Physics - Fluid Dynamics Publications (50)


Physics - Fluid Dynamics Publications

We introduce an alternative to the method of matched asymptotic expansions. In the "traditional" implementation, approximate solutions, valid in different (but overlapping) regions are matched by using "intermediate" variables. Here we propose to match at the level of the equations involved, via a "uniform expansion" whose equations enfold those of the approximations to be matched. Read More

Many aquatic organisms exhibit remarkable abilities to detect and track chemical signals when foraging, mating and escaping. For example, the male copepod { \em T. longicornis} identifies the female in the open ocean by following its chemically-flavored trail. Read More

We present a "multipatch" infrastructure for numerical simulation of fluid problems in which sub-regions require different gridscales, different grid geometries, different physical equations, or different reference frames. Its key element is a sophisticated client-router-server framework for efficiently linking processors supporting different regions ("patches") that must exchange boundary data. This infrastructure may be used with a wide variety of fluid dynamics codes; the only requirement is that their primary dependent variables be the same in all patches, e. Read More

The purpose of this work is to construct a simple, efficient and accurate well-balanced numerical scheme for one-dimensional (1D) blood flow in large arteries with varying geometrical and mechanical properties. As the steady states at rest are not relevant for blood flow, we construct two well-balanced hydrostatic reconstruction techniques designed to preserve low-Shapiro number steady states that may occur in large network simulations. The Shapiro number S h = u/c is the equivalent of the Froude number for shallow water equations and the Mach number for compressible Euler equations. Read More

We consider turbulence in a stratified `Kolmogorov' flow, driven by horizontal shear in the form of sinusoidal body forcing in the presence of an imposed background linear stable stratification in the third direction. This flow configuration allows the controlled investigation of the formation of coherent structures, which here organise the flow into horizontal layers by inclining the background shear as the strength of the stratification is increased. By numerically converging exact steady states from chaotic direct numerical simulations, we show, for the first time, a robust connection between linear theory predicting instabilities from infinitesimal perturbations to the robust finite amplitude nonlinear layered state observed in the turbulence. Read More

We investigate a model of thin layer turbulence that follows the evolution of the two-dimensional motions ${\bf u}_{_{2D}} (x,y)$ along the horizontal directions $(x,y)$ coupled to a single Fourier mode along the vertical direction ($z$) of the form ${\bf u}_q (x, y, z)=[v_x(x,y) \sin(qz), v_y(x,y)\sin(qz), v_z(x,y)\cos(qz)\, ]$, reducing thus the system to two coupled, two-dimensional equations. The reduced dimensionality of the model allows a thorough investigation of the transition from a forward to an inverse cascade of energy as the thickness of the layer $H=\pi/q$ is varied. Starting from a thick layer and reducing its thickness it is shown that two critical heights are met (i) one for which the forward unidirectional cascade (similar to three-dimensional turbulence) transitions to a bidirectional cascade transferring energy to both small and large scales and (ii) one for which the bidirectional cascade transitions to a unidirectional inverse cascade when the layer becomes very thin (similar to two-dimensional turbulence). Read More

One of the hallmarks of active matter is its rich nonlinear dynamics and instabilities. Recent numerical simulations of phototactic algae showed that a thin jet of swimmers, obtained from hydrodynamic focusing inside a Poiseuille flow, was unstable to longitudinal perturbations with swimmers dynamically clustering (Jibuti et al., Phys. Read More

We use highly resolved numerical simulations to study turbulent Rayleigh-B\'enard convection in a cell with sinusoidally rough upper and lower surfaces in two dimensions for $Pr = 1$ and $Ra = \left[4 \times 10^6, 3 \times 10^9\right]$. By varying the wavelength $\lambda$ at a fixed amplitude, we find an optimal wavelength $\lambda_{\text{opt}}$ for which the Nusselt-Rayleigh scaling relation is $\left(Nu-1 \propto Ra^{0.483}\right)$ maximizing the heat flux. Read More

We address the problem of predicting saturation-dependent electrical conductivity {\sigma} in packings of spheres during drainage and imbibition. The effective-medium approximation (EMA) and the universal power law of percolation for {\sigma} are used, respectively, at higher and low water saturations to predict the conductivity, with the crossover between the two occurring at some intermediate saturation Swx. The main input to the theory is a single parameter that we estimate using the capillary pressure data. Read More

Topology changes in multi-phase fluid flows are difficult to model within a traditional sharp interface theory. Diffuse interface models turn out to be an attractive alternative to model two-phase flows. Based on a Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes model introduced by Abels, Garcke and Gr\"{u}n (Math. Read More

