# Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect Publications (50)

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## Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect Publications

We give a classification of the different types of noise in a quantum dot, for variable temperature, voltage and frequency. It allows us first to show which kind of information can be extracted from the electrical noise, such as the ac-conductance or the Fano factor. Next, we classify the mixed electrical-heat noise, and we identify in which regimes information on the Seebeck coefficient, on the thermoelectric figure of merit or on the thermoelectric efficiency can be obtained. Read More

This work presents epitaxial growth and optical spectroscopy of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te barriers placed on the top of (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te distributed Bragg reflector. The formed photonic mode in our half-cavity structure permits to enhance the local excitation intensity and extraction efficiency of the QD photoluminescence, while suppressing the reflectance within the spectral range covering the QD transitions. This allows to perform coherent, nonlinear, resonant spectroscopy of individual QDs. Read More

The features of the spin and charge transport of electrons and holes in a metal and a semiconductor were studied using the Boltzmann transport equations. It was shown that the electrons and holes carry the spin in opposite directions in an electrical current. As result, the spin polarization of an electrical current in a metal is substantially smaller than spin polarization of electron gas. Read More

Recent studies showed that the in-plane and inter-plane thermal conductivities of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 are low, posing a significant challenge in heat management in MoS2-based electronic devices. To address this challenge, we design the interfaces between MoS2 and graphene by fully utilizing graphene, a 2D material with an ultra-high thermal conduction. We first perform ab initio atomistic simulations to understand the bonding nature and structure stability of the interfaces. Read More

We describe a first principles method to calculate scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, and compare the results to well-characterized experiments combining STM with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The theory is based on density functional theory (DFT) with a localized basis set, where the wave functions in the vacuum gap are computed by propagating the localized-basis wave functions into the gap using a real-space grid. Constant-height STM images are computed using Bardeen's approximation method, including averaging over the reciprocal space. Read More

The recent unravelling of strongly bound excitons in anatase TiO$_2$ nanoparticles at room temperature has shed light on the importance of many-body effects in samples used for applications. Here, we demonstrate the interplay between many-body interactions and correlations in highly-excited anatase TiO$_2$ nanoparticles by means of ultrafast two-dimensional deep-ultraviolet spectroscopy. We observe that the exciton optical nonlinearities upon non-resonant excitation are dominated by phase-space filling and long-range Coulomb screening, reflecting the dynamics of the photoexcited electron density. Read More

We present an open-source software package WannierTools, a tool for investigation of novel topological materials. This code works in the tight-binding framework, which can be generated by another software package Wannier90 . It can help to classify the topological phase of a given materials by calculating the Wilson loop, and can get the surface state spectrum which is detected by angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) and in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments . Read More

We unravel theoretically a key intrinsic relaxation mechanism among the low-lying singlet and triplet donor-pair states in silicon, an important element in the fast-developing field of spintronics and quantum computation. Despite the perceived weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in Si, we find that our discovered relaxation mechanism, combined with the electron-phonon and inter-donor interactions, dominantly drives the transitions in the two-electron states over a large range of donor coupling regime. The scaling of the relaxation rate with inter-donor exchange interaction $J$ goes from $J^5$ to $J^4$ at the low to high temperature limits. Read More

We study the effect of trigonal warping on the focussing of electrons by n-p junctions in graphene. We find that perfect focussing, which was predicted for massless Dirac fermions, is only preserved for one specific sample orientation. In the general case, trigonal warping leads to a different position of the focus for graphene's two valleys. Read More

Intersubband (ISB) polarons result from the interaction of an ISB transition and the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in a semiconductor quantum well (QW). Their observation requires a very dense two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the QW and a polar or highly ionic semiconductor. Here we show that in ZnO/MgZnO QWs the strength of such a coupling can be as high as 1. Read More

The disordered quantum spin Hall (QSH) systems with spin-mixing tunneling (SMT) at potential saddle points, which belong to the Wigner-Dyson symplectic class AII, are revisited in detail using an existing spin-directed quantum network model generalized from the Chalker-Coddington random network model. A new phase diagram is obtained in which the ordinary insulating (OI) phase fills the whole parameter space and the QSH state only survives on a line segment of the boundary where SMT is absent. Thus a direct transition from QSH to OI phases exists and is driven by the SMT since it induces backscattering between the Kramers doublets at the same edge and thus completely destroys them. Read More

