Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors Publications (50)

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Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors Publications

The spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation from cascade showers generated by muons in water has been measured with Cherenkov water calorimeter (CWC) NEVOD. This result allowed to improve the techniques of treating cascade showers with unknown axes by means of CWC response analysis. The techniques of selecting the events with high energy cascade showers and reconstructing their parameters are discussed. Read More


Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is an experimental technique to detect material structures in the nanometer to micrometer range. The solution of the structural model constructed from SANS strongly depends on the accuracy of the reduced data. The time-of-flight (TOF) SANS data are dependent on the wavelength of the pulsed neutron source. Read More


ORCA (Oscillation Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the next-generation research infrastructure hosting underwater Cherenkov detectors in the Mediterranean Sea. ORCA's primary goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy by measuring the matter-induced modifications on the oscillation probabilities of few-GeV atmospheric neutrinos. The ORCA detector design foresees a dense configuration of KM3NeT neutrino detection technology, optimised for measuring the interactions of neutrinos in the energy range of 3 - 20 GeV. Read More


AXEL is a high pressure xenon gas TPC detector being developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay search. We use the proportional scintillation mode with a new electroluminescence light detection system to achieve high energy resolution in a large detector. The detector also has tracking capabilities, which enable significant background rejection. Read More


A new method of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for BEGe detectors is developed to suppress Compton-continuum by digital pulse shape analysis (PSA), which helps reduce the Compton background level in gamma ray spectrometry. A decision parameter related to the rise time of a pulse shape was presented. The method was verified by experiments using 60Co and 137Cs sources. Read More


CMS has developed a fast detector simulation package, which serves as a fast and reliable alternative to the detailed GEANT4-based (full) simulation, and enables efficient simulation of large numbers of standard model and new physics events. Fast simulation becomes particularly important with the current increase in the LHC luminosity. Here, I will discuss the basic principles behind the CMS fast simulation framework, and how they are implemented in the different detector components in order to simulate and reconstruct sufficiently accurate physics objects for analysis. Read More


We present the results from the first measurements of the Time-Correlated Pulse-Height (TCPH) distributions from 4.5 kg sphere of $\alpha$-phase weapons-grade plutonium metal in five configurations: bare, reflected by 1.27 cm and 2. Read More


Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality that is not yet adopted by clinical practice. Most of the working MPI prototypes including commercial-grade research MPI scanners utilize cylindrical bores that limit the access to the scanner and the imaging volume. Recently a single-sided or an asymmetric device that is based on a field-free point (FFP) coplanar coil topology has been introduced that shows promise in alleviating access constraint issues. Read More


Single-photon detectors, like Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs), have a great importance in many fields like quantum key distribution, laser ranging, florescence microscopy, etc. Afterpulsing is a typical non ideal behavior of APDs, operated in Geiger mode, which adversely affects any application which measures the number or timing of detection events. Several conflicting studies have tried to model afterpulsing behavior and link it to fundamental semiconductor physics. Read More


The ATLAS experiment will undergo around the year 2025 a replacement of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with a new 5-layer pixel system. Thin planar pixel sensors are promising candidates to instrument the innermost region of the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. The sensors of 50-150 $\mu$m thickness, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips, have been characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests. Read More


A highly integrated, high performance, and re-configurable device, which is designed for the Nitrogen-Vacancy center based quantum applications, is reported. The digital compartment of the device is fully implemented in a Field-Programmable-Gate- Array. The digital compartment is designed to manage the multi-function digital waveform generation and the Time-to-Digital-Convertors. Read More


Hecht equation is not adequate to analyzing standard measurements, of the mobility-lifetime product, carried out with single pixels of detector arrays. A modified expression is calculated, in order to have correct mobility-lifetime values out of experimental data. Read More


We report on the development of a microfabricated atomic magnetic gradiometer based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms in the vapor phase. The gradiometer, which operates in the spin-exchange relaxation free regime, has a length of 60 mm and cross sectional diameter of 12 mm, and consists of two chip-scale atomic magnetometers which are interrogated by a common laser light. The sensor can measure differences in magnetic fields, over a 20 mm baseline, of 10 fT/Hz$^{1/2}$ at frequencies above 20 Hz. Read More


