Physics - Fluid Dynamics Publications (50)


Physics - Fluid Dynamics Publications

Consider the thin-film equation $h_t + \left(h h_{yyy}\right)_y = 0$ with a zero contact angle at the free boundary, that is, at the triple junction where liquid, gas, and solid meet. Previous results on stability and well-posedness of this equation have focused on perturbations of equilibrium-stationary or self-similar profiles, the latter eventually wetting the whole surface. These solutions have their counterparts for the second-order porous-medium equation $h_t - (h^m)_{yy} = 0$, where $m > 1$ is a free parameter. Read More

Stochastic dynamical systems with continuous symmetries arise commonly in nature and often give rise to coherent spatio-temporal patterns. However, because of their random locations, these patterns are not well captured by current order reduction techniques and a large number of modes is typically necessary for an accurate solution. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for efficient order reduction of such systems by combining (i) the method of slices, a symmetry reduction tool, with (ii) any standard order reduction technique, resulting in efficient mixed symmetry-dimensionality reduction schemes. Read More

Ocean flows are routinely inferred from low-resolution satellite altimetry measurements of sea surface height (SSH) assuming a geostrophic balance. Recent nonlinear dynamical systems techniques have revealed that altimetry-inferred flows can support mesoscale eddies with material boundaries that do not filament for many months, thereby representing effective mechanisms for coherent transport. However, the significance of such coherent Lagrangian eddies is not free from uncertainty due to the impossibility of altimetry to resolve ageostrophic submesoscale motions, which have the potential of quickly eroding their boundaries. Read More

The moist-air entropy can be used to analyze and better understand the general circulation of the atmosphere or convective motions. Isentropic analyses are commonly based on studies of different equivalent potential temperatures, all of which are assumed to fully represent the entropy of moist air. It is, however, possible to rely on statistical physics or the third law of thermodynamics when defining and computing the absolute entropy of moist air and to study the corresponding third-law potential temperature, which is different from the previous ones. Read More

The effect of spatial localization of states in distributed parameter systems under frozen parametric disorder is well known as the Anderson localization and thoroughly studied for the Schr\"odinger equation and linear dissipation-free wave equations. Some similar (or mimicking) phenomena can occur in dissipative systems such as the thermal convection ones. Specifically, many of these dissipative systems are governed by a modified Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, where the frozen spatial disorder of parameters has been reported to lead to excitation of localized patterns. Read More

For well-stirred multiphase fluid systems the mean interface area per unit volume, or "specific interface area" $S_V$, is a significant characteristic of the system state. In particular, it is important for the dynamics of systems of immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. We estimate the value of parameter $S_V$ as a function of the heat influx $\dot{Q}_V$ to the system or the average system overheat $\langle\Theta\rangle$ above the interfacial boiling point. Read More

Our research is related to the employment of photoplethysmography (PPG) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) techniques (measuring the blood volume and flux, respectively) for the peripheral vascular system. We derive the governing equations of the wave dynamics for the case of extremely inhomogeneous parameters. We argue for the conjecture that the blood-vascular system as a wave-conducting medium should be nearly reflection-free. Read More

The application of local periodic heating for controlling a spatially developing shear layer downstream of a finite-thickness splitter plate is examined by numerically solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. At the trailing edge of the plate, oscillatory heat flux boundary condition is prescribed as the thermal forcing input to the shear layer. The thermal forcing introduces low level of oscillatory surface vorticity flux and baroclinic vorticity at the actuation frequency in the vicinity of the trailing edge. Read More

When a droplet (which size is characterized by R) is confined between two parallel planes, its morphology will change accordingly to either varying the volume of the droplet or the separation (characterized by h) between the planes. We are aiming at investigating how such geometric confinement affects the wetting behaviours of a droplet. Our focus lies on two distinguished regimes: (1) a pancake shape in a Hele-Shaw cell when the droplet is highly compressed (i. Read More

The combined effects of buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-B\'{e}nard convection (RC) and surface tension-driven Marangoni convection (MC) are studied in a triple-layer configuration which serves as a simplified model for a liquid metal battery (LMB). The three-layer model consists of a liquid metal alloy cathode, a molten salt separation layer, and a liquid metal anode at the top. Convection is triggered by the temperature gradient between the hot electrolyte and the colder electrodes, which is a consequence of the release of resistive heat during operation. Read More

We review and test twelve different approaches to the detection of finite-time coherent material structures in two-dimensional, temporally aperiodic flows. We consider both mathematical methods and diagnostic scalar fields, comparing their performance on three benchmark examples: the quasiperiodically forced Bickley jet, a two-dimensional turbulence simulation, and an observational wind velocity field from Jupiter's atmosphere. A close inspection of the results reveals that the various methods often produce very different predictions for coherent structures, once they are evaluated beyond heuristic visual assessment. Read More