In this paper we investigate the extent to which variable porosity drug-eluting coatings can provide better control over drug release than coatings where the porosity is constant throughout. In particular, we aim to establish the potential benefits of replacing a single-layer with a two-layer coating of identical total thickness and initial drug mass. In our study, what distinguishes the layers (other than their individual thickness and initial drug loading) is the underlying microstructure, and in particular the effective porosity and the tortuosity of the material. Read More

Couder and Fort discovered that droplets walking on a vibrating bath possess certain features previously thought to be exclusive to quantum systems. These millimetric droplets synchronize with their Faraday wavefield, creating a macroscopic pilot-wave system. In this paper we exploit the fact that the waves generated are nearly monochromatic and propose a hydrodynamic model capable of quantitatively capturing the interaction between bouncing drops and a variable topography. Read More

We consider implementations of high-order finite difference Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) schemes for the Euler equations in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems with radial dependence only. The main concern of this work lies in ensuring both high-order accuracy and conservation. Three different spatial discretizations are assessed: one that is shown to be high-order accurate but not conservative, one conservative but not high-order accurate, and a new approach that is both high-order accurate and conservative. Read More

Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number $Pr$) that convect as the core cools. The convecting, conductive medium can self-excite and maintain a planetary magnetic field. Here we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low, Ekman number $Ek$) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Read More

A variable-coefficient forced Korteweg-de Vries equation with spacial inhomogeneity is investigated in this paper. Under constraints, this equation is transformed into its bilinear form, and multi-soliton solutions are derived. Effects of spacial inhomogeneity for soliton velocity, width and background are discussed. Read More

The validity of the anelastic approximation has recently been questioned in the regime of rapidly-rotating compressible convection in low Prandtl number fluids (Calkins et al. 2015). Given the broad usage and the high computational efficiency of sound-proof approaches in this astrophysically relevant regime, this paper clarifies the conditions for a safe application. Read More

The effect of turbulence on the mass and heat transfer between small heavy inertial particles (HIP) and an embedding fluid is studied. Two effects are identified. The first effect is due to the relative velocity between the fluid and the particles, and a model for the relative velocity is presented. Read More

The transient electroosmotic flow of Maxwell fluid in a rotating microchannel is investigated both analytically and numerically. We bring out the complex dynamics of the flow during the transience due to the combination of rotation and rheological effects. We show the regimes of operation under which our analysis holds the most significance. Read More

Dynamics of active or self-propulsive Brownian particles in nonequilibrium status, has recently attracted great interest in many fields including biological entities and artificial micro/nanoscopic motors6. Understanding of their dynamics can provide insight into the statistical properties of biological and physical systems far from equilibrium. Generally, active Brownian particles can involve either translational or rotational motion. Read More

This study aims to make use of two concepts in the field of aeroacoustics; an analogy with relativity, and Geometric Algebra. The analogy with relativity has been investigated in physics and cosmology, but less has been done to use this work in the field of aeroacoustics. Despite being successfully applied to a variety of fields, Geometric Algebra has yet to be applied to acoustics. Read More

Foundations of a new projection-based model reduction approach for convection dominated nonlinear fluid flows are summarized. In this method the evolution of the flow is approximated in the Lagrangian frame of reference. Global basis functions are used to approximate both the state and the position of the Lagrangian computational domain. Read More

We study numerically two-dimensional creeping viscoelastic flow past a biperiodic square array of cylinders within the Oldroyd B, fene-CR and fene-P constitutive models of dilute polymer solutions. Our results capture the initial mild decrease then dramatic upturn ('thickening') seen experimentally in the drag coefficient as a function of increasing Weissenberg number. By systematically varying the porosity of the flow geometry, we demonstrate two qualitatively different mechanisms underpinning this thickening effect: one that operates in the highly porous case of widely spaced obstacles, and another for more densely packed obstacles, with a crossover between these two mechanisms at intermediate porosities. Read More

Aims. Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. Read More

As everyone knows who has opened a kitchen faucet, pipe flow is laminar at low flow velocities and turbulent at high flow velocities. At intermediate velocities there is a transition wherein plugs of laminar flow alternate along the pipe with "flashes" of a type of fluctuating, non-laminar flow which remains poorly known. We show experimentally that the fluid friction of flash flow is diagnostic of turbulence. Read More

Water electrolysis performed in microsystems with a fast change of voltage polarity produces optically invisible nanobubbles containing H2 and O2 gases. In this form the gases are able to the reverse reaction of water formation. Here we report extreme phenomena observed in a millimeter-sized open system. Read More