Single trapped ion qubit is an excellent candidate for quantum computation and information, with additional ability to coherently couple to single photons. Efficient fluorescence collection is the most challenging part in remote entangled ion qubit state generation. To address this issue, we developed an ion trap combining a reflective parabolic surface with trap electrodes. Read More


We report an accurate measurement of the phase noise of a thermally limited electronic oscillator at 300 K. By thermally limited we mean that the white signal-to-noise ratio of the oscillator is at or near the level generated by the thermal noise of the 50 ohm source resistor. The measurement is devoid of the anti-correlation effect that originates from the common mode power splitter in a cross-spectrum technique. Read More


A magnetic coil operated at cryogenic temperatures is used to produce spatial, relative field gradients below 6 ppm/cm, stable for several hours. The apparatus is a prototype of the magnetic components for a neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) search, which will take place at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). That search requires a uniform magnetic field to mitigate systematic effects and obtain long polarization lifetimes for neutron spin precession measurements. Read More


The upcoming Fermilab E989 experiment will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_{\mu}$ . This measurement is motivated by the previous measurement performed in 2001 by the BNL E821 experiment that reported a 3-4 standard deviation discrepancy between the measured value and the Standard Model prediction. The new measurement at Fermilab aims to improve the precision by a factor of four reducing the total uncertainty from 540 parts per billion (BNL E821) to 140 parts per billion (Fermilab E989). Read More


A high pressure xenon gas time projection chamber with electroluminescent amplification (EL HPGXe TPC) searching for the neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay offers: excellent energy resolution ($0.5-0.7\%$ FWHM at the $Q_{\beta\beta}$), by amplifying the ionization signal with electroluminescent light, and tracking capabilities, as demonstrated by the NEXT collaboration using two kg-scale prototypes. Read More


We report on a versatile mini ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber which is designed to be used on the MAgnetic Reflectometer with high Incident Angle of the J\"ulich Centre for Neutron Science at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum in Garching, Germany. Samples are prepared in the adjacent thin film laboratory by molecular beam epitaxy and moved into the compact chamber for transfer without exposure to ambient air. The chamber is based on DN 40 CF flanges and equipped with sapphire view ports, a small getter pump, and a wobble stick, which serves also as sample holder. Read More


Experiments of time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (Tr-XMCD) and resonant x-ray scattering at a beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8 with a time-resolution of under 50 ps are presented. A micro-channel plate is utilized for the Tr-XMCD measurements at nearly normal incidence both in the partial electron and total fluorescence yield (PEY and TFY) modes at the L2,3 absorption edges of the 3d transition-metals in the soft x-ray region. The ultrafast photo-induced demagnetization within 50 ps is observed on the dynamics of a magnetic material of FePt thin film, having a distinct threshold of the photon density. Read More


A rail-mounted synthetic aperture radar has been constructed to operate at W-band (75 - 110 GHz) and a THz band (325 - 500 GHz) in order to ascertain its ability to locate isolated small, visually obscured metallic scatterers embedded in highly scattering dielectric hosts that are either semi-transparent or opaque. A top view 2D algorithm was used to reconstruct scenes from the acquired data, locating metallic scatterers at W-band with high range and cross-range resolution of 4.3 and 2 mm, respectively, and with improved range resolution of 0. Read More


2017Jan
Affiliations: 1University of Bristol, 2University of Antwerp, 3University of Bristol, 4University of Bristol, 5University of Oxford, 6University of Oxford

The SoLid collaboration have developed an intelligent readout system to reduce their 3200 silicon photomultiplier detector's data rate by a factor of 10000 whilst maintaining high efficiency for storing data from anti-neutrino interactions. The system employs an FPGA-level waveform characterisation to trigger on neutron signals. Following a trigger, data from a space time region of interest around the neutron will be read out using the IPbus protocol. Read More


Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) have been at the core of linear electronics from its beginnings. Although their properties can be well represented by the transistor equation, design and analysis approaches have, to a good extent, been limited to using current-equispaced horizontal and parallel isolines of the characteristic surface. Here, we resort to the geometrical structure imposed on BJTs behavior by the Early effect and voltage as a means to derive a simple, intuitive and more complete respective model that, though excluding cut-off and saturation regimes, can be easily used for design and characterization of BJTs and respective circuits, including integrated devices. Read More


Results of investigations of the near-horizontal muons in the range of zenith angles of 85-95 degrees are presented. In this range, so-called "albedo" muons (atmospheric muons scattered in the ground into the upper hemisphere) are detected. Albedo muons are one of the main sources of the background in neutrino experiments. Read More


