Physics - Optics Publications (50)

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Physics - Optics Publications

We demonstrate integrating a high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonator with a free-standing membrane waveguide. Our technique is based on femtosecond laser direct writing which produces the pre-structure, followed by focused ion beam milling which reduces the surface roughness of sidewall of the fabricated structure to nanometer scale. Efficient light coupling between the integrated waveguide and microdisk was achieved, and the quality factor of the microresonator was measured as high as 1. Read More


Quantum nonlocality, i.e. the presence of strong correlations in spatially seperated systems which are forbidden by local realism, lies at the heart of quantum communications and quantum computing. Read More


Ultrastable high-spectral-purity lasers have served as the cornerstone behind optical atomic clocks, quantum measurements, precision optical-microwave generation, high resolution optical spectroscopy and sensing. Hertz-level lasers stabilized to high finesse Fabry-P\'erot mirror cavities are typically used for these studies but are large and fragile such that they have remained laboratory instruments. There is a clear demand in rugged miniaturized lasers operating potentially at comparable stabilities to those bulk lasers. Read More


A rigorous Floquet mode analysis is proposed for a zero thickness space-time modulated Huygens' metasurface to model and determine the strengths of the new harmonic components of the scattered fields. The proposed method is based on Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions (GSTCs) treating a metasurface as a spatial discontinuity. The metasurface is described in terms of Lorentzian electric and magnetic surface susceptibilities, $\chi_\text{ee}$ and $\chi_\text{mm}$, respectively, and its resonant frequencies are periodically modulated in both space and time. Read More


Recent remarkable progress in wave-front shaping has enabled control of light propagation inside linear media to focus and image through scattering objects. In particular, light propagation in multimode fibers comprises complex intermodal interactions and rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Control of physical phenomena in multimode fibers and their application are in its infancy, opening opportunities to take advantage of the complex mode interactions. Read More


Quantum-enhanced measurements exploit quantum mechanical effects for increasing the sensitivity of measurements of certain physical parameters and have great potential for both fundamental science and concrete applications. Most of the research has so far focused on using highly entangled states, which are, however, difficult to produce and to stabilize for a large number of constituents. In the following we review alternative mechanisms, notably the use of more general quantum correlations such as quantum discord, identical particles, or non-trivial hamiltonians; the estimation of thermodynamical parameters or parameters characterizing non-equilibrium states; and the use of quantum phase transitions. Read More


Magnetic dipolar modes (MDMs) in a quasi 2D ferrite disk are microwave energy eigenstate oscillations with topologically distinct structures of rotating fields and unidirectional power flow circulations. At the first glance, this might seem to violate the law of conservation of an angular momentum, since the microwave structure with an embedded ferrite sample is mechanically fixed. However, an angular momentum is seen to be conserved if topological properties of electromagnetic fields in the entire microwave structure are taken into account. Read More


We show how analogues of a large number of well-known nonlinear-optics phenomena can be realized with one or more two-level atoms coupled to one or more resonator modes. Through higher-order processes, where virtual photons are created and annihilated, an effective deterministic coupling between two states of such a system can be created. In this way, analogues of three-wave mixing, four-wave mixing, higher-harmonic and -subharmonic generation (i. Read More


We introduce the concept of tunable ideal magnetic dipole scattering, where a nonmagnetic nanoparticle scatters lights as a pure magnetic dipole. High refractive index subwavelength nanoparticles usually support both electric and magnetic dipole responses. Thus, to achieve ideal magnetic dipole scattering one has to suppress the electric dipole response. Read More


Estimating the angular separation between two incoherently radiating monochromatic point sources is a canonical toy problem to quantify spatial resolution in imaging. In recent work, Tsang {\em et al.} showed, using a Fisher Information analysis, that Rayleigh's resolution limit is just an artifact of the conventional wisdom of intensity measurement in the image plane. Read More


