Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect Publications (50)

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Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect Publications

In various situations where wave transport is eminent, like in wireless communication, an established strong transmission is present in a complex scattering environment. Here we present a novel approach which combines a transmitting channel and a chaotic background in a unified effective Hamiltonian. Modelling such a background by random matrix theory, we derive exact analytical results for the transmission and reflection distributions at arbitrary absorption that is typically present in real systems. Read More


The temperature dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in small metal spheres is calculated using an electron gas model within the Random Phase Approximation. The calculation is mainly devoted to the study of spheres with diameters up to at least 10 nm, where quantum effects can still be relevant and simple plasmon pole approximation for the dielectric function is no more appropriate. We find a possible blue shift of the plasmon resonance position when the temperature is increased while keeping the size of the sphere fixed. Read More


We investigate the optical properties of InAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(110) using Bi as a surfactant. The quantum dots are synthesized on planar GaAs(110) substrates as well as on the {110} sidewall facets of GaAs nanowires. At 10 K, neutral excitons confined in these quantum dots give rise to photoluminescence lines between 1. Read More


Due to their wide band gaps, III-N materials can exhibit behaviors ranging from the semiconductor class to the dielectric class. Through an analogy between a Metal/AlGaN/AlN/GaN diode and a MOS contact, we make use of this dual nature and show a direct path to capture the energy band diagram of the nitride system. We then apply transparency calculations to describe the forward conduction regime of a III-N heterojunction diode and demonstrate it realizes a tunnel diode, in contrast to its regular Schottky Barrier Diode designation. Read More


We study the electronic properties of GaAs nanowires composed of both the zincblende and wurtzite modifications using a ten-band k.p model. In the wurtzite phase, two energetically close conduction bands are of importance for the confinement and the energy levels of the electron ground state. Read More


III-V nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize optoelectronics and energy harvesting. For this to become a reality, critical issues such as reproducibility and sensitivity to defects should be resolved. By discussing the optical properties of MBE grown GaAs nanomembranes we highlight several features that bring them closer to large scale applications. Read More


C60-functionalized tips are used to probe C60 molecules on Cu(111) with scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy. Distinct and complex intramolecular contrasts are found. Maximal attractive forces are observed when for both molecules a [6,6] bond faces a hexagon of the other molecule. Read More


We study graphene quantum point contacts and imaging of the backscattering of the Fermi level wave function by potential introduced by a scanning probe. We demonstrate that - in spite of the Klein phenomenon - interference due to the backscattering at a circular n-p junction induced by the probe potential is visible in spatial maps of conductance as functions of the probe position. Read More


The electronic and magnetic properties of ZrS2 nanoribbons (NRs) are investigated based on the first-principles calculations. It is found that the ZrS2 NRs with armchair edges are all indirect-band-gap semiconductors without magnetism and the band-gap exhibits odd-even oscillation behavior with the increase of the ribbon width. For the NRs with zigzag edges, those with both edges S-terminated are nonmagnetic direct-band-gap semiconductors and the gap decreases monotonically as a function of the ribbon width. Read More


Disorder effects are especially pronounced around nodal points in linearly dispersing bandstructures as present in graphene or Weyl semimetals. Despite the enormous experimental and numerical progress, even a simple quantity like the average density of states cannot be assessed quantitatively by analytical means. We demonstrate how this important problem can be solved employing the functional renormalization group method and, for the two dimensional case, demonstrate excellent agreement with reference data from numerical simulations based on tight-binding models. Read More


We study out-of-time order correlators (OTOCs) of the form $\langle\hat A(t)\hat B(0)\hat C(t)\hat D(0)\rangle$ for a quantum system weakly coupled to a dissipative environment. Such an open system may serve as a model of, e.g. Read More


The propagation of a heat pulse in a single crystal and across grain boundaries (GBs) is simulated using a concurrent atomistic-continuum method furnished with a coherent phonon pulse model. With a heat pulse constructed based on a Bose-Einstein distribution of phonons, this work has reproduced the phenomenon of phonon focusing in single and polycrystalline materials. Simulation results provide visual evidence that the propagation of a heat pulse in crystalline solids with or without GBs is partially ballistic and partially diffusive, i. Read More


Non-reciprocity in optical and plasmonic systems is a key element for engineering the one-way propagation structures for light manipulation. Here we investigate topological nanostructures covered with graphene-based meta-surfaces, which consist of a periodic pattern of sub-wavelength stripes of graphene winding around the (meta-)tube or (meta-)torus. We establish the relation between the topological and plasmonic properties in these structures, as justified by simple theoretical expressions. Read More