The data acquisition system (DAQ) for a highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) for the future International Linear Collider is presented. The developed DAQ chain has several stages of aggregation and scales up to 8 million channels foreseen for the AHCAL detector design. The largest aggregation device, Link Data Aggregator, has 96 HDMI connectors, four Kintex7 FPGAs and a central Zynq System-On-Chip. Read More


Extended Air Showers produced by cosmic rays impinging on the earth atmosphere irradiate radio frequency radiation through different mechanisms. Upon certain conditions, the emission has a coherent nature, with the consequence that the emitted power is not proportional to the energy of the primary cosmic rays, but to the energy squared. The effect was predicted in 1962 by Askaryan and it is nowadays experimentally well established and exploited for the detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Read More


The CMS tracker consists of 206 square meters of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from -25 to +25 degrees C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few micron resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011-2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30 microns. Read More


2017Jan

Following the decision to reduce the L* from 4.4 m to 4.1 m, the BeamCal had to be moved closer to the interaction point. Read More


The random equivalent sampling (RES) is a well-known sampling technique that can be used to capture a high-speed repetitive waveform with low sampling rate. In this paper, the feasibility of spectrum-blind multiband signal reconstruction for data sampled from RES is investigated. We propose a RES sampling pattern and its corresponding mathematical model that guarantees well-conditioned reconstruction of multiband signal with unknown spectral support. Read More


The development of quantum computers and quantum simulators promises to provide solutions to problems, which can currently not be solved on classical computers. Finding the best physical implementation for such technologies is an important research topic and using optical effects is a promising route towards this goal. It was theoretically shown that optical quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources and detectors, and linear optical circuits. Read More


We demonstrate an easy to manufacture, 25 mm long ultra-stable optical reference cavity for transportable photonic microwave generation systems. Employing a rigid holding geometry that is first-order insensitive to the squeezing force and a cavity geometry that improves the thermal noise limit at room temperature, we observe a laser phase noise that is nearly thermal noise limited for three frequency decades (1 Hz to 1 kHz offset) and supports 10 GHz generation with phase noise near -100 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset and <-173 dBc/Hz for all offsets >600 Hz. The fractional frequency stability reaches $2\times10^{-15}$ at 0. Read More


Frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy has been extended to the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Coherent VUV laser radiation is produced by resonance-enhanced sum-frequency mixing ($\nu_{\mathrm{VUV}}=2\nu_{\mathrm{UV}}+\nu_2$) in Kr and Xe using two near-Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses of frequencies $\nu_{\mathrm{UV}}$ and $\nu_2$. Sidebands generated in the output of the second laser ($\nu_2$) using an electro-optical modulator operating at the frequency $\nu_{\mathrm{mod}}$ are directly transfered to the VUV and used to record FM spectra. Read More


Dielectric resonators are employed to build state-of-the-art low-noise and high- stability oscillators operating at room and cryogenic temperatures. A resonator temperature coefficient of frequency is one criterion of performance. This paper reports on predictions and measurements of this temperature coefficient of frequency for three types of cylindrically-symmetric Bragg resonators operated at microwave frequencies. Read More


The round trip time of the light pulse limits the maximum detectable frequency response range of vibration in phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ({\phi}-OTDR). We propose a method to break the frequency response range restriction of {\phi}-OTDR system by modulating the light pulse interval randomly which enables a random sampling for every vibration point in a long sensing fiber. This sub-Nyquist randomized sampling method is suits for detecting sparse-wideband-frequency vibration signals. Read More


Readout chips of hybrid Pixel detectors use low power amplifier and threshold discrimination to sense and digitize charge deposited in semiconductor sensors. Due to variability in CMOS transistors each pixel circuit needs to be calibrated individually to achieve response uniformity. Traditionally this is addressed by programmable threshold trimming in each pixel, but requires robustness against change. Read More


We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of picoliter-volume solutions with a nanostructured diamond chip. Using optical interferometric lithography, diamond surfaces were nanostructured with dense, high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, enhancing the surface area by more than a factor of 15 over mm^2 regions of the chip. The nanograting sidewalls were doped with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers so that more than 10 million NV centers in a (25 micrometer)^2 laser spot are located close enough to the diamond surface (5 nm) to detect the NMR spectrum of 1 pL of fluid lying within adjacent nanograting grooves. Read More