We show that in two dimensional superfluids a large number of quantum vortices with positive and negative circulations behave as an inviscid fluid on large scales. Two hydrodynamical velocities are introduced to describe this emergent binary vortex fluid, via vortex number current and vortex change current. The velocity field associated with the vortex number current evolves according to a hydrodynamic equation, subject to an anomalous stress absent from Euler's equation. Read More

A deterministic multi-scale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by Lagrangian Chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect", a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed thanks to the use of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates. Read More

A new regularisation of the shallow water (and isentropic Euler) equations is proposed. The regularised equations are non-dissipative, non-dispersive and possess a variational structure. Thus, the mass, the momentum and the energy are conserved. Read More

Contact between particles and motile cells underpins a wide variety of biological processes, from nutrient capture and ligand binding, to grazing, viral infection and cell-cell communication. The window of opportunity for these interactions is ultimately determined by the physical mechanism that enables proximity and governs the contact time. Jeanneret et al. Read More

Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models represent the workhorse for studying turbulent flows in industrial applications. Such single-point turbulence models have limitations in accounting for the influence of the non-local physics and flow history on the evolution of the turbulent flow. In this context, we investigate the sensitivity inherent to single-point models due to their characterization of the internal structure of homogeneous turbulent flows solely by the means of the Reynolds stresses. Read More

In thermal convection, roughness is often used as a means to enhance heat transport, expressed in Nusselt number. Yet there is no consensus on whether the Nusselt vs. Rayleigh number scaling exponent ($\mathrm{Nu} \sim \mathrm{Ra}^\beta$) increases or remains unchanged. Read More

The diffusion of a Janus rod-shaped nanoparticle in a dense Lennard-Jones fluid is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The Janus particle is modeled as a rigid cylinder whose atoms on each half-side have different interaction energies with fluid molecules, thus comprising wetting and nonwetting surfaces. We found that both rotational and translational diffusion coefficients are larger for Janus particles with higher wettability contrast, and these values are bound between the two limiting cases of uniformly wetting and nonwetting particles. Read More

We study fingering instabilities and pattern formation at the interface of an oppositely polarized two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interactions in three dimensions. It is shown that the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken by fingering instability when the dipole-dipole interactions are strengthened. Frog-shaped and mushroom-shaped patterns emerge during the dynamics due to the dipolar interactions. Read More

A fixed-point phenomenon in nonviscous flows is reported. The stagnation points of a pseudo-plane ideal flow tend to be vertically aligned in steady state, and the concentric structure represents a weak form of vertical coherence. Exception occurs in the rotating frame when a flow holds inertial period and skew center becomes possible. Read More

A weakly nonlinear theory has been proposed and developed for calculating the energy- transfer rate to individual waves in a group. It is shown what portion of total energy- transfer rate, over the envelope of wave group, affects individual waves in the group. From this an expression for complex phase speed of individual waves is calculated. Read More

The dependence of the heat transfer, as measured by the nondimensional Nusselt number $Nu$, on Ekman pumping for rapidly rotating Rayleigh-B\'enard convection in an infinite plane layer is examined for fluids with Prandtl number $Pr = 1$. A joint effort utilizing simulations from the Composite Non-hydrostatic Quasi-Geostrophic model (CNH-QGM) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the incompressible fluid equations has mapped a wide range of the Rayleigh number $Ra$ - Ekman number $E$ parameter space within the geostrophic regime of rotating convection. Corroboration of the $Nu$-$Ra$ relation at $E = 10^{-7}$ from both methods along with higher $E$ covered by DNS and lower $E$ by the asymptotic model allows for this range of the heat transfer results. Read More

Results are presented of direct numerical simulations of incompressible, homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence without a mean magnetic field, subject to different kinetic forcing functions commonly used in the literature. Specifically, the forces are negative damping (which uses the large-scale field as a forcing function), a nonhelical random force, and a nonhelical static sinusoidal force (analogous to helical ABC forcing). The time evolution of the three ideal invariants (energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity), the time-averaged energy spectra, the energy ratios and the dissipation ratios are examined. Read More

For the constant-stress layer of wall turbulence, two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations are studied theoretically by using the attached-eddy hypothesis, i.e., a phenomenological model of a random superposition of energy-containing eddies that are attached to the wall. Read More

Affiliations: 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, 2University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, 3University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA

The study of viscous fluid flow coupled with rigid or deformable solids has many applications in biological and engineering problems, e.g., blood cell transport, drug delivery, and particulate flow. Read More