Understanding the thermally activated escape from a metastable state is at the heart of important phenomena such as the folding dynamics of proteins, the kinetics of chemical reactions or the stability of mechanical systems. In 1940 Kramers calculated escape rates both in the high damping and the low damping regime and suggested that the rate must have a maximum for intermediate damping. This phenomenon, today known as the Kramers turnover, has triggered important theoretical and numerical studies. Read More

In this article, we explore the anisotropic electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) in monolayer phosphorene based on ab-initio time dependent density functional theory calculations. Similar to black phosphorous, the EELS of undoped monolayer phosphorene is characterized by anisotropic excitonic peaks for energies in vicinity of the bandgap, and by interband plasmon peaks for higher energies. On doping, an additional intraband plasmon peak also appears for energies within the bandgap. Read More

We theoretically investigate Klein tunneling processes in photonic artificial graphene. Klein tunneling is a phenomenon in which a particle with Dirac dispersion going through a potential step shows a characteristic angle- and energy-dependent transmission. We consider a generic photonic system consisting of a honeycomb-shaped array of sites with losses, illuminated by coherent monochromatic light. Read More

One of the most promising platforms for one-dimensional topological superconductivity is based on semiconducting nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), where s-wave superconductivity is induced by proximity effect and an external Zeeman field drives the system into the topological superconducting phase with Majorana bound states (MBSs) at the end of the wire. During last years this idea has led to a great number of important experiments in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor systems, where the main signature is an emergent zero-bias peak (ZBP) in the differential conductance as the Zeeman field is increased. This thesis focuses on the study of hybrid superconductor-semiconductor junctions made of semiconducting nanowires with Rashba SOC. Read More

We present the theory of a new type of topological quantum order which is driven by the spin-orbit density wave order parameter, and distinguished by $Z_2$ topological invariant. We show that when two oppositely polarized chiral bands [resulting from the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling $\alpha_k$, $k$ is crystal momentum] are significantly nested by a special wavevector ${\bf Q}\sim(\pi,0)/(0,\pi)$, it induces a spatially modulated inversion of the chirality ($\alpha_{k+Q}=\alpha_k^*$) between different sublattices. The resulting quantum order parameters break translational symmetry, but preserve time-reversal symmetry. Read More

We employ two-dimensional (2D) coherent, nonlinear spectroscopy to investigate couplings within individual InAs quantum dots (QD) and QD molecules. Swapping pulse ordering in a two-beam sequence permits to distinguish between rephasing and non-rephasing four-wave mixing (FWM) configurations. We emphasize the non-rephasing case, allowing to monitor two-photon coherence dynamics. Read More

The Rashba effect leads to a chiral precession of the spins of moving electrons while the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) generates preference towards a chiral profile of local spins. We predict that the exchange interaction between these two spin systems results in a 'chiral' magnetoresistance depending on the chirality of the local spin texture. We observe this magnetoresistance by measuring the domain wall (DW) resistance in a uniquely designed Pt/Co/Pt zigzag wire, and by changing the chirality of the DW with applying an in-plane magnetic field. Read More

We have found out that the band inversion in a silicene quantum dot (QD), in perpendicular magnetic $B$ and electric $\Delta_z$ fields, drastically depends on the strength of the magnetic field. We study the energy spectrum of the silicene QD where the electric field provides a tunable band gap $\Delta$. Boundary conditions introduce chirality, so that negative and positive angular momentum $m$ zero Landau level (ZLL) edge states show a quite different behavior regarding the band-inversion mechanism underlying the topological insulator transition. Read More

Drift-diffusion model is an indispensable modeling tool to understand the carrier dynamics (transport, recombination, and collection) and simulate practical-efficiency of solar cells (SCs) through taking into account various carrier recombination losses existing in multilayered device structures. Exploring the way to predict and approach the SC efficiency limit by using the drift-diffusion model will enable us to gain more physical insights and design guidelines for emerging photovoltaics, particularly perovskite solar cells. Our work finds out that two procedures are the prerequisites for predicting and approaching the SC efficiency limit. Read More

