Physics - Classical Physics Publications (50)

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Physics - Classical Physics Publications

Paradoxes in the impact dynamics of rigid bodies are known to arise in the presence of friction. We show here that, on specific occasions, in the absence of friction, the conservation laws of classical mechanics can also be incompatible with the collisions of smooth, strictly convex rigid bodies. Read More


In 1979 Penrose hypothesized that the arrows of time are explained by the hypothesis that the fundamental laws are time irreversible. That is, our reversible laws, such as the standard model and general relativity are effective, and emerge from an underlying fundamental theory which is time irreversible. In Cort\^{e}s and Smolin (2014a, 2014b, 2016) we put forward a research program aiming at realizing just this. Read More


Today's standard fabrication processes are just capable of manufacturing slab of photonic and phononic crystals, so an efficient method for analysis of these crystals is indispensable. Plane wave expansion (PWE) as a widely used method in studying photonic and phononic (phoxonic) crystals in full three dimensions is not suitable for slab analysis in its standard form, because of convergence and stability issues. Here, we propose a modification to this method which overcomes these limitations. Read More


The present work reports the formation and the characterization of antipleptic and symplectic metachronal waves in 3D cilia arrays immersed in a two-fluid environment, with a viscosity ratio of 20. A coupled lattice-Boltzmann-Immersed-Boundary solver is used. The periciliary layer is confined between the epithelial surface and the mucus. Read More


A new simplified formula is derived for the absorption cross section of small dielectric ellipsoidal particles in lossy media. The new expression leads directly to a closed form solution for the optimal conjugate match with respect to the surrounding medium, i.e. Read More


Playing the game of heads or tails in zero gravity demonstrates that there exists a contextual "measurement" in classical mechanics. When the coin is flipped, its orientation is a continuous variable. However, the "measurement" that occurs when the coin is caught by clapping two hands together gives a discrete value (heads or tails) that depends on the context (orientation of the hands). Read More


We present how to implement the special relativity in computer games. The resultant relativistic world exactly shows the time dilation and Lorentz contraction, not only for the player but also for all the non-player characters, who obey the correct relativistic equation of motion according to their own accelerations. The causality is explicitly maintained in our formulation by use of the covariant velocities, proper times, worldlines, and light cones. Read More


The spider silk is one of the most interesting bio-materials investigated in the last years. One of the main reasons that brought scientists to study this organized system is its high level of resistance if compared to other artificial materials characterized by higher density. Subsequently, researchers discovered that the spider silk is a complex system formed by different kinds of proteins, organized (or disorganized) to guarantee the required resistance, which is function of the final application and of the environmental conditions. Read More


A simple junior-level electrodynamics problem is used to illustrate the interference between a source-free standing plane wave and a wave generated by a pulse in a current sheet. Depending upon the relative phases between the standing wave and the current pulse and also upon the relative magnitudes, we can find quite different patterns of emitted energy and momentum. If the source gives a large radiation pulse so that the source-free plane wave can be neglected, then the radiation spreads out symmetrically on either side of the current sheet. Read More


The propagation of waves in the nonlinear acoustic metamaterials (NAMs) is fundamentally different from that in the conventional linear ones. In this article we consider two one-dimensional NAM systems featuring respectively a diatomic and a tetratomic meta unit-cell. We investigate the attenuation of the wave, the band structure and the bifurcations to demonstrate novel nonlinear effects, which can significantly expand the bandwidth for elastic wave suppression and cause nonlinear wave phenomena. Read More


We report experimental and theoretical investigations of coherent perfect channeling (CPC), a process that two incoming coherent waves in waveguides are completely channeled into one or two other waveguides with little energy dissipation via strong coherent interaction between the two waves mediated by a deep subwavelength dimension scatterer at the common junction of the waveguides. Two such scatterers for acoustic waves are discovered, one confirmed by experiments and the other predicted by theory, and their scattering matrices are formulated. Scatterers with other CPC scattering matrices are explored, and preliminary investigations of their properties are conducted. Read More