A new slow growth formulation for DNS of wall-bounded turbulent flow is developed and demonstrated to enable extension of slow growth modeling concepts to complex boundary layer flows. As in previous slow growth approaches, the formulation assumes scale separation between the fast scales of turbulence and the slow evolution of statistics such as the mean flow. This separation enables the development of approaches where the fast scales of turbulence are directly simulated while the forcing provided by the slow evolution is modeled. Read More

A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with enhanced stability and accuracy is presented for various Hermite tensor-based lattice structures. The collision operator relies on a regularization step, which is here improved through a recursive computation of non-equilibrium Hermite polynomial coefficients. In addition to the reduced computational cost of this procedure with respect to the standard one, the recursive step allows to considerably enhance the stability and accuracy of the numerical scheme by properly filtering out second (and higher) order non-hydrodynamic contributions in under-resolved conditions. Read More

Acoustic traps are used to capture and handle suspended microparticles and cells in microfluidic applications. A particular simple and much-used acoustic trap consists of a commercially available, millimeter-sized, liquid-filled glass capillary actuated by a piezoelectric transducer. Here, we present a three-dimensional numerical model of the acoustic pressure field in the liquid coupled to the displacement field of the glass wall, taking into account mixed standing and traveling waves as well as absorption. Read More

We seek to accelerate and increase the size of simulations for fluid-structure interactions (FSI) by using multiple resolutions in the spatial discretization of the equations governing the time evolution of systems displaying two-way fluid-solid coupling. To this end, we propose a multi-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach in which subdomains of different resolutions are directly coupled without any overlap region. The second-order consistent discretization of spatial differential operators is employed to ensure the accuracy of the proposed method. Read More

Using a manifestly invariant Lagrangian density based on Clebsch fields and suitable for geophysical fluid dynamics, the conservation of mass, entropy, momentum and energy, and the associated symmetries are investigated. In contrast, it is shown that the conservation of Ertel's potential vorticity is not associated with any symmetry of the equations of motion, but is instead a trivial conservation law of the second kind. This is at odds with previous studies which claimed that potential vorticity conservation relates to a symmetry under particle-relabeling transformations. Read More

High-speed stereo PIV-measurements have been performed in a turbulent boundary layer at Re$_{\theta}$ of 9800 in order to elucidate the coherent structures. Snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) are used to visualize the flow structure depending on the turbulent kinetic energy and frequency content. The first six POD and DMD modes show the largest and the lowest amount of energy and frequency, respectively. Read More

A nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation with variable coefficients for surface waves on a large-scale steady nonuniform current has been derived without the assumption of a relative smallness of the velocity of the current. This equation can describe with good accuracy the loss of modulation stability of a wave coming to a counter current, leading to the formation of so called rogue waves. Some theoretical estimates are compared to the numerical simulation with the exact equations for a two-dimensional potential motion of an ideal fluid with a free boundary over a nonuniform bottom at a nonzero average horizontal velocity. Read More

We examine kinematic dynamo action driven by an axisymmetric large scale flow that is superimposed with an azimuthally propagating non-axisymmetric perturbation with a frequency $\omega$. Although we apply a rather simple large scale velocity field, our simulations exhibit a complex behavior with oscillating and azimuthally drifting eigenmodes as well as stationary regimes. Within these non-oscillating regimes we find parametric resonances characterized by a considerable enhancement of dynamo action and by a locking of the phase of the magnetic field to the pattern of the perturbation. Read More

We investigate the stability of a statistically stationary conductive state for Rayleigh-B\'enard convection between stress-free plates that arises due to a bulk stochastic internal heating. This setup may be seen as a generalization to a stochastic setting of the seminal 1916 study of Lord Rayleigh. Our results indicate that stochastic forcing at small magnitude has a stabilizing effect, while strong stochastic forcing has a destabilizing effect. Read More

The apparent gas permeability of the porous medium is an important parameter in the prediction of unconventional gas production, which was first investigated systematically by Klinkenberg in 1941 and found to increase with the reciprocal mean gas pressure (or equivalently, the Knudsen number). Although the underlying rarefaction effects are well-known, the reason that the correction factor in Klinkenberg's famous equation decreases when the Knudsen number increases has not been fully understood. Most of the studies idealize the porous medium as a bundle of straight cylindrical tubes, however, according to the gas kinetic theory, this only results in an increase of the correction factor with the Knudsen number, which clearly contradicts Klinkenberg's experimental observations. Read More

Governing equations for two-dimensional inviscid free-surface flows with constant vorticity over arbitrary non-uniform bottom profile are presented in exact and compact form using conformal variables. An efficient and very accurate numerical method for this problem is developed. Read More

Extreme events are ubiquitous in a wide range of dynamical systems including, turbulent fluid flows, nonlinear waves, large scale networks and biological systems. Here, we propose a variational framework for probing conditions that trigger intermittent extreme events in high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems. We seek the triggers as the probabilistically feasible solutions of an appropriately constrained optimization problem, where the function to be maximized is a system observable exhibiting intermittent extreme bursts. Read More

