# Physics - Fluid Dynamics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Fluid Dynamics Publications

We present the linear rheological instability triggered by the interplay of the shear rheology and Keplerian differential rotation of incompressible dense granular fluids. Instability sets in granular fluids, where the viscosity parameter grows faster than the square of the local shear rate (strain rate) at constant pressure. Found instability can play a crucial role in the formation of observed structures in planetary rings, as well as promote structure formation in protoplanetary disks dense granular material. Read More

We investigate free hydromagnetic eigenmodes of an incompressible, inviscid and ideal electrically conducting fluid in rotating triaxial ellipsoids. The container rotates with an angular velocity tilted from its figure. The magnetic base state is a uniform current density also tilted. Read More

Interfacial internal waves in a quasi-two-layer fluid excited by periodic free-surface perturbations in a closed tank are studied experimentally. Barotropic-baroclinic energy conversion is induced by the presence of a Gaussian bottom obstacle. Differing wave propagation behaviors are observed in different ranges of forcing frequency. Read More

There is an ongoing debate in the literature about whether the present global warming is increasing local and global temperature variability. The central methodological issues of this debate relate to the proper treatment of normalised temperature anomalies and trends in the studied time series which may be difficult to separate from time-evolving fluctuations. Some argue that temperature variability is indeed increasing globally, whereas others conclude it is decreasing or remains practically unchanged. Read More

An extensive amount of research has been conducted on hydraulic Cross-Flow turbine over the past decades in order to improve its performance, but in several cases results are contradictory and little has been mentioned about the design process. Therefore, there is no universal, coherent methodology for designing a Cross-Flow turbine given the water head and volume flow rate. In this article, we address this issue by introducing a design framework, both for the system-level design and detail design phases, which relies on theoretical expressions, numerical simulations, and experimental data. Read More

Regional hydrology studies are often supported by high resolution simulations of subsurface flow that require expensive and extensive computations. Efficient usage of the latest high performance parallel computing systems becomes a necessity. The simulation software ParFlow has been demonstrated to meet this requirement and shown to have excellent solver scalability for up to 16,384 processes. Read More

The effect of the Strouhal number on periodic forcing of the flow over a
backward-facing step (height, $H$) is investigated experimentally. Forcing is
applied by a synthetic jet at the edge of the step at Strouhal numbers ranging
from $0.21

Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis methods are powerful tools for engineers who use flow simulations for design. However, the conventional adjoint method breaks down for scale-resolving simulations like large-eddy simulation (LES) or direct numerical simulation (DNS), which exhibit the chaotic dynamics inherent in turbulent flows. Sensitivity analysis based on least-squares shadowing (LSS) avoids the issues encountered by conventional methods, but has a high computational cost. Read More

A series of direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-B\'enard convection, the flow in a fluid layer heated from below and cooled from above, were conducted to investigate the effect of mixed insulating and conducting boundary conditions on convective flows. Rayleigh numbers between Ra = $10^7$ and Ra = $10^9$ were considered, for Prandtl numbers Pr = 1 and Pr = 10. The bottom plate was divided into patterns of conducting and insulating stripes. Read More

**Category:**Physics - Fluid Dynamics

The feedback forces exerted by particles suspended in a turbulent flow is shown to lead to a new scaling law for velocity fluctuations associated to a power-spectra $\propto k^{-2}$. The mechanism at play relies on a direct transfer of kinetic energy to small scales through Kelvin--Helmholtz instabilities occurring in regions of high particle density contrast. This finding is confirmed by two-dimensional direct numerical simulations. Read More

The phenomenon of sediment pattern formation in a channel flow is numerically investigated by performing simulations which resolve all the relevant scales of the problem. The numerical approach employed and the flow configuration considered is identical to our previous study (Kidanemariam and Uhlmann J. Fluid Mech. Read More

A Kalman filter based sequential estimator is presented in the present work. The estimator is integrated in the structure of segregated solvers for the analysis of incompressible flows. This technique provides an augmented flow state integrating available observation in the CFD model, naturally preserving a zero-divergence condition for the velocity field. Read More

In an effort to increase the versatility of finite element codes, we explore the possibility of automatically creating the Jacobian matrix necessary for the gradient-based solution of nonlinear systems of equations. Particularly, we aim to assess the feasibility of employing the automatic differentiation tool TAPENADE for this purpose on a large Fortran codebase that is the result of many years of continuous development. As a starting point we will describe the special structure of finite element codes and the implications that this code design carries for an efficient calculation of the Jacobian matrix. Read More