In this paper, we establish the existence of both compressive stress and charge transfer process in hydrothermally synthesized cobalt ferrite-graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/GO) nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results reveal the decoration of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles on GO sheets. Magnetic response of nanocomposites was confirme from superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer measurement. Read More

We have fabricated ferrite cantilevers in which their vibrational properties can be controlled by external magnetic fields. Submicron-scale cantilever structures were made from Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) films by physical etching combined with use of a focused ion beam milling technique. We found that the cantilevers exhibit two resonance modes which correspond to horizontal and vertical vibrations. Read More

We demonstrate a spin-based, all-dielectric electrometer based on an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) defects in diamond. An applied electric field causes energy level shifts symmetrically away from the NV$^-$'s degenerate triplet states via the Stark effect; this symmetry provides immunity to temperature fluctuations allowing for shot-noise-limited detection. Using an ensemble of NV$^-$s, we demonstrate shot-noise limited sensitivities approaching 1 V/cm/$\sqrt{\text{Hz}}$ under ambient conditions, at low frequencies ($<$10 Hz), and over a large dynamic range (20 dB). Read More

Recently unusual properties of water in single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) with diameters ranging from 1.05 nm to 1.52 nm were observed. Read More

An intriguing feature of the magnetic skyrmion in a frustrated magnetic system is its helicity-orbital coupling. When the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) is neglected, a skyrmion can show a current-induced rotational motion together with a helicity rotation since the energy is independent of the helicity. Here, we explore the skyrmion dynamics in a frustrated magnetic system based on the $J_{1}$-$J_{2}$-$J_{3}$ classical Heisenberg model explicitly by including the DDI. Read More

We propose an all-electric implementation of a precessionally switched perpendicular magnetic anisotropy magneto-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) based toggle memory cell where data is written with voltage-controlled-magnetic-anisotropy (VCMA) without requiring an in-plane magnetic field. The soft layer of the MTJ is a two-phase (magnetostrictive/piezoelectric) multiferroic which is electrically stressed to produce an effective in-plane magnetic field around which the magnetization precesses to complete a flip when the VCMA voltage pulse duration and the stress duration are independently adjusted to obtain a high switching probability. A two-terminal energy-efficient cell, that is compatible with crossbar architecture and high cell density, is designed. Read More

We report a preconcentrating SERS sensor for the analysis of liquid-soaked tissue, tiny liquid droplets and thin liquid films without the necessity to collect the analyte. The SERS sensor is based on a continuous, nanoporous block-copolymer membrane with one side (upper side) composed of an array of porous nanorods having tips functionalized with Au nanoparticles. Capillarity in combination with directional evaporation drives the analyte solution in contact with the flat yet nanoporous underside of SERS sensor through the continuous nanopore system towards the nanorod tips where the SERS hot spots locate. Read More

We demonstrate that a flat-band state in a quasi-one-dimensional rhombic lattice is robust in the presence of external drivings along the lattice axis. The lattice was formed by periodic arrays of evanescently coupled optical waveguides, and the external drivings were realized by modulating the paths of the waveguides. We excited a superposition of flat-band eigenmodes at the input and observed that this state does not diffract in the presence of static as well as high-frequency sinusoidal drivings. Read More

The multi-quantum well (MQW) organic-inorganic perovskite offer an approach of tuning the exciton binding energy based on the well-barrier dielectric mismatch effect, which called the image charge effect. The exfoliation from MQW organic-inorganic perovskite forms a twodimensional (2D) nano-sheet. As with other 2D materials, like graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), the ultra-thin perovskites layers are highly sensitive to the dielectric environment. Read More

Non-Hermitian systems exhibit phenomena that are qualitatively different from those of Hermitian systems and have been exploited to achieve a number of ends, including the generation of exceptional points, nonreciprocal dynamics, non-orthogonal normal modes, and topological operations. However to date these effects have only been accessible with nearly-degenerate modes (i.e. Read More

Coherent light-matter interaction can be used to manipulate the energy levels of atoms, molecules and solids. When light with frequency {\omega} is detuned away from a resonance {\omega}o, repulsion between the photon-dressed (Floquet) states can lead to a shift of energy resonance. The dominant effect is the optical Stark shift (1/({\omega}0-{\omega})), but there is an additional contribution from the so-called Bloch-Siegert shift (1/({\omega}o+{\omega})). Read More