We study acoustic modes of a close-packed hexagonal lattice of spheres adhered to a substrate, propagating along a high-symmetry direction. The model, accounting for both normal and shear coupling between the spheres and between the spheres and the substrate, yields three contact-based vibrational modes involving both translational and rotational motion of the spheres. Furthermore, we study the effect of sphere-substrate and sphere-sphere contacts on spheroidal vibrational modes of the spheres within a perturbative approach. Read More


In this paper the conditions are investigated for the occurrence of the so-called macroscopic irreversibility property and the related phenomenon of decay to kinetic equilibrium which may characterize the $1-$body probability density function (PDF) associated with hard-sphere systems. The problem is set in the framework of the axiomatic "ab initio" approach to classical statistical mechanics recently developed [Tessarotto \textit{et al}., 2013-2017] and the related establishment of an exact kinetic equation realized by Master equation for the same kinetic PDF. Read More


Phase compensated optical fiber links enable high accuracy atomic clocks separated by thousands of kilometers to be compared with unprecedented statistical resolution. By searching for a daily variation of the frequency difference between four strontium optical lattice clocks in different locations throughout Europe connected by such links, we improve upon previous tests of time dilation predicted by special relativity. We obtain a constraint on the Robertson--Mansouri--Sexl parameter $|\alpha|\lesssim 1. Read More


It is well known that, in the context of General Relativity, some spacetimes, when described by a congruence of comoving observers, may consist in a distribution of a perfect (non-dissipative) fluid, whereas the same spacetime as seen by a "tilted"' (Lorentz-boosted) congruence of observers, may exhibit the presence of dissipative processes. As we shall see, the appearence of entropy producing processes are related to the tight dependence of entropy on the specific congruence of observers. This fact is well illustrated by the Gibbs paradox. Read More


We apply the transformation-optics approach to the design of a metamaterial radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased-array antenna. For moderate enhancement of the scanning angle, via suitable parameterization and optimization of the coordinate transformation, we obtain a design that admits a technologically viable, robust and potentially broadband implementation in terms of thin-metallic-plate inclusions. Our results, validated via finite-element-based numerical simulations, indicate an alternative route to the design of metamaterial radomes which does not require negative-valued and/or extreme constitutive parameters. Read More


For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties in the theory of synchrotron radiation, the concept of effective spectral width is introduced. In the classical theory, numeric calculations of effective spectral width (using an effective width not exceeding 100 harmonics) for polarization components of synchrotron radiation are carried out. The dependence of the effective spectral width and initial harmonic on the energy of a radiating particle is established. Read More


Shift of higher harmonic peak in the spectrum of synchrotron radiation with increasing energy of the radiating particle is investigated by numerical method. Calculations were carried out for the range till 100 harmonics for all polarization components. Read More


Quasi-lossless and asymmetric sound transports, which are exceedingly desirable in various modern physical systems, are almost based on nonlinear or angular-momentum biasing effects with extremely high power levels and complex modulation schemes. A practical route for the steerable sound transport along any arbitrary acoustic pathway, especially in a 3D acoustic network, could revolutionize the sound power flow and the sound communication. Here, we design an acoustic device consisting of a regular-tetrahedral cavity with four cylindrical waveguides. Read More


We propose the design of an impedance matching acoustic bend in this article. The bending structure is composed of sub-wavelength unit cells with perforated plates and side pipes, whose mass density and bulk modulus can be tuned simultaneously. So the refraction index and the impedance of the acoustic bend can be modulated simultaneously to guarantee both the bending effect and the high transmission. Read More


We present a complete resolution of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy . This is done by considering several new aspects which invalidate previous discussions. We show that: 1)For polarized matter the center of mass theorem is no longer valid in its usual form. Read More


We study the incompressible limit of a pressure correction MAC scheme [3] for the unstationary compressible barotropic Navier-Stokes equations. Provided the initial data are well-prepared, the solution of the numerical scheme converges, as the Mach number tends to zero, towards the solution of the classical pressure correction inf-sup stable MAC scheme for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Read More