The wealth of work in backward Raman amplification in plasma has focused on the extreme intensity limit, however backward Raman amplification may also provide an effective and practical mechanism for generating intense, broad bandwidth, long-wavelength infrared radiation (LWIR). An electromagnetic simulation coupled with a relativistic cold fluid plasma model is used to demonstrate the generation of picosecond pulses at a wavelength of 10 microns with terawatt powers through backward Raman amplification. The effects of collisional damping, Landau damping, pump depletion, and wave breaking are examined, as well as the resulting design considerations for a LWIR Raman amplifier. Read More


Gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (PCF) is being used to generate ever wider supercontinuum spectra, in particular via dispersive wave (DW) emission in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet, with a multitude of applications. DWs are the result of the resonant transfer of energy from a self-compressed soliton, a process which relies crucially on phase matching. It was recently predicted that, in the strong-field regime, the additional transient anomalous dispersion introduced by gas ionization would allow phase-matched DW generation in the mid-infrared (MIR)-something that is forbidden in the absence of free electrons. Read More


We show that it is possible to construct spectrally lower bound limited functions which can oscillate locally at an arbitrarily low frequency. Such sub-oscillatory functions are complementary to super-oscillatory functions which are band-limited yet can oscillate locally at an arbitrarily high frequency. We construct a spatially sub-oscillatory optical beam to experimentally demonstrate optical super defocusing. Read More


The work is devoted to the study of the correlation technique of formation of laser beams under conditions of the interaction of coherent fields spatially periodic in the transverse direction.\,\,It is aimed at the application of this technique to the multiplexing (splitting) of an input laser beam to several output ones, management of the energy of these beams, and their clustering and debunching according to required time algorithms. Read More


The linear susceptibility of an atomic sample is formally equivalent to the response of a RLC circuit. We use a ladder of lumped RLC circuits to observe an analogue of slow-light, a well-known phenomenon in atomic physics. We first characterize the radio-frequency response of the circuit in the spectral domain exhibiting a transparency window surrounded by two strongly absorptive lines. Read More


Studies of ultra-fast laser-matter interaction are important for many applications. Such interaction triggers extreme physical processes which are localized in the range from $\sim 10$ nanometers to micron spatial scales and developing within picosecond$-$nanosecond time range. Thus the experimental observations are difficult and methods of applied mathematics are necessary to understand these processes. Read More


We report on the optical and mechanical characterization of arrays of parallel micromechanical membranes. Pairs of high-tensile stress, 100 nm-thick silicon nitride membranes are assembled parallel with each other with separations ranging from 8.5 to 200 $\mu$m. Read More


We propose a technique to control the beam direction of a dielectric optical micro-prism structure by properly designing its geometry. We show that by selectively choosing the slope of a high index micro prism, the direction of the radiated beam from the tip can be controlled in the broadside direction of the prism structure. We propose an easy fabrication method to integrate such broadside beam routers on a Si platform. Read More


Spontaneously generated coherence and enhanced dispersion in a V-type, three-level atomic system interacting with a single mode field can considerably reduce the radiative and cavity decay rates. This may eliminate the use of high finesse, miniaturized cavities in optical cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments under strong atom-field coupling conditions. Read More


Plasmonic metasurfaces have been employed for tuning and controlling light enabling various novel applications. Their appeal is enhanced with the incorporation of an active element with the metasurfaces paving the way for dynamic control. In this letter, we realize a dynamic polarization state generator using graphene-integrated anisotropic metasurface (GIAM), where a linear incidence polarization is controllably converted into an elliptical one. Read More


In this article, we propose and numerically analyze an all dielectric biaxial metamaterial [ADBM] constructed by multilayer pattering of a sub-wavelength ridge array of Silicon and a flat SiO2 layer. The proposed ADBM can support Dyakonov Surface Waves [DSWs] with infinite propagation length which can propagate in a wide angular domain. Though natural uniaxial and biaxial materials and also nanowire all dielectric metamaterials can also support DSWs, the angular existence domain [AED] is limited to a very narrow range. Read More


