Physics - Optics Publications (50)


Physics - Optics Publications

Laser interferometers with high circulating power and suspended optics, such as the LIGO gravitational wave detectors, experience an optomechanical coupling effect known as a parametric instability: the runaway excitation of a mechanical resonance in a mirror driven by the optical field. This can saturate the interferometer sensing and control systems and limit the observation time of the detector. Current mitigation techniques at the LIGO sites are successfully suppressing all observed parametric instabilities, and focus on the behaviour of the instabilities in the Fabry-Perot arm cavities of the interferometer, where the instabilities are first generated. Read More

Planar photonic nanostructures have recently attracted a great deal of attention for quantum optics applications. In this article, we carry out full 3D numerical simulations to fully account for all radiation channels and thereby quantify the coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter embedded in a photonic-crystal waveguide. We utilize mixed boundary conditions by combining active Dirichlet boundary conditions for the guided mode and perfectly-matched layers for the radiation modes. Read More

We present a degenerate four-wave mixing experiment on a silicon nitride (SiN) waveguide covered with gated graphene. We observe strong dependencies on signal-pump detuning and Fermi energy, i.e. Read More

Controlling and confining light by exciting plasmons in resonant metallic nanostructures is an essential aspect of many new emerging optical technologies. Here we explore the possibility of controllably reconfiguring the intrinsic optical properties of semi-continuous gold films, by inducing permanent morphological changes with a femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser above a critical power. Optical transmission spectroscopy measurements show a correlation between the spectra of the morphologically modified films and the wavelength, polarization, and the intensity of the laser used for alteration. Read More

Non-reciprocity in optical and plasmonic systems is a key element for engineering the one-way propagation structures for light manipulation. Here we investigate topological nanostructures covered with graphene-based meta-surfaces, which consist of a periodic pattern of sub-wavelength stripes of graphene winding around the (meta-)tube or (meta-)torus. We establish the relation between the topological and plasmonic properties in these structures, as justified by simple theoretical expressions. Read More

Solitons occur in many physical systems when a nonlinearity compensates wave dispersion. Their recent formation in microresonators opens a new research direction for nonlinear optical physics and provides a platform for miniaturization of spectroscopy and frequency metrology systems. These microresonator solitons orbit around a closed waveguide path and produce a repetitive output pulse stream at a rate set by the round-trip time. Read More

We develop a class of supercell photonic crystals supporting complete photonic bandgaps based on breaking spatial symmetries of the underlying primitive photonic crystal. One member of this class based on a two-dimensional honeycomb structure supports a complete bandgap for an index-contrast ratio as low as $n_{high}/n_{low} = 2.1$, making this the first such 2D photonic crystal to support a complete bandgap in lossless materials at visible frequencies. Read More

Hybrid systems of cold atoms and optical cavities are promising systems for increasing the stability of laser oscillators used in quantum metrology and atomic clocks. In this paper we map out the atom-cavity dynamics in such a system and demonstrate limitations as well as robustness of the approach. We investigate the phase response of an ensemble of cold strontium-88 atoms inside an optical cavity for use as an error signal in laser frequency stabilization. Read More

Proposed near-future upgrades of the current advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors include the usage of frequency dependent squeezed light to reduce the current sensitivity-limiting quantum noise. We quantify and describe the downgrading effects that spatial mode mismatches have on the squeezed field. We also show that squeezing the second-order Hermite-Gaussian modes $\mathrm{HG}_{02}$ and $\mathrm{HG}_{20}$, in addition to the fundamental mode, has the potential to increase the robustness to spatial mode mismatches. Read More

Phase retrieval is one of the most challenging processes in many interferometry techniques. To promote the phase retrieval, Xu et. al [X. Read More

Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in a metallic grating deposited on a transparent sample launches coherent compression/dilatation acoustic pulses in directions of different orders of acoustic diffraction. Their propagation is detected by the delayed laser pulses, which are also diffracted by the metallic grating, through the measurement of the transient intensity change of the first order diffracted light. The obtained data contain multiple frequency components which are interpreted by considering all possible angles for the Brillouin scattering of light achieved through the multiplexing of the propagation directions of light and coherent sound by the metallic grating. Read More