We examine the onset of turbulence in Waleffe flow -- the planar shear flow between stress-free boundaries driven by a sinusoidal body force. By truncating the wall-normal representation to four modes, we are able to simulate system sizes far beyond anything previously possible and thereby to attack the question of universality for a planar shear flow. We demonstrate that the equilibrium turbulence fraction increases continuously from zero above a critical Reynolds number and that statistics of the turbulence structures exhibit the power-law scalings of the directed percolation universality class. Read More

This paper examines the questions of whether smaller asteroids that burst in the air over water can generate tsunamis that could pose a threat to distant locations. Such air burst-generated tsunamis are qualitatively different than the more frequently studied earthquake-generated tsunamis, and differ as well from impact asteroids. Numerical simulations are presented using the shallow water equations in several settings, demonstrating very little tsunami threat from this scenario. Read More

We develop first-principles theory of relativistic fluid turbulence at high Reynolds and P\'eclet numbers. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a non-perturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. We obtain results very similar to those for non-relativistic turbulence, with hydrodynamic fields in the inertial-range described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the relativistic Euler equations. Read More

We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a non-perturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and P\'eclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. Read More

The last few years have seen an explosion of interest in hydrodynamic effects in interacting electron systems in ultra-pure materials. In this paper we briefly review the recent advances, both theoretical and experimental, in the hydrodynamic approach to electronic transport in graphene, focusing on viscous phenomena, Coulomb drag, non-local transport measurements, and possibilities for observing nonlinear effects. Read More

We prove that bounded weak solutions of the compressible Euler equations will conserve thermodynamic entropy unless the solution fields have sufficiently low space-time Besov regularity. A quantity measuring kinetic energy cascade will also vanish for such Euler solutions, unless the same singularity conditions are satisfied. It is shown furthermore that strong limits of solutions of compressible Navier-Stokes equations that are bounded and exhibit anomalous dissipation are weak Euler solutions. Read More

A new Hamiltonian formulation for the fully nonlinear water-wave problem over variable bathymetry is derived, using an exact, vertical series expansion of the velocity potential, in conjunction with Luke's variational principle. The obtained Euler-Lagrange equations contain infinite series and can rederive various existing model equations upon truncation. In this paper, the infinite series are summed up, resulting in two exact Hamiltonian equations for the free-surface elevation and the free-surface potential, coupled with a time-independent horizontal system of equations. Read More

We investigate theoretically and experimentally the evaporation of liquid disks in the presence of natural convection due to a density difference between the vapor and the surrounding gas. From the analogy between thermal convection above a heated disk and our system, we derive scaling laws to describe the evaporation rate. The local evaporation rate depends on the presence of a boundary layer in the gas phase such that the total evaporation rate is given by a combination of different scaling contributions, which reflect the structure of the boundary layer. Read More

To evaluate the variability of multi-phase flow properties of porous media at the pore scale, it is necessary to acquire a number of representative samples of the void-solid structure. While modern x-ray computer tomography has made it possible to extract three-dimensional images of the pore space, assessment of the variability in the inherent material properties is often experimentally not feasible. We present a novel method to reconstruct the solid-void structure of porous media by applying a generative neural network that allows an implicit description of the probability distribution represented by three-dimensional image datasets. Read More

Experimental studies were carried out on the motions and transformations of liquid metal in ionic liquid under applied electric field. The induced vortex rings and flows of ionic liquid were determined via the photographs taken sequentially over the experiments. The polarization of electric double layer of liquid metals was employed to explain the flow of ionic liquid with the presence of liquid metal. Read More

This note proposes a simple and general framework of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and a mode selection for large datasets. The proposed framework explicitly introduces a preconditioning step using an incremental proper orthogonal decomposition to DMD and mode selection algorithms. By performing the preconditioning step, the DMD and the mode selection can be performed with low memory consumption and small computational complexity and can be applied to large datasets. Read More

We study steady-state oscillations of an elastic Hele-Shaw cell excited by traveling pressure waves over its upper surface. The fluid within the cell is bounded by two asymmetric elastic sheets which are connected to a rigid surface via distributed springs and modeled by the linearized plate theory. Modal analysis yields the frequency response of the configuration as a function of three parameters: the fluidic Womersley number and two ratios of elastic stress to viscous pressure for each of the sheets. Read More

We analyse a linear lattice Boltzmann (LB) formulation for simulation of linear acoustic wave propagation in heterogeneous media. We employ the single-relaxation-time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) as well as the general multi-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operators. By calculating the dispersion relation for various 2D lattices, we show that the D2Q5 lattice is the most suitable model for the linear acoustic problem. Read More