The spin noise signal in the Faraday-rotation-based detection technique can be considered equally correctly either as a manifestation of the spin-flip Raman effect or as a result of light scattering in the medium with fluctuating gyrotropy. In this paper, we present rigorous description of the signal formation process upon heterodyning of the field scattered due to fluctuating gyrotropy. Along with conventional single-beam experimental arrangement, we consider here a more complicated, but more informative, two-beam configuration that implies the use of an auxiliary light beam passing through the same scattering volume and delivering additional scattered field to the detector. Read More


Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots the neighbouring diode. Read More


Experiments involving micro- and nanomechanical resonators need to be carefully designed to reduce mechanical environmental noise. A small scale on-chip approach is to add an additional resonator to the system as a mechanical low-pass filter. Unfortunately, the inherent low frequency of the low-pass filter causes the system to be easily excited mechanically. Read More


Coherent phonons can greatly vary light-matter interaction in semiconductor nanostructures placed inside an optical resonator on an ultrafast time scale. For an ensemble of quantum dots as active laser medium phonons are able to induce a large enhancement or attenuation of the emission intensity, as has been recently demonstrated. The physics of this coupled phonon-exciton-photon system consists of various effects, which in the experiment typically cannot be clearly separated, in particular because a rather complex strain pulse impinges on the quantum dot ensemble. Read More


This letter proposes a new spoof surface plasmon transmission line (SSP-TL) using capacitor loading techniques. This new SSP-TL features flexible and reconfigurable dispersion control and highly selective filtering performance without resorting to configuration change. Moreover, it requires much smaller line width than the conventional SSP-TLs for achieving a extremely slow wave (or a highly confined field), which is quite useful for a compact system. Read More


We demonstrate the measurement of mass of the absorbing micro-particle trapped in air by optical forced oscillation. When the trapping light intensity is modulated sinusoidally, the particle in the trap undergoes forced oscillation and the amplitude of the oscillation depends directly on the modulated frequency. Based on a simple spring model, we fit the amplitudes versus the modulated frequencies and obtain the stiffness of the optical trap and the mass of the trapped particle. Read More


Are quantum states real? How to think about this the most important, most fundamental and most profound question in quantum mechanics still has not been satisfactorily resolved, although its realistic interpretation seems to have been rejected by various delayed-choice experiments. The heart of the matter comes down to what can describe physical reality if wavefunctions cannot. Here, to address this long-standing issue, we present a quantum twisted double-slit experiment, in which orbital angular momentum degree-of-freedom is employed to 'mark' the double slits (mimicked by spatial light modulators). Read More


It has been recently demonstrated that textured closed surfaces which are made out of perfect electric conductors (PECs) can mimic highly localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Here, we propose an effective medium which can accurately model LSP resonances in a two-dimensional periodically decorated PEC cylinder. The accuracy of previous models is limited to structures with deep-subwavelength and high number of grooves. Read More


Scattering of classical light by atomic clouds induces photon-mediated effective long-range interactions between the atoms and leads to cooperative effects even at low atomic densities. We introduce a novel simulation technique that allows us to investigate the quantum regime of the dynamics of large clouds of atoms. We show that the fluorescence spectrum of the cloud can be used to probe genuine quantum cooperative effects. Read More


We present a hundred-watt-level linearly-polarized random fiber laser (RFL) pumped by incoherent broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source and prospect the power scaling potential theoretically. The RFL employs half-opened cavity structure which is composed by a section of 330 m polarization maintained (PM) passive fiber and two PM high reflectivity fiber Bragg gratings. The 2nd order Stokes light centered at 1178 nm reaches the pump limited maximal power of 100. Read More


A general orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode selection principle is put forward involving the rotationally symmetric superposition of chiral states. This principle is not only capable of explaining the operation of spiral zone plate holograms and suggesting that naturally occurring rotationally symmetric patterns could be inadvertent sources of vortex beams, but more importantly, it enables the systematic and flexible generation of structured OAM waves in general. This is demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically in the context of electron vortex beams using rotationally symmetric binary amplitude chiral sieve masks. Read More


