. In a circularly polarized Gauss light beam it is half of the spin angular momentum which it would have in a respective infinitely extended wave. In another paper it was shown by a classical calculation that the magnetic moment induced by such a beam in a metal is a factor of two smaller than the one induced by a respective infinitely extended wave. Read More


The theoretical study of the optical properties of TE- and TM- modes in a four-layer structure composed of the magneto-optical yttrium iron garnet guiding layer on a dielectric substrate covered by planar nanocomposite guiding multilayer is presented. The dispersion equation is obtained taking into account the bigyrotropic properties of yttrium-iron garnet, and an original algorithm for the guided modes identification is proposed. The dispersion spectra are analyzed and the energy flux distributions across the structure are calculated. Read More


In recent years, the data traffic has grown exponentially and the forecasts indicate a huge market that could be addressed by communication infrastructure and service providers. However, the processing capacity, space, and energy consumption of the available technology is a serious bottleneck for the exploitation of these markets. Chip-integrated optical communication systems hold the promise of significantly improving these issues related to the current technology. Read More