The shear viscosity $\eta$ for a dilute classical gas of hard-sphere particles is calculated by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation in terms of the weakly absorbed plane waves. For the rare collision regime, the viscosity $\eta$ as function of the equilibrium gas parameters -- temperature $T$, particle number density $n$, particle mass $m$, and hard-core particle diameter $d$ -- is quite different from that of the frequent collision regime, e.g. Read More

A spectrogram of a ship wake is a heat map that visualises the time-dependent frequency spectrum of surface height measurements taken at a single point as the ship travels by. Spectrograms are easy to compute and, if properly interpreted, have the potential to provide crucial information about various properties of the ship in question. Here we use geometrical arguments and analysis of an idealised mathematical model to identify features of spectrograms, concentrating on the effects of a finite-depth channel. Read More

The analogy between mechanical and electromagnetic resonators has been a celebrated paradigm of science and engineering. Exploration of this analogy in recent years has resulted in several exciting research directions, including cavity optomechanics[1], phononic bandgap materials[2] and phononic metamaterials[3-5]. In these examples, progress in electromagnetic research has usually led the way for their mechanical counterparts. Read More

New numerical solutions to the so-called selection problem for one and two steadily translating bubbles in an unbounded Hele-Shaw cell are presented. Our approach relies on conformal mapping which, for the two-bubble problem, involves the Schottky-Klein prime function associated with an annulus. We show that a countably infinite number of solutions exist for each fixed value of dimensionless surface tension, with the bubble shapes becoming more exotic as the solution branch number increases. Read More

We propose a one-dimensional model for collecting lymphatics coupled with a novel Electro-Fluid-Mechanical Contraction (EFMC) model for dynamical contractions, based on a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo model for action potentials. The one-dimensional model for a compliant lymphatic vessel is a set of hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). The EFMC model combines the electrical activity of lymphangions (action potentials) with fluid-mechanical feedback (stretch of the lymphatic wall and wall shear stress) and the mechanical variation of the lymphatic wall properties (contractions). Read More

We give an overview of various Markov processes that reproduce statistics of established models of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Kolmogorov scaling, extended self-similarity and a class of random cascade models are represented by a Markov cascade process for the velocity increment $u(r)$ in scale $r$ that follows from two properties of the Navier-Stokes equation. The fluctuation theorem of this Markov process implies a "second law" that puts a loose bound on the multipliers of random cascade models. Read More

The quantitative evaluation of combustion models against experimental data remains a main challenge. This is a consequence of the data complexity, often involving velocity, temperature, and chemical composition; the data acquisition, consisting of intrusive, non-intrusive, direct, and inferred measurement methods; and the data preparation in the form of instantaneous scatter data, statistical results, or conditional information. By addressing this issue, the Wasserstein metric is introduced as a probabilistic measure to enable quantitative evaluations of LES combustion models. Read More

A large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) is considered in the strain-controlled regime, and the interrelation between the Fourier transform (FT) and the stress decomposition (SD) approaches is established. Several definitions of the generalized storage and loss moduli are examined in a unified conceptual scheme based on the Lissajous--Bowditch plots. An illustrative example of evaluating the generalized moduli from a LAOS flow is given. Read More

Data from a three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame at a low global Lewis number are analyzed to address the effects of the curvature on the local flame front. For this purpose, the chemical kinetics is modeled according to a reduced scheme, involving 5 reactions and 7 species, to mimic a H$_{2}$/Air flame at equivalence ratio $\phi=0.5$. Read More

Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. Read More

The direct numerical simulation of particulate systems offers a unique approach to study the dynamics of fluid-solid suspensions by fully resolving the submerged particles and without introducing empirical models. For the lattice Boltzmann method, different variants exist to incorporate the fluid-particle interaction into the simulation. This paper provides a detailed and systematic comparison of two different methods, namely the momentum exchange method and the partially saturated cells method by Noble and Torczynski. Read More

Rayleigh-Benard convection is not only a classical problem in fluid dynamics but plays also an important role in many metallurgical and crystal growth applications. The measurement of the flow field and of the dynamics of the emerging large-scale circulation in liquid metals is a challenging task due to the opaqueness and the high temperature of the melts. Contactless inductive flow tomography is a technique to visualize the mean three-dimensional flow structure in liquid metals by measuring the flow induced magnetic field perturbations under the influence of one or several applied magnetic fields. Read More