The use of geometrical constraints opens many new perspectives in photonics and in fundamental studies of nonlinear waves. By implementing surface structures in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers as manifolds for curved space, we experimentally study the impacts of geometrical constraints on nonlinear wave localization. We observe localized waves pinned to the maximal curvature in an elliptical-ring, and confirm the reduction in the localization length of waves by measuring near and far field patterns, as well as the corresponding dispersion relation. Read More

We achieve efficient shaping of superscattering by radially anisotropic nanowires relying on resonant multipolar interferences. It is shown that the radial anisotropy of refractive index can be employed to resonantly overlap electric and magnetic multipoles of various orders, and as a result effective superscattering with different engineered angular patterns can be obtained. We further demonstrate that such superscattering shaping relying on unusual radial anisotropy parameters can be directly realised with isotropic multi-layered nanowires, which may shed new light to many fundamental researches and various applications related to scattering particles. Read More

We propose and experimentally demonstrate the enhancement in the filtering quality (Q) factor of an integrated micro-ring resonator (MRR) by embedding it in an integrated Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity formed by cascaded Sagnac loop reflectors (SLRs). By utilizing coherent interference within the FP cavity to reshape the transmission spectrum of the MRR, both the Q factor and the extinction ratio (ER) can be significantly improved. The device is theoretically analyzed, and practically fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Read More

We demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with rectangular cross section into bulk diamond. In simulation, these cavities have an unloaded quality factor (Q) of over 1 million. Measured cavity resonances show fundamental modes with spectrometer-limited quality factors larger than 14,000 within 1nm of the NV center's zero phonon line at 637nm. Read More

Nanoantennas concentrate electromagnetic energy into deep-subwavelength volumes (hotspot), which benefits a wide range of applications such as spontaneous emission enhancement, nonlinear optics, nanolaser, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To increase hotspot intensity, methods for sculpting individual nanoantenna resonance have been previously explored. Here, we study a nanoantenna-microcavity hybrid approach for highly cooperative hotspot enhancement, combining gold nanorods (AuNRs) for nanometer-scale light concentration and a resonant photonic crystal (PC) slab for efficient near-field excitation and optical feedback. Read More

We present a simple bottom-up approach via an incoherent unpolarized illumination and the choice of a solvent-droplet-induced-dewetting method to photoinducenano doughnuts on the surface of azopolymer thin films. We demonstrate that doughnut-shaped nanostructures can be formed and tailored with a wide range of typical sizes, thus providing a rich field of applications using surface photo-patterning. Furthermore, due to the presence of highly photoactive azobenzene derivative in the material, illumination of these nanostructures by a polarized laser light shows the possibility of a further growth and reshaping opening the way for fundamental studies of size-dependent scaling laws of optical properties and possible fabrication of nano-reactor or nano-trap patterns Read More

The combination of graphene with semiconductor materials in heterostructure photodetectors, has enabled amplified detection of femtowatt light signals using micron-scale electronic devices. Presently, the speed of such detectors is limited by long-lived charge traps and impractical strategies, e.g. Read More

We report on the increased extraction of light emitted by solid-state sources embedded within high refractive index materials. This is achieved by making use of a local lensing effect by sub-micron metallic rings deposited on the sample surface and centered around single emitters. We show enhancements in the intensity of the light emitted by InAs/GaAs single quantum dot lines into free space as high as a factor 20. Read More

Propagation of coherent light in a Kerr nonlinear medium can be mapped onto a flow of an equivalent fluid. Here we use this mapping to model the conditions in the vicinity of a rotating black hole as a Laguerre-Gauss vortex beam. We describe weak fluctuations of the phase and amplitude of the electric field by wave equations in curved space, with a metric that is similar to the Kerr metric. Read More

An innovative and novel quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for highly sensitive and selective breath gas analysis is introduced. The QEPAS sensor consists of two acoustically coupled micro-resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF). The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. Read More