The advancement of nanoscale electronics has been limited by energy dissipation challenges for over a decade. Such limitations could be particularly severe for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors integrated with flexible substrates or multi-layered processors, both being critical thermal bottlenecks. To shed light into fundamental aspects of this problem, here we report the first direct measurement of spatially resolved temperature in functioning 2D monolayer MoS$_2$ transistors. Read More


Materials composed of two dimensional layers bonded to one another through weak van der Waals interactions often exhibit strongly anisotropic behaviors and can be cleaved into very thin specimens and sometimes into monolayer crystals. Interest in such materials is driven by the study of low dimensional physics and the design of functional heterostructures. Binary compounds with the compositions MX2 and MX3 where M is a metal cation and X is a halogen anion often form such structures. Read More


The fundamental idea that many body systems in complex materials may self-organise into long range order under highly non-equilibrium conditions leads to the notion that entirely new emergent states with new and unexpected functionalities might be created. In this paper we show for the first time that a complex metastable state with long range order can be created through a non-equilibrium topological transformation in a transition metal dichalcogenide. Combining ultrafast optical pulse excitation with orbitally-resolved large-area scanning tunnelling microscopy we find subtle, but unambiguous evidence for long range electronic order which is different from all other known states in the system, and whose complex domain structure is not random, but is described by harmonics of the underlying charge density wave order. Read More


Clustered quantum materials provide a new platform for the experimental study of many-body entanglement. Here we address a simple model of a single-molecule nano-magnet featuring N interacting spins in a transverse field. The field can induce an entanglement transition (ET). Read More


All-solid-state strong light-matter coupling systems with large vacuum Rabi splitting are great important for quantum information application, such as quantum manipulation, quantum information storage and processing. The monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been explored as excellent candidates for the strong light-matter interaction, due to their extraordinary exciton binding energies and remarkable optical properties. Here, for both of experimental and theoretical aspects, we explored resonance coupling effect between exciton and plasmonic nanocavity in heterostructures consisting of monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and an individual Au nanorod. Read More


The charge transport in a dirty 2-dimensional electron system biased in the presence of a lateral potential barrier under magnetic field is theoretically studied. The quantum tunneling across the barrier provides the quantum interference of the edge states localized on its both sides that results in giant oscillations of the charge current flowing perpendicular to the lateral junction. Our theoretical analysis is in a good agreement with the experimental observations presented in Ref. Read More


We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical conditions. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intracenter electron transitions. Read More


Laterally periodic nanostructures were investigated with grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) by using the diffraction patterns to reconstruct the surface shape. To model visible light scattering, rigorous calculations of the near and far field by numerically solving Maxwell's equations with a finite-element method are well established. The application of this technique to X-rays is still challenging, due to the discrepancy between incident wavelength and finite-element size. Read More


Magnetic skyrmions are topological spin configurations in materials with chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), that are potentially useful for storing or processing information. To date, DMI has been found in few bulk materials, but can also be induced in atomically thin magnetic films in contact with surfaces with large spin-orbit interactions. Recent experiments have reported that isolated magnetic skyrmions can be stabilized even near room temperature in few-atom thick magnetic layers sandwiched between materials that provide asymmetric spin-orbit coupling. Read More


Surface energies play a dominant role in the self-assembly of three dimensional (3D) nanostructures. In this letter, we show that using surfactants to modify surface energies can provide a means to externally control nanostructure self-assembly, enabling the synthesis of novel hierarchical nanostructures. We explore Bi as a surfactant in the growth of InAs on the {1-10} sidewall facets of GaAs nanowires. Read More


We argue that quantum fluctuations of the phase of the order parameter may strongly affect the electron density of states (DOS) in ultrathin superconducting wires. We demonstrate that the effect of such fluctuations is equivalent to that of a quantum dissipative environment formed by sound-like plasma modes propagating along the wire. We derive a non-perturbative expression for the local electron DOS in superconducting nanowires which fully accounts for quantum phase fluctuations. Read More


We report on hybrid memristive devices made of a network of gold nanoparticles (10 nm diameter) functionalized by tailored 3,4(ethylenedioxy)thiophene (TEDOT) molecules, deposited between two planar electrodes with nanometer and micrometer gaps (100 nm to 10 um apart), and electropolymerized in situ to form a monolayer film of conjugated polymer with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Electrical properties of these films exhibit two interesting behaviors: (i) a NDR (negative differential resistance) behavior with a peak/valley ratio up to 17, and (ii) a memory behavior with an ON/OFF current ratio of about 1E3 to 1E4. A careful study of the switching dynamics and programming voltage window is conducted demonstrating a non-volatile memory. Read More