The fractal scaling properties of turbulent premixed flame fronts have been investigated and considered for modelling sub-grid scales in the Large-Eddy-Simulation framework. Since the width of such thin reaction fronts cannot be resolved into the coarse mesh of LES, the extent of wrinkled flame surface contained in a volume is taken into account. The amount of unresolved flame front is estimated via the "wrinkling facto" that depends on the definition of a suitable fractal dimension and the scale at which the fractal scaling is lost, the inner cut-off length {\epsilon}i. Read More

Using direct numerical simulations we demonstrate that magnetic helicity exhibits a bidirectional turbulent cascade at high but finite magnetic Reynolds numbers. Despite the injection of positive magnetic helicity in the flow, we observe that magnetic helicity of opposite signs is generated between large and small scales. We explain these observations by carrying out an analysis of the MHD equations reduced to triad interactions using the Fourier helical decomposition. Read More

We develop a robust method for simulating vesicle suspensions in a two-dimensional Stokesian fluid at low discretization resolutions. Vesicle suspensions model biological systems such as microcirculation, where the blood flow is dictated by red blood cells. Vesicle flows are characterized by rich and complex dynamics of vesicles due to their large deformations and nonlinear elastic properties. Read More

A numerical analysis of heat conduction through the cover plate of a heat pipe is carried out to determine the temperature of the working substance, average temperature of heating and cooling surfaces, heat spread in the transmitter, and the heat bypass through the cover plate. Analysis has been extended for the estimation of heat transfer requirements at the outer surface of the con- denser under different heat load conditions using Genetic Algorithm. This paper also presents the estimation of an average heat transfer coefficient for the boiling and condensation of the working substance inside the microgrooves corresponding to a known temperature of the heat source. Read More

The mechanical deformability of single cells is an important indicator for various diseases such as cancer, blood diseases and inflammation. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow to separate such cells from healthy cells using hydrodynamic forces. We perform hydrodynamic simulations based on the lattice-Boltzmann method and study the behavior of an elastic capsule in a microfluidic channel flow in the inertial regime. Read More

In the upscaling from pore- to continuum (Darcy) scale, reaction and deposition phenomena at the solid-liquid interface of a porous medium have to be represented by macroscopic reaction source terms. The effective rates can be computed, in the case of periodic media, from three-dimensional microscopic simulations of the periodic cell. Several computational and semi-analytical models have been studied in the field of colloid filtration to describe this problem. Read More

Many natural and engineering systems are simultaneously subjected to a driving force and a stabilizing force. The interplay between the two forces, especially for highly nonlinear systems such as fluid flow, often results in surprising features. Here we reveal such features in three different types of Rayleigh-B\'enard (RB) convection, i. Read More

Gradient reconstruction is a key process for the spatial accuracy and robustness of finite volume method, especially in industrial aerodynamic applications in which grid quality affects reconstruction methods significantly. A novel gradient reconstruction method for cell-centered finite volume scheme is introduced. This method is composed of two successive steps. Read More

We present a study by computer simulations of a class of complex-valued solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the whole space, which, according to Li and Sinai, present a blow-up (singularity) at a finite time. The computer results allow a detailed study of the blow-up mechanism, and show interesting features of the behavior of the solutions near the blow-up time, such as the concentration of energy and enstrophy in a small region around a few points of physical space, while outside this region the "fluid" remains "quiet". Read More

The interaction between thin structures and incompressible Newtonian fluids is ubiquitous both in nature and in industrial applications. In this paper we present an isogeometric formulation of such problems which exploits a boundary integral formulation of Stokes equations to model the surrounding flow, and a non linear Kirchhoff-Love shell theory to model the elastic behaviour of the structure. We propose three different coupling strategies: a monolithic, fully implicit coupling, a staggered, elasticity driven coupling, and a novel semi-implicit coupling, where the effect of the surrounding flow is incorporated in the non-linear terms of the solid solver through its damping characteristics. Read More

We remark on the justification of the basis, and relevant issues, of the topological hydrodynamics (in the sense of the knot-theory interpretation of helicity) of the Galerkin-truncated Euler equations with an `inverse' Helmholtz-Kelvin theorem involving the truncated vorticity `frozen in' the \textit{virtual} velocity $\bm{V}$. The (statistical) topology of the time-reversible systems with the viscous terms of the Navier-Stokes equations modified to balance the external forcing, in such a way that the helicity and energy are dynamically invariant (thus also the virtual frozen-in formulation), are discussed as well with an explicit calculation example in the standard Fourier space. The non-unique $\bm{V}$ for both of these two problems can in principle be incompressible. Read More