In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Read More

We study spin chain analogs of the two-dimensional Kitaev honeycomb lattice model, which allows us to relate Anderson resonating valence bond states with superconductivity in an exact manner. In addition to their connection with p-wave superconductivity, such chains can be used for topological quantum computation as a result of the emergent Z_2 symmetry, as we show using Majorana fermions. We then focus on the problem of two coupled chains (ladders) : using Majorana fermions, we derive an analytical expression for the energy spectrum in the general case, which allows us to compare the square ladder and the honeycomb ribbon. Read More

We study how the shape of the spinwave resonance lines in rf-voltage induced FMR can be used to extract the spin-wave density of states and the Gilbert damping within the precessing layer in nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions that possess perpendicular anisotropy. We work with a field applied along the easy axis to preserve the cylindrical symmetry of the uniaxial perpendicularly magnetized systems. We first describe the set-up to study the susceptibility contributions of the spin waves in the field-frequency space. Read More

The influence of hydride exposure on previously unreported self-assembled InP(As) nanostructures is investigated, showing an unexpected morphological variability with growth parameters, and producing a large family of InP(As) nanostructures by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, from dome and ring-like structures to double dot in a ring ensembles. Moreover, preliminary microphotoluminescence data are indicating the capped rings system as an interesting candidate for single quantum emitters at telecom wavelengths, potentially becoming a possible alternative to InAs QDs for quantum technology and telecom applications. Read More

Multi-Weyl semimetals(m-WSMS) are characterized by anisotropic non-linear energy dispersion along 2-D plane and a linear dispersion in orthogonal direction. They have topological charge J and are realized when two or multiple Weyl nodes with nonzero net monopole charge bring together onto a high-symmetry point. The model Hamiltonians of such systems show various phases such as trivial normal insulators (NIs), WSMs and quantum anomalous Hall(QAH) states depending on the model parameters. Read More

**Authors:**Renjun Du

^{1}, Ming-Hao Liu

^{2}, Jens Mohrmann

^{3}, Fan Wu

^{4}, Ralph Krupke

^{5}, Hilbert v. Löhneysen

^{6}, Klaus Richter

^{7}, Romain Danneau

^{8}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,

^{2}Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany,

^{3}Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,

^{4}Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,

^{5}Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,

^{6}Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,

^{7}Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany,

^{8}Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

We report that in gapped bilayer graphene, quasiparticle tunneling and the corresponding Berry phase exhibit features of single layer graphene. The Berry phase is detected by a high-quality Fabry-P\'{e}rot interferometer based on bilayer graphene. We found that the Berry phase is continuously tuned from $2\pi$ to $0. Read More

We introduce a wavefront shaping protocol for focusing inside disordered media based on a generalization of the established Wigner-Smith time-delay operator. The key ingredient for our approach is the scattering (or transmission) matrix of the medium and its derivative with respect to the position of the target one aims to focus on. A specifc experimental realization in the microwave regime is presented showing that the eigenstates of a corresponding operator are sorted by their focusing strength - ranging from strongly focusing on the designated target to completely bypassing it. Read More

The crystal structure of bulk SrTiO$_3$(STO) transitions from cubic to tetragonal at around 105K. Recent local scanning probe measurements of LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ (LAO/STO) interfaces indicated the existence of spatially inhomogeneous electrical current paths and electrostatic potential associated with the structural domain formation in the tetragonal phase of STO. However, how these effects impact the electron conduction in LAO/STO devices has not been fully studied. Read More

This tutorial review presents an overview of the basic theoretical aspects of two-dimensional (2D) crystals. We revise essential aspects of graphene and the new families of semiconducting 2D materials, like transition metal dichalcogenides or black phosphorus. Minimal theoretical models for various materials are presented. Read More

We have studied the spin dynamics of a dense two-dimensional electron gas confined in a GaAs/AlGaAs triple quantum well by using time-resolved Kerr rotation and resonant spin amplification. Strong anisotropy of the spin relaxation time up to a factor of 10 was found between the electron spins oriented in-plane and out-of-plane when the excitation energy is tuned to an exciton bound to neutral donor transition. We model this anisotropy using an internal magnetic field and the inhomogeneity of the electron g-factor. Read More