Topology describes properties that remain unaffected by smooth distortions. Its main hallmark is the emergence of edge states localized at the boundary between regions characterized by distinct topological invariants. This feature offers new opportunities for robust trapping of light in nano- and micro-meter scale systems subject to fabrication imperfections and to environmentally induced deformations. Read More

We present a complete and consistent quantum theory of generalised X waves with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dispersive media. We show that the resulting quantised light pulses are affected by neither dispersion nor diffraction and are therefore resilient against external perturbations. The nonlinear interaction of quantised X waves in quadratic and Kerr nonlinear media is also presented and studied in detail. Read More

Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has been demonstrated in silicon waveguides in recent years. However, due to the weak interaction between photons and acoustic phonons in these waveguides, long interaction length is typically necessary. Here, we experimentally show that forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in a short interaction length of a 20 um radius silicon microring resonator could give 1. Read More

We demonstrate the applicability of the EPR entanglement squeezing scheme for enhancing the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a detuned dual-recycled Michelson interferometers. In particular, this scheme is applied to the GEO\,600 interferometer. The effect of losses throughout the interferometer, arm length asymmetries, and imperfect separation of the signal and idler beams are considered. Read More

Affiliations: 1Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 5School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia, 6Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have recently emerged as promising bright single photon sources. In this letter we investigate in details their optical properties at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, we perform temperature resolved photoluminescence studies and measure photon coherence times from the hBN emitters. Read More

We present a spectral-domain (SD) technique for the efficient analysis of metasurfaces. The metasurface is modeled by generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) as a zero-thickness sheet creating a discontinuity in the electromagnetic field. The SD expression of these GSTCs for a specified incident field leads to a system of four surface integral equations for the reflected and transmitted fields, which are solved using the method of moments in the spectral domain. Read More

We study transverse spin in a sub-wavelength metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) sphere when the MDM sphere exhibits avoided crossing due to hybridization of the surface plasmon with the Mie localized plasmon. We show that the change in the absorptive and dipersive character near the crossing can have significant effect on the transverse spin. An enhancement in the transverse spin is shown to be possible associated with the transparency (suppression of extinction) of the MDM sphere. Read More

The ability to engineer metamaterials with tunable nonlinear optical properties is crucial for nonlinear optics. Traditionally, metals have been employed to enhance nonlinear optical interactions through field localization. Here, inspired by the electronic properties of materials, we introduce and demonstrate experimentally an asymmetric metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) metamaterial that exhibits a large and electronically tunable effective second-order optical susceptibility (\c{hi}(2)). Read More

We demonstrate tunable pulling and pushing optical forces on plasmonic nanostructures around Fano resonance. The plasmonic nanostructure containing a spherical core with optical gain and a metallic shell shows much larger optical pulling force than a pure gain sphere. One can obtain large field enhancement and giant pulling force at the emerged quadrupole mode. Read More

Recent demonstrations of optically pumped lasers based on GeSn alloys put forward the prospect of efficient laser sources monolithically integrated on a Si photonic platform. For instance, GeSn layers with 12.5% of Sn were reported to lase at 2. Read More

We show that transparent dielectrics with strong optical anisotropy support a new class of electromagnetic waves that combine the properties of propagating and evanescent fields. These "ghost waves" are created in tangent bifurcations that "annihilate" pairs of positive- and negative-index modes, and represent the optical analogue of the "ghost orbits" in the quantum theory of non-integrable dynamical systems. Similarly to the regular evanescent fields, ghost waves support high transverse wavenumbers, but in addition to the exponential decay show oscillatory behavior in the direction of propagation. Read More

Affiliations: 1Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, 2Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, 3Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, 4Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, 5Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems

We report a wavelength-tunable Q-switched mode-locked fiber laser based on a compact optical tuning device, which is fabricated by coating single-layer graphene on the surface of micro-fiber Bragg grating (MFBG). Based on thermal-optical effect through evanescent interaction between graphene and MFBG, the center wavelength of MFBG can be accurately controlled by adjusting power of an external laser. By inserting the fabricated device into a compact fiber laser cavity mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes, stable Q-switched mode-locked pulse is generated. Read More