We consider a layer of an inviscid fluid with free surface which is subject to vertical high-frequency vibrations. We derive three asymptotic systems of equations that describe slowly evolving (in comparison with the vibration frequency) free-surface waves. The first set of equations is obtained without assuming that the waves are long. Read More

We present an adaptive reduced-order model for the efficient time-resolved simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems with complex and non-linear deformations. The model is based on repeated linearizations of the structural balance equations. Upon each linearization step, the number of unknowns is strongly decreased by using modal reduction, which leads to a substantial gain in computational efficiency. Read More

An electrified visco-capillary jet shows different dynamic behavior, such as cone forming, breakage into droplets, whipping and coiling, depending on the considered parameter regime. The whipping instability that is of fundamental importance for electrospinning has been approached by means of stability analysis in previous papers. In this work we alternatively propose a model framework in which the instability can be computed straightforwardly as the stable stationary solution of an asymptotic Cosserat rod description. Read More

Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) have the potential to achieve large drag reduction for internal and external flow applications. However, experiments have shown inconsistent results, with many studies reporting significantly reduced performance. Recently, it has been proposed that surfactants, ubiquitous in flow applications, could be responsible, by creating adverse Marangoni stresses. Read More

A liquid-filled container in orbital shaking motion, i.e. in circular translation with fixed orientation with respect to an inertial frame of reference, generates, in addition to a rotating sloshing wave, a mean flow rotating in the same direction as the wave. Read More

The effects of insulating lids on the convection beneath were investigated experimentally using rectangular convection cells in the flux Rayleigh number range $2.3\times10^{9}\leq Ra_F \leq 1.8\times10^{11}$ and cylindrical cells in the range $1. Read More

In a recent paper by Lasseux, Vald\'{e}s-Parada and Porter (J.~Fluid~Mech. \textbf{805} (2016) 118-146), it is found that the apparent gas permeability of the porous media is a nonlinear function of the Knudsen number. Read More

Although many studies have been carried on to understand the Hasselmann-Zakharov weak turbulence equation for capillary waves since its derivation in the 60's, the question about the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the equation still remains unanswered, due to the complexity of the equation. This work provides a solution to the problem. Read More

The dynamics of a circular thin vortex ring and a sphere moving along the symmetry axis of the ring in an inviscid incompressible fluid is studied on the basis of Euler's equations of motion. The equations of motion for position and radius of the vortex ring and those for position and velocity of the sphere are coupled by hydrodynamic interactions. The equations are cast in Hamiltonian form, from which it is seen that total energy and momentum are conserved. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LAMA,

^{2}University of Colorado

Some effects of surface tension on fully-nonlinear, long, surface water waves are studied by numerical means. The differences between various solitary waves and their interactions in subcritical and supercritical surface tension regimes are presented. Analytical expressions for new peaked travelling wave solutions are presented in the case of critical surface tension. Read More

We analyse various turbulent flows based on their 2-point and multi-scale statistics. Datasets are measured in free jets and wake flows of a regular grid and a cylinder. 2-point statistics are characterised by structure functions of velocity increments. Read More

The trinity of so-called "canonical" wall-bounded turbulent flows, comprising the zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, abbreviated ZPG TBL, turbulent pipe flow and channel/duct flows has continued to receive intense attention as new and more reliable experimental data have become available. Nevertheless, the debate on whether the logarithmic part of the mean velocity profile, in particular the K\'arm\'an constant $\kappa$, is identical for these three canonical flows or flow-dependent is still ongoing. In this paper, which expands upon Monkewitz and Nagib (24th ICTAM Conf. Read More

We discuss what is an optimal velocity field for more heat transfer and less energy dissipation under the constraints of the continuity equation for the velocity and the advection-diffusion equation for temperature in plane Couette flow. The excess of a wall heat flux (or equivalently total scalar dissipation) over total energy dissipation is taken as an objective functional, and by using a variational method the Euler-Lagrange equations are derived, which are solved numerically to obtain the optimal states in the sense of maximisation of the functional. At high Reynolds numbers, the optimal heat transfer is found in three-dimensional velocity field in which hierarchical self-similar quasi-streamwise vortical structures appear. Read More

We combine experiments, large scale simulations and continuum models to study the emergence of coherent structures in a suspension of magnetically driven microrollers sedimented near a floor. Collective hydrodynamic effects are predominant in this system, leading to strong density-velocity coupling. We characterize a uniform suspension and show that density waves propagate freely in all directions in a dispersive fashion. Read More