Irreversible processes play a major role in the description and prediction of atmospheric dynamics. In this paper, we present a variational derivation of the evolution equations for a moist atmosphere subject to the irreversible processes of molecular viscosity, heat conduction, diffusion, and phase transition. This derivation is based on the general variational formalism for nonequilibrium thermodynamics established in \cite{GBYo2016a,GBYo2016b}, which extends Hamilton's principle to incorporates irreversible processes. Read More

A long elastic cylinder, radius $a$ and shear-modulus $\mu$, becomes unstable given sufficient surface tension $\gamma$. We show this instability can be simply understood by considering the energy, $E(\lambda)$, of such a cylinder subject to a homogenous longitudinal stretch $\lambda$. Although $E(\lambda)$ has a unique minimum, if surface tension is sufficient ($\Gamma\equiv\gamma/(a\mu)>\sqrt{32}$) it looses convexity in a finite region. Read More

A fully (pseudo-)spectral solver for direct numerical simulations of large-scale turbulent channel flows is described. The solver utilizes the Chebyshev base functions suggested by J. Shen [SIAM J. Read More

We present a diffusion dominated evaporation model using the popular pseudopotential multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method introduced by Shan and Chen. With an analytical computation of the diffusion coefficients, we demonstrate that Fick's law is obeyed. We then validate the applicability of our model by demonstrating the agreement of the time evolution of the interface position of an evaporating planar film to the analytical prediction. Read More

Affiliations: 1Linné Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics, 2DICCA, University of Genova, 3Linné Flow Centre, KTH Mechanics

Despite the ubiquity of fluid flows interacting with porous and elastic materials, we lack a validated non-empirical macroscale method for characterizing the flow over and through a poroelastic medium. We propose a computational tool to describe such configurations by deriving and validating a continuum model for the poroelastic bed and its interface with the above free fluid. We show that, using stress continuity condition and slip velocity condition at the interface, the effective model captures the effects of small changes in the microstructure anisotropy correctly and predicts the overall behaviour in a physically consistent and controllable manner. Read More

Meshfree solution schemes for the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations are usually based on algorithms commonly used in finite volume methods, such as projection methods, SIMPLE and PISO algorithms. However, drawbacks of these algorithms that are specific to meshfree methods have often been overlooked. In this paper, we study the drawbacks of conventionally used meshfree Generalized Finite Difference Method~(GFDM) schemes for Lagrangian incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, both operator splitting schemes and monolithic schemes. Read More

We provide numerical simulations of an incompressible pressure-thickening and shear-thinning lubricant flowing in a plane slider bearing. We study the influence of several parameters, namely the ratio of the characteristic lengths $\varepsilon>0$ (with $\varepsilon\searrow0$ representing the Reynolds lubrication approximation); the coefficient of the exponential pressure--viscosity relation $\alpha^*\geq0$; the parameter $G^*\geq0$ related to the Carreau--Yasuda shear-thinning model and the modified Reynolds number $\mathrm{Re}_\varepsilon\geq0$. The finite element approximations to the steady isothermal flows are computed without resorting to the lubrication approximation. Read More

The separation of different kind of plastic particles is required in the process of waste recycling. For the separation drum processes passed through by a liquid are applicable. Thereby the separation is based on the principle that particles either sink or float in a liquid depending on their densities. Read More

Previous studies have shown that intermediate surface tension has a counterintuitive destabilizing effect on 2-phase planar jets. Here, the transition process in confined 2D jets of two fluids with varying viscosity ratio is investigated using DNS. Neutral curves for persistent oscillations are found by recording the norm of the velocity residuals in DNS for over 1000 nondimensional time units, or until the signal has reached a constant level in a logarithmic scale - either a converged steady state, or a "statistically steady" oscillatory state. Read More

The motion of a viscous droplet in unbounded Poiseuille flow under the combined influence of bulk-insoluble surfactant and linearly varying temperature field aligned in the direction of imposed flow is studied analytically. Neglecting fluid inertia, thermal convection and shape deformation, asymptotic analysis is performed to obtain the velocity of a force-free surfactant-laden droplet. The present study is focused on two limiting situations of surfactant transport: (i) small surface Peclet number, and (ii) high surface Peclet number. Read More

Catalytic swimmers have attracted much attention as alternatives to biological systems for examining collective microscopic dynamics and the response to physico-chemical signals. Yet, understanding and predicting even the most fundamental characteristics of their individual propulsion still raises important challenges. While chemical asymmetry is widely recognized as the cornerstone of catalytic propulsion, different experimental studies have reported that particles with identical chemical properties may propel in opposite directions. Read More