It has been recently demonstrated that a singlet-triplet spin qubit in semiconductor double quantum dots can be controlled by changing the height of the potential barrier between the two dots ("barrier control"), which has led to a considerable reduction of charge noises as compared to the traditional tilt control method. In this paper we show, through a molecular-orbital-theoretic calculation of double quantum dots influenced by a charged impurity, that the relative charge noise for a system under the barrier control not only is smaller than that for the tilt control, but actually decreases as a function of an increasing exchange interaction. This is understood as a combined consequence of the greatly suppressed detuning noise when the two dots are symmetrically operated, as well as an enhancement of the inter-dot hopping energy of an electron when the barrier is lowered which in turn reduces the relative charge noise at large exchange interaction values. Read More


Nanostructured metals subject to local optical interrogation can generate open-circuit photovoltages potentially useful for energy conversion and photodetection. We report a study of the photovoltage as a function of illumination position in single metal Au nanowires and nanowires with nanogaps formed by electromigration. We use a laser scanning microscope to locally heat the metal nanostructures via excitation of a local plasmon resonance and direct absorption. Read More


In semiconductors, quantum confinement can greatly enhance the interaction between band carriers (electrons and holes) and dopant atoms. One manifestation of this enhancement is the increased stability of exciton magnetic polarons in magnetically-doped nanostructures. In the limit of very strong 0D confinement that is realized in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, a single exciton can exert an effective exchange field $B_{\rm{ex}}$ on the embedded magnetic dopants that exceeds several tesla. Read More


We show that the existing theory does not give correct in-plane spectrum of superlattices at small in-plane momentum. Magneto-absorption experiments demonstrate that the energy range of the parabolic region of the spectrum near the electron subband bottom is by the order of magnitude lower than the value predicted by the traditional approach. We developed a modified theory according to which the energy range of the parabolic region and carrier in-plane effective masses are determined by the effective bandgap of the superlattice rather than by the bulk bandgaps of the superlattice layers. Read More


A three-dimensional spin current solver based on a generalised spin drift-diffusion description including the spin Hall effect, is integrated with a full magnetisation dynamics solver. The resulting model is shown to simultaneously reproduce the spin orbit torques generated using the spin Hall effect, as well as the spin transfer torques acting on magnetisation regions with spatial gradients, whilst field-like and spin-like torques are reproduced in a spin valve geometry. The spin dephasing length governing the absorption of transverse spin components is shown to play a crucial role in describing the spin orbit torques. Read More


We demonstrate an enhanced, bidirectional, in-plane magnetic field tuning of the gyrotropic resonance frequency of a magnetic vortex within a disk by introducing a flat edge. When the core is in its vicinity, the flat edge locally reduces the core's directional dynamic stiffness for movement parallel to the edge. This strongly reduces the net dynamic core stiffness, leading to the gyrotropic frequency being significantly less than when the core is centered (or located near the round edge). Read More


Detection and precise localization of nano-scale structures buried beneath spin coated films are highly valuable additions to nano-fabrication technology. In principle, the topography of the final film contains information about the location of the buried features. However, it is generally believed that the relation is masked by flow effects, which lead to an upstream shift of the dry film's topography and render precise localization impossible. Read More


We investigate the properties of magnon edge states in a ferromagnetic honeycomb spin lattice with a Dzialozinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We derive analytical expressions for the energy spectra and wavefunctions of the edge states localized on the boundaries. By introducing an external on-site potential at the outermost sites, we show that the bosonic band structure is similar to that of the fermionic graphene. Read More


A versatile control of magnetic systems, widely used to store information, can also enable manipulating Majorana bounds states (MBS) and implementing fault-tolerant quantum information processing. The proposed platform relies on the proximity-induced superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas placed next to an array of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). A change in the magnetization configuration in the MTJ array creates tunable magnetic textures thereby removing several typical requirements for MBS: strong spin-orbit coupling, applied magnetic field, and confinement by one-dimensional structures which complicates demonstrating non-Abelian statistics through braiding. Read More


We propose a Chern-Simons field theoretical description of the fractional quantum Hall effect in 1+4 dimensions. It suggests that composite fermions reside on a momentum manifold with a nonzero Chern number. Based on derivations from microscopic wave functions, we further show that the momentum manifold has a uniformly distributed Berry curvature. Read More


The structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of (STO)$_4$/(YTO)$_2$ superlattice consisting of Mott insulator YTiO$_3$ (YTO) and band insulator SrTiO$_3$ (STO) under strain are investigated by the density-functional-theory plus \emph{U} method. It is found that an insulator-metal transition occurs when a compressive strain of 0.2\% is applied. Read More


The electrostatic performance of p-type nanowires (NWs) made of InSb and GaSb, with special focus on their gate capacitance behavior, is analyzed and compared to that achieved by traditional semiconductors usually employed for p-MOS such as Si and Ge. To do so, a self-consistent kp simulator has been implemented to achieve an accurate description of the Valence Band and evaluate the charge behavior as a function of the applied gate bias. The contribution and role of the constituent capacitances, namely the insulator, centroid and quantum ones are assessed. Read More


The combination of graphene with semiconductor materials in heterostructure photodetectors, has enabled amplified detection of femtowatt light signals using micron-scale electronic devices. Presently, the speed of such detectors is limited by long-lived charge traps and impractical strategies, e.g. Read More


We report on the increased extraction of light emitted by solid-state sources embedded within high refractive index materials. This is achieved by making use of a local lensing effect by sub-micron metallic rings deposited on the sample surface and centered around single emitters. We show enhancements in the intensity of the light emitted by InAs/GaAs single quantum dot lines into free space as high as a factor 20. Read More


We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of $\mathrm{MoS_2}$ thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with $\mathrm{Li^+}$ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with $\mathrm{K^+}$ leads instead to a disorder-induced incipient metal-to-insulator transition. Read More


We model quasi-two-dimensional two-electron Quantum Dots in a parabolic confinement potential with rovibrational and purely vibrational effective Hamiltonian operators. These are optimized by non-linear least-square fits to the exact energy levels. We find, that the vibrational Hamiltonian describes the energy levels well and reveals how relative contributions change on varying the confinement strength. Read More


An exact Quantum Kinetic Monte Carlo method is proposed to calculate electron transport for 1D Fermi Hubbard model. The method is directly formulated in real time and can be applied to extract time dependent dynamics of general interacting Fermion models in 1D. When coupled with Density Functional Theory and Maximally Localized Wannier Functions, our method can be used to predict electron transport in materials in presence of interfaces. Read More


The effects of the tilt of the crystallographic orientation with respect to an incident electron probe on high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) have been investigated with experiments and simulations. A small specimen tilt can lead to unequal deviations of different atom species in the HAADF image and result in further relative displacement between anions and cations. Simulated HAADF images also confirm that the crystal tilt causes an artifact in atom polarization as well. Read More


Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half-filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms. Read More


We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor $F$) for a Josephson-junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e. noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Read More


Nanomagnetic arrays are widespread in data storage and processing. As current technologies approach fundamental limits on size and thermal stability, extracting additional functionality from arrays is crucial to advancing technological progress. One design exploiting the enhanced magnetic interactions in dense arrays is the geometrically-frustrated metamaterial 'artificial spin ice' (ASI). Read More


We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction generates a transverse spin supercurrent. The spin supercurrent is carried by triplet Cooper pairs and the effect takes place without any dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. We also demonstrate the existence of an inverse effect where a spin supercurrent generates a transverse charge supercurrent. Read More


It has been experimentally demonstrated only recently that a simultaneous excitation of interfering electric and magnetic resonances can lead to uni-directional scattering of visible light in zero-dimensional dielectric nanoparticles. We show both theoretically and experimentally, that strongly anisotropic scattering also occurs in individual dielectric nanowires. The effect occurs even under either pure transverse electric or pure transverse magnetic polarized normal illumination. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany, 2Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany, 3Universität Würzburg, Germany

In the first part of our theoretical study of correlated atomic wires on substrates, we introduced lattice models for a one-dimensional quantum wire on a three-dimensional substrate and their approximation by quasi-one-dimensional effective ladder models [arXiv:1704.07350]. In this second part, we apply this approach to the case of a correlated wire with a Hubbard-type electron-electron repulsion deposited on an insulating substrate. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany, 2Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany, 3Universität Würzburg, Germany

We present a theoretical study of correlated atomic wires deposited on substrates in two parts. In this first part, we propose lattice models for a one-dimensional quantum wire on a three-dimensional substrate and map them onto effective two-dimensional lattices using the Lanczos algorithm. We then discuss the approximation of these two-dimensional lattices by narrow ladder models that can be investigated with well-established methods for one-dimensional correlated quantum systems, such as the density-matrix renormalization group or bosonization. Read More