The ability to cool and manipulate levitated nano-particles in vacuum is a promising new tool for exploring macroscopic quantum mechanics\cite{WanPRL2016,Scala2013,Zhang2013}, precision measurements of forces, \cite{GambhirPRA2016} and non-equilibrium thermodynamics \cite{GieselerNatNano2014,MillenNat2014}. The extreme isolation afforded by optical levitation offers a low noise, undamped environment that has to date been used to measure zeptonewton forces \cite{GambhirPRA2016}, radiation pressure shot noise,\cite{Jain2016} and to demonstrate the cooling of the centre-of-mass motion \cite{LiNatPhys2011,Gieseler2012}. Ground state cooling, and the creation and measurement of macroscopic quantum superpositions, are now within reach, but control of both the center-of-mass and internal temperature is required. Read More

The spin splitting of conduction band electrons in inversion-asymmetric InGaAs/InP quantum wells is studied by Shubnikov-de Haas measurements combining the analysis of beating patterns and coincidence measurements in doubly tilted magnetic fields. The method allows us to determine the absolute values of the Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction coefficients, their relative sign and the full Land\'e g-tensor. This is achieved by analyzing the anisotropy of the beat node positions with respect to both polar and azimuthal angles between the magnetic field direction and the quantum well normal. Read More

**Authors:**Jinxiu Wen, Hao Wang, Weiliang Wang, Zexiang Deng, Chao Zhuang, Yu Zhang, Fei Liu, Juncong She, Jun Chen, Huanjun Chen, Shaozhi Deng, Ningsheng Xu

Strong light-matter coupling manifested by vacuum Rabi splitting has attracted tremendous attention due to its fundamental importance in cavity quantum-electrodynamics research and great potentials in quantum information applications. A prerequisite for practical applications of the strong coupling in future quantum information processing and coherent manipulation is an all-solid-state system exhibiting room-temperature vacuum Rabi splitting with active control. Here we realized such a system in heterostructure consisting of monolayer WS2 and an individual plasmonic gold nanorod. Read More

In this letter we propose a new system capable of THz radiation with quantum efficiency above unity. The system consists of nanoparticles where the material composition varies along the radial direction of each nanoparticle in such a way that a ladder of equidistant energy levels emerges. By then exciting the highest level of this ladder we produce multiple photons of the same frequency in the THz range. Read More

Our everyday experience teaches us that the structure of a medium strongly influences how light propagates through it. A disordered medium, e.g. Read More

We study a one-dimensional model of radiative heat transfer for which the effect of the electromag- netic field is only from the scalar potential and thereby ignoring the vector potential contribution. This is a valid assumption when the distances between objects are of the order of nanometers. Using Lorenz gauge, the scalar field is quantized with the canonical quantization scheme, giving rise to scalar photons. Read More

We report a study of the magnetic field dependence of photoluminescence of NV$^-$ centers (negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers) in diamond single crystals. In such a magnetic field dependence characteristic sharp features are observed, which are coming from Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a coupled electron-nuclear spin system. For sensitive detection of such LAC-lines we use lock-in detection to measure the photoluminescence intensity. Read More

We propose a theoretical framework that captures the geometric vector potential emerging from the non-adiabatic spin dynamics of itinerant carriers subject to arbitrary magnetic textures. Our approach results in a series of constraints on the geometric potential and the non-adiabatic geometric phase associated with it. These constraints play a decisive role when studying the geometric spin phase gathered by conducting electrons in ring interferometers under the action of in-plane magnetic textures, allowing a simple characterization of the topological transition recently reported by Saarikoski et al. Read More

Screening due to surrounding dielectric medium reshapes the electron-hole interaction potential and plays a pivotal role in deciding the binding energies of strongly bound exciton complexes in quantum confined monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). However, owing to strong quasi-particle bandgap renormalization in such systems, a direct quantification of estimated shifts in binding energy in different dielectric media remains elusive using optical studies. In this work, by changing the dielectric environment, we show a conspicuous photoluminescence (PL) peak shift at low temperature for higher energy excitons (2s, 3s, 4s, 5s) in monolayer MoSe$_2$, while the 1s exciton peak position remains unaltered - a direct evidence of varying compensation between screening induced exciton binding energy modulation and quasi-particle bandgap renormalization. Read More