It has been accepted that the polarization of the photon in vector beams is entangled with its momentum. Here a quantum description is advanced for the polarization that shows entanglement with the momentum. This is done by showing that the Jones vector at each value of the momentum plays the role of the polarization wavefunction in the sense that the Pauli matrices represent the Cartesian components of the polarization in the local reference system with respect to which the Jones vector is defined. Read More


We experimentally demonstrate the use of subwavelength optical nanoantennae to assist the gentle ablation of nanostructures directly using ultralow fluence from a Ti: sapphire oscillator through the excitation of surface plasmon waves. We show that this ablation mechanism is the same for metal and dielectric. The analytical solutions of ablation threshold are in excellent agreement with the experiment estimations. Read More


This work examines superradiance in initially inverted clouds of \textit{multi-level} atoms. We develop a set of equations that can approximately calculate the temporal evolution of $N$ coupled atoms. This allows us to simulate clouds containing hundreds of multi-level atoms while eschewing the assumption and/or approximation of symmetric dipole-dipole interactions. Read More


A picosecond acoustic pulse can be used to control the lasing emission from semiconductor nanostructures by shifting their electronic transitions. When the active medium, here an ensemble of (In,Ga)As quantum dots, is shifted into or out of resonance with the cavity mode, a large enhancement or suppression of the lasing emission can dynamically be achieved. Most interesting, even in the case when gain medium and cavity mode are in resonance, we observe an enhancement of the lasing due to shaking by coherent phonons. Read More


A coupled-wave model is developed for photonic-crystal quantum cascade lasers. The analytical model provides an efficient analysis of full three-dimensional large-area device structure, and the validity is confirmed via simulations and previous experimental results. Read More


We consider a two-state system consisting of a pair of coupled ferromagnetic waveguides. A monotonically increasing bias magnetic field can dynamically manipulate the system to enter a PT-symmetry broken phase and then reenter a symmetric phase. The symmetry recovery is enabled by the presence of accidental degeneracy points when the system has no loss, and each degeneracy point can spawn a pair of exceptional points when asymmetric loss is introduced. Read More


We report on a temporal evolution of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of CuInS$_{2}$/ZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) by drop-casting on SiO$_{2}$/Si substrates and high quality factor microdisks (MDs) under different atmospheric conditions. Fast PL decay, peak blueshift and linewidth broadening due to photooxidation have been observed at low excitation power. With further increasing of the excitation power, the PL peak position shows a redshift and linewidth becomes narrow, which is ascribed to the enhanced F$\ddot{o}$rster resonant energy transfer between different QDs by photoinduced agglomeration. Read More


Photoluminescence polarization is experimentally studied for samples with (In,Ga)As/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots in transverse magnetic field (Hanle effect) under slow modulation of the excitation light polarization from fractions of Hz to tens of kHz. The polarization reflects the evolution of strongly coupled electron-nuclear spin system in the quantum dots. Strong modification of the Hanle curves under variation of the modulation period is attributed to the peculiarities of the spin dynamics of quadrupole nuclei, which states are split due to deformation of the crystal lattice in the quantum dots. Read More


We investigate, numerically and experimentally, the effect of thermo-optical (TO) chaos on direct soliton generation (DSG) in microresonators. When the pump laser is scanned from blue to red and then stopped at a fixed wavelength, we find that the solitons generated sometimes remain (survive) and sometimes annihilate subsequent to the end of the scan. We refer to the possibility of these different outcomes arising under identical laser scan conditions as coexistence of soliton annihilation and survival. Read More


Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in gas-filled waveguides is one enabling technology for many intriguing application ranging from attosecond metrology towards biophotonics, with the amount of spectral broadening crucially depending on the pulse dispersion of the propagating mode. Here we show that the structural resonances in gas-filled anti-resonant hollow core optical fiber provide an additional degree of freedom in dispersion engineering, allowing for the generation of more than three octaves of broadband light ranging deep UV wavelength towards the near infrared.Our observation relies on the introduction of a geometric-induced resonance in the spectral vicinity of the pump laser outperforming the gas dispersion, thus yielding a dispersion being independent of core size, which is highly relevant for scaling input powers. Read More


Topological states can exhibit electronic coherence on macroscopic length scales. When the coherence length exceeds the wavelength of light, one can expect new phenomena to occur in the optical response of these states. We theoretically characterize this limit for integer quantum Hall states in two-dimensional Dirac materials. Read More


We study vortex patterns in a prototype nonlinear optical system: counterpropagating laser beams in a photorefractive crystal, with or without the background photonic lattice. The vortices are effectively planar and described by the winding number and the "flavor" index, stemming from the fact that we have two parallel beams propagating in opposite directions. The problem is amenable to the methods of statistical field theory and generalizes the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition of the XY model to the "two-flavor" case. Read More


Light localization and intensity enhancement in a woodpile layer-by-layer photonic crystal, whose interlayer distance along the propagation direction is gradually varied, has been theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated. The phenomenon is shown to be related to the progressive slowing down and stopping of the incoming wave, as a result of the gradual variation of the local dispersion. The light localization is chromatically resolved, since every frequency component is stopped and reflected back at different spatial positions. Read More


Photonic crystals use periodic structures to create forbidden frequency regions for optical wave propagation, that allow for the creation and integration of complex optical functions in small footprint devices. Such strategy has also been successfully applied to confine mechanical waves and to explore their interaction with light in the so-called optomechanical cavities. Because of their challenging design, these cavities are traditionally fabricated using dedicated high-resolution electron-beam lithography tools that are inherently slow, limiting this solution to small-scale applications or research. Read More


We study the strong coupling between the molecular excited state and the plasmonic modes of silver hole arrays with a resonant frequency very close to the asymptotic line of the plasmonic dispersion relation. When the molecular transition state is relatively high and lies at the nonlinear regime of the dispersion relation. We demonstrate that the strong coupling regime can be achieved between the two sub-systems at low molecular densities with negligible damping of the electromagnetic field. Read More


XUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) produce short wavelength pulses with high intensity, ultrashort duration, well-defined polarization and transverse coherence, and have been utilised for many experiments previously possible at long wavelengths only: multiphoton ionization, pumping an atomic laser, and four-wave mixing spectroscopy. However one important optical technique, coherent control, has not yet been demonstrated, because Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission FELs have limited longitudinal coherence. Single-colour pulses from the FERMI seeded FEL are longitudinally coherent, and two-colour emission is predicted to be coherent. Read More


Elastic dissipation through radiation towards the substrate is a major loss channel in micro- and nanomechanical resonators. Engineering the coupling of these resonators with optical cavities further complicates and constrains the design of low-loss optomechanical devices. In this work we rely on the coherent cancellation of mechanical radiation to demonstrate material absorption and surface scattering limited silicon near-field optomechanical resonators oscillating at tens of MHz. Read More


With the appearance of superpower laser sources of relativistic/ultrarelativistic intensities in the last decade, the laser-QED-vacuum-matter interaction physics has entered a new phase that makes real the observation of many nonlinear quantum electrodynamic (QED) and classical-quantum- mechanical phenomena revealed more than fore-five decades ago, serious advance in new generation of laser-plasma accelerators of ultrahigh energies, nuclear fusion etc. Hence, the present review article will help explorers-experimentalists in this field to attract attention on the fundamental properties and peculiarities of the dynamics of induced free-free transitions at high and superhigh intensities of stimulated radiation fields. In this connection it is of special interest the induced Cherenkov, Compton, undulator/wiggler coherent processes, as well as cyclotron resonance in a medium -- possessing with nonlinear resonances of threshold nature and leading to many important nonlinear effects or applications, which are considered in this review. Read More