KM3NeT, currently under construction in the abysses of the Mediterranean Sea, is a distributed research infrastructure that will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope (ARCA) for high-energy neutrino astronomy, and a megaton scale detector (ORCA) for neutrino oscillation studies of atmospheric neutrinos. ORCA is optimised for a measurement of the mass hierarchy, providing a sensitivity of 3{\sigma} after 3-4 years. It will also measure the atmospheric mixing parameters $\Delta m_{32}^2$ and $\theta_{23}$ with a precision comparable to the NOvA and T2K experiments using both the muon neutrino disappearance and tau neutrino appearance channels. Read More


Electron capture on $^{20}$Ne is thought to play a crucial role in the final evolution of electron-degenerate ONe stellar cores. Recent calculations suggest that the capture process is dominated by the second-forbidden transition between the ground states of $^{20}$Ne and $^{20}$F, making an experimental determination of this transition strength highly desirable. To accomplish this task we are refurbishing an intermediate-image magnetic spectrometer capable of focusing 7 MeV electrons, and designing a scintillator detector surrounded by an active cosmic-ray veto shield, which will serve as an energy-dispersive device at the focal plane. Read More


2017Jan

We report on a search for electronic recoil event rate modulation signatures in the XENON100 data accumulated over a period of 4 years, from January 2010 to January 2014. A profile likelihood method, which incorporates the stability of the XENON100 detector and the known electronic recoil background model, is used to quantify the significance of periodicity in the time distribution of events. There is a weak modulation signature at a period of $431^{+16}_{-14}$ days in the low energy region of $(2. Read More


Monitoring the kinetics and conformational dynamics of single enzymes is crucial in order to better understand their biological functions as these motions and structural dynamics are usually unsynchronized among the molecules. Detecting the enzyme-reactant interactions and associated conformational changes of the enzyme on a single molecule basis, however, remain as a challenge with established optical techniques due to the commonly required labeling of the reactants or the enzyme itself. The labeling process is usually non-trivial and the labels themselves might skew the physical properties of the enzyme. Read More


Often a surface sensitive analytical technique in combination with sample erosion by inert ion sputtering is used for compositional in-depth analysis of solid state samples. Layer by layer the sample gets eroded and then the composition of the actual surface is estimated. The elemental detection limits can be increased by spending more time for the measurement in each sputter depth of the profile measurement. Read More


We present results from a 54.7 live-day shielded run of the DRIFT-IId detector, the world's most sensitive, directional, dark matter detector. Several improvements were made relative to our previous work including a lower threshold for detection, a more robust analysis and a tenfold improvement in our gamma rejection factor. Read More


In Low Background Laboratory at Institute of Physics Belgrade, plastic scintillators are used to continuously monitor flux of the muon component of secondary cosmic rays. Measurements are performed on the surface as well as underground (25 m.w. Read More


This study presents the development of large-area (18 $\times $ 18 $\times $ 2 cm$^3$), high refractive index ($n \sim $1.05) hydrophobic silica aerogel tiles for use as Cherenkov radiators. These transparent aerogel tiles will be installed in a Cherenkov detector for the next-generation accelerator-based particle physics experiment Belle II, to be performed at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. Read More


This article explains phase noise, jitter, and some slower phenomena in digital integrated circuits, focusing on high-demanding, noise-critical applications. We introduce the concept of phase type and time type phase noise. The rules for scaling the noise with frequency are chiefly determined by the spectral properties of these two basic types, by the aliasing phenomenon, and by the input and output circuits. Read More


A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on $3.49\times10^5$ antiproton events and $2.42\times10^9$ proton events. Read More


Bridgman CdTe and CdZnTe crystal growth, with cadmium vapor pressure control, is applied to production of semiconductor gamma radiation detectors. Crystals are highly donor doped and highly electrically conducting. Annealing in tellurium vapors transforms them into a highly compensated state of high electrical resistance and high sensitivity to gamma radiation. Read More


2016Dec
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The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future gamma-ray observatory that is planned to significantly improve upon the sensitivity and precision of the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes. The observatory will consist of several dozens of telescopes with different sizes and equipped with different types of cameras. Of these, the FlashCam camera system is the first to implement a fully digital signal processing chain which allows for a traceable, configurable trigger scheme and flexible signal reconstruction. Read More