Quantum memory, capable of stopping flying photons and storing their quantum coherence, is essential for scalable quantum technologies. A broadband quantum memory operating at room temperature will enable building large-scale quantum systems for real-life applications, for instance, high-speed quantum repeater for long-distance quantum communication and synchronised multi-photon quantum sources for quantum computing and quantum simulation. Albeit advances of pushing bandwidth from narrowband to broadband and storage media from ultra-cold atomic gas to room-temperature atomic vapour, due to either intrinsic high noises or short lifetime, it is still challenging to find a room-temperature broadband quantum memory beyond conceptional demonstration. Read More

We studied the multi-plateau high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from solids numerically. It is found that the HHG spectrum in the second or higher plateau is redshifted in short laser pulses due to the nonadiabatic effect. The corresponding FWHMs also increase, suggesting the step-by-step excitation process of higher conduction bands in the HHG process. Read More

Several applications, such as optical tweezers and atom guiding, benefit from techniques that allow the engineering of optical fields' spatial profiles, in particular their longitudinal intensity patterns. In cylindrical coordinates, methods such as Frozen Waves allow an advanced control of beams' characteristics, but in Cartesian coordinates there is no analogous technique. Since Cartesian beams may also be useful for applications, we develop here a method to modulate on-demand the longitudinal intensity pattern of any (initially) unidimensional Cartesian beam with concentrated wavevector spectrum, thus encompassing all paraxial unidimensional beams. Read More

Optical surface waves, highly localized modes bound to the surface of media, enable manipulation of light at nanoscale, thus impacting a wide range of areas in nanoscience. By applying metamaterials, artificially designed optical materials, as contacting media at the interface, we can significantly ameliorate surface wave propagation and even generate new types of waves. Here, we demonstrate that high aspect ratio (1:20) grating structures with plasmonic lamellas in deep nanoscale trenches function as a versatile platform supporting both surface and volume infrared waves. Read More

We study the properties of a soliton crystal, an bound state of several optical pulses that propagate with a fixed temporal separation through the optical fibres of the proposed approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFC) for astronomical spectrograph calibration. This approach - also being suitable for subpicosecond pulse generation for other applications - consists of a conventional single-mode fibre and a suitably pumped Erbium-doped fibre. Two continuous-wave lasers are used as light source. Read More

We achieve simultaneous scattering invisibility and free-space field enhancement relying on multipolar interferences among all-dielectric nanoparticles. The scattering properties of all-dielectric nanowire quadrumers are investigated and two sorts of scattering invisibilities have been identified: the trivial invisibility where the individual nanowires are not effectively excited; and the nontrivial invisibility with strong multipolar excitations within each nanowire, which results in free-space field enhancement outside the particles. It is revealed that such nontrivial invisibility originates from not only the simultaneous excitations of both electric and magnetic resonances, but also their significant magnetoelectric cross-interactions. Read More

We examine the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) in a graphene-substrate system with the presence of external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime, we demonstrate that the in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splittings in photonic SHE exhibit different quantized behaviors. The quantized SHE can be described as a consequence of a quantized geometric phase (Berry phase), which corresponds to the quantized spin-orbit interaction. Read More

We present a theoretical study of the characteristics of the nonlinear spin-orbital angular momentum coupling induced by second-harmonic generation in plasmonic and dielectric nanostructures made of centrosymmetric materials. In particular, the connection between the phase singularities and polarization helicities in the longitudinal components of the fundamental and second-harmonic optical fields and the scatterer symmetry properties are discussed. By in-depth comparison between the interaction of structured optical beams with plasmonic and dielectric nanostructures, we have found that all-dielectric and plasmonic nanostructures that exhibit magnetic and electric resonances have comparable second-harmonic conversion efficiency. Read More