The incompressible three-dimensional ideal flows develop very thin pancake-like regions of increasing vorticity. These regions evolve with the scaling $\omega_{\max}(t)\propto\ell(t)^{-2/3}$ between the vorticity maximum and pancake thickness, and provide the leading contribution to the energy spectrum, where the gradual formation of the Kolmogorov interval $E_{k}\propto k^{-5/3}$ is observed for some initial flows [Agafontsev et. al, Phys. Read More

An improved understanding of turbulence is essential for the effective modelling and control of industrial and geophysical processes. Homogeneous, isotropic turbulence (HIT) is the archetypal field for developing turbulence physics theory. Based on the Schur transform, we introduce an additive decomposition of the velocity gradient tensor into a normal part (containing the eigenvalues) and a non-normal or shear-related tensor. Read More

Turbulent state of spectrally stable shear flows may be developed and sustained according to the bypass scenario of transition. If it works in non-magnetised boundless and homogeneous quasi-Keplerian flow, transiently growing shearing vortices should supply turbulence with energy. Employing the large shearing box approximation, as well as a set of global disc models, we study the optimal growth of the shearing vortices in such a flow in the whole range of azimuthal length-scales, $\lambda_y$, as compared to the flow scale-height, $H$. Read More

We investigate the impact velocity beyond which the ejection of smaller droplets from the main droplet (splashing) occurs for droplets impacting a smooth surface. We examine its dependence on the surface wetting properties and droplet surface tension. We show that the splashing velocity is independent of the wetting properties of the surface, but increases roughly linearly with increasing surface tension of the liquid. Read More

We report on the size dependence of the surface tension of a free isotropic fluid. The Gibbs-Tolman-Koenig-Buff (GTKB) equation was obtained under the Gibbs approach of the dividing surfaces with cylindrical and spherical geometries. With this approach, we evaluate the size dependence of the surface of tension in the same key for positive and negative values of the curvature and the Tolman length alike. Read More

An efficient technique to simulate turbulent particle-laden flow at high mass loadings within the four-way coupled simulation regime is presented. The technique implements large eddy simulation, discrete phase simulation, a deterministic treatment of inter-particle collisions and an energy-balanced particle agglomeration model. The algorithm to detect inter-particle collisions is such that the computational costs scale linearly with the number of particles present in the computational domain. Read More

We propose a simple theory for the behavior of the mean free path of a gas molecule in the presence of solid obstacles. For the special case of a solid planar wall, we derive an exact scaling formula for the mean free path of a molecule as a function of the distance from the wall. We then impose the same scaling onto the viscosity of the gas near the wall, and compute the exact Navier-Stokes solution of the velocity of the shear flow parallel to the wall for the scaled viscosity. Read More

The objective of the present work is to construct a sound mathematical, numerical and computational framework relevant to blood flow simulations and to assess it through a careful validation against experimental data. We perform simulations of a benchmark proposed by the FDA for fluid flow in an idealized medical device, under different flow regimes. The results are evaluated using metrics proposed in the literature and the findings are in very good agreement with the validation experiment. Read More

The dynamic and thermal regimes of climate are regulated by an exchange of energy and momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean. The role exerted by surface waves on this interchange is particularly enigmatic. Waves induce turbulence in the upper ocean by breaking and through Langmuir circulations. Read More

The velocity dispersion of cold interstellar gas, sigma, is one of the quantities that most radically affect the onset of gravitational instabilities in galaxy discs, and the quantity that is most drastically approximated in stability analyses. Here we analyse the stability of a large sample of nearby star-forming spirals treating molecular gas, atomic gas and stars as three distinct components, and using radial profiles of sigma_CO and sigma_HI derived from HERACLES and THINGS observations. We show that the radial variations of sigma_CO and sigma_HI have a weak effect on the local stability level of galaxy discs, which remains remarkably flat and well above unity, but is low enough to ensure (marginal) instability against non-axisymmetric perturbations and gas dissipation. Read More

Reversible in operando control of friction is an unsolved challenge crucial to industrial tribology. Recent studies show that at low sliding velocities, this control can be achieved by applying an electric field across electrolyte lubricants. However, the phenomenology at high sliding velocities is yet unknown. Read More

We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We show that a sharp transition between low and large amplitude of the external force field occurs. It corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, and would therefore occur for any type of force field. Read More

Low-Reynolds-number polymer solutions exhibit a chaotic behaviour known as 'elastic turbulence' when the Weissenberg number exceeds a critical value. The two-dimensional Oldroyd-B model is the simplest constitutive model that reproduces this phenomenon. To make a practical estimate of the resolution scale of the dynamics requires an assumption that an attractor of the Oldroyd-B model exists : numerical simulations show that the quantities on which this assumption is based are bounded. Read More