Finding a fluorescent target in a biological environment is a common and pressing microscopy problem. This task is formally analogous to the canonical search problem. In ideal (noise-free, truthful) search problems, the well-known binary search is optimal. Read More

Configuration of three different concave silver core-shell nanoresonators was numerically optimized to enhance the excitation and emission of embedded silicon vacancy (SiV) diamond color centers simultaneously. According to the tradeoff between the radiative rate enhancement and quantum efficiency (QE) conditional optimization was performed to ensure ~2-3-4 and 5-fold apparent cQE enhancement of SiV color centers with ~10% intrinsic QE. The enhancement spectra, as well as the near-field and charge distribution were inspected to uncover the physics underlying behind the optical responses. Read More

We present and analyze two pathways to produce commercial optical-fiber patch cords with stable long-term transmission in the ultraviolet (UV) at powers up to $\sim200$ mW. We provide a guide to producing such solarization-resistant, hydrogen-passivated, polarization-maintaining, connectorized and jacketed optical fibers compatible with demanding scientific and industrial applications. Our presentation describes the fabrication and hydrogen loading procedure in detail and presents a high-pressure vessel design, calculations of required H$_2$ loading times, and information on patch cord handling and the mitigation of bending sensitivities. Read More

In this paper, we develop a theoretical analysis to efficiently handle superpositions of waves with concentrated wavevector and frequency spectra, allowing an easy analytical description of fields with interesting transverse profiles. First, we analyze an extension of the paraxial formalism that is more suitable for superposing these types of waves, as it does not rely on the use of coordinate rotations combined with paraxial assumptions. Second, and most importantly, we leverage the obtained results to describe azimuthally symmetric waves composed of superpositions of zero-order Bessel beams with close cone angles that can be as large as desired, unlike in the paraxial formalism. Read More

Due to the non-ionizing property, researchers have chosen to investigate terahertz radiation (THz) Imaging instrumentation for Bio-Sensing applications. The present work is to design and fabricate a near field lens that can focus guided terahertz radiation to a microscopic region for the detection of cancer-affected cells in Biological tissue. Operational characteristics such as field of view, optical loss factor, and hydrophobicity must be included to achieve an effective design of the lens. Read More

We propose a scheme to enhance the effective photonic bandwidth exploiting bandgap overlapping of same order or different orders through judiciously chosen aperiodic geometries is spatial dimension. To implement the scheme, we design a specialty optical fiber with hybrid chirped-cladding. Our designed fiber provides an ultra-wide photonic bandwidth of ~ 3 micron. Read More

The behavior of Fano resonance and the reversal of near field optical binding force of dimers over different substrates have not been studied so far. In this work, we observe that if the closely located plasmonic cube homodimers over glass or high permittivity dielectric substrate are illuminated with plane wave polarized parallel to dimer axis, no reversal of optical binding force occurs. But if we apply the same set-up over a plasmonic substrate, stable Fano resonance occurs along with the reversal of near field binding force. Read More

This review provides a brief introduction to the physics of coupled exciton-plasmon systems, the theoretical description and experimental manifestation of such phenomena, followed by an account of the state-of-the-art methodology for the numerical simulations of such phenomena and supplemented by a number of FORTRAN codes, by which the interested reader can introduce himself/herself to the practice of such simulations. Applications to CW light scattering as well as transient response and relaxation are described. Particular attention is given to so-called strong coupling limit, where the hybrid exciton-plasmon nature of the system response is strongly expressed. Read More

We consider an array of the meta-atom consisting of two cut-wires and a split-ring resonator interacting with an electromagnetic field with two polarization components. We prove that such metamaterial system can be taken as a classical analogue of an atomic medium with a double- $\Lambda$-type four-level configuration coupled with four laser fields, exhibits an effect of plasmon induced transparency (PIT), and displays a similar behavior of atomic four-wave mixing (FWM). We demonstrate that when nonlinear varactors are mounted onto the gaps of the split-ring resonators the system can acquire giant second- and third-order Kerr nonlinearities via the PIT and a longwave-shortwave interaction. Read More