A technique to derive the propagation characteristics and field distributions of waves guided by scalar and tensorial reactance surfaces modulated by periodic or discrete Fourier spectrum functions in the propagation direction is presented. The method, based on an equivalent lumped circuits approach, can be seen as a generalization of the Oliner method for the TM propagation on scalar sinusoidally modulated reactance surfaces. Numerical results are obtained for both surface wave and leaky wave solutions. Read More


We investigate the effects of non-Hermiticity on topological pumping, and uncover a connection between a topological edge invariant based on topological pumping and the winding numbers of exceptional points. In Hermitian lattices, it is known that the topologically nontrivial regime of the topological pump only arises in the infinite-system limit. In finite non-Hermitian lattices, however, topologically nontrivial behavior can also appear. Read More


Phononic bandgaps of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) were computationally determined by treating them as phononic crystals comprising identical microfibers arranged either on a square or a hexagonal lattice. The microfibers could be columnar,chevronic, or helical in shape, and the host medium could be either water or air. All bandgaps were observed to lie in the 0. Read More


Doped SrTiO$_3$ is a superconducting oxide that features one of the lowest charge carrier densities among all known superconductors. Undoped, semiconducting SrTiO$_3$ exhibits three unoccupied electronic bands, which can be filled successively by doping, making this system an ideal candidate for multiband superconductivity. The increase of charge carrier density is accompanied by the evolution of a superconducting dome in the phase diagram with critical temperature $T_\mathrm{c}$ of up to 0. Read More


We examine the shape of droplets atop deformable thin elastomeric films prepared with an anisotropic tension. As the droplets generate a deformation in the taut film through capillary forces, they assume a shape that is elongated along the high tension direction. By measuring the contact line profile, the tension in the membrane can be completely determined. Read More


The aim of this communication is to correct inaccurate statements presented in a Commentary on the paper titled: "Radiation forces and torque on a rigid elliptical cylinder in acoustical plane progressive and (quasi)standing waves with arbitrary incidence" [Phys. Fluids 28, 077104 (2016)]. Read More


An approach for analytical description of unsteady heat transfer in harmonic lattices is presented. Evolution of initial temperature field in infinite lattice is investigated. Dynamics equations for scalar lattices are written in a form valid for longitudinal and transverse vibrations of chains and for out-of-plane vibrations of two-dimensional lattices. Read More


A memristor is one of four fundamental two-terminal solid elements in electronics. In addition with the resistor, the capacitor and the inductor, this passive element relates the electric charges to current in solid state elements. Here we report the existence of a thermal analog for this element made with metal-insulator transition materials. Read More


The behavior of spinning particles in the stationary homogeneous electric field is considered and trajectories are found for various spin orientations. We study the acceleration of spinning particles by an electric field, as well as the electric and magnetic deflection in constant homogeneous fields. It is shown that the classical Lorentz-Einstein theory of motion of charged particles is a special case of the proposed theory Read More


We investigate the use of a dynamic metasurface as the transmitting antenna for a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system. The dynamic metasurface consists of a one-dimensional microstrip waveguide with complementary electric resonator (cELC) elements patterned into the upper conductor. Integrated into each of the cELCs are two diodes that can be used to shift each cELC resonance out of band with an applied voltage. Read More


We propose and experimentally achieve a directional dipole field radiated by an omnidirectional monopole source enclosed in a subwavelength structure of acoustically hybrid resonances. The whole structure has its every dimension at an order smaller than the sound wavelength. The significance is that the radiation efficiency is up to 2. Read More


We present three natural but distinct formalisations of Einstein's special principle of relativity, and demonstrate the relationships between them. In particular, we prove that they are logically distinct, but that they can be made equivalent by introducing a small number of additional, intuitively acceptable axioms. Read More


The aim of this work is to show that particle mechanics, both classical and quantum, Hamiltonian and Lagrangian, can be derived from few simple physical assumptions. Assuming deterministic and reversible time evolution will give us a dynamical system whose set of states forms a topological space and whose law of evolution is a self-homeomorphism. Assuming the system is infinitesimally reducible---specifying the state and the dynamics of the whole system is equivalent to giving the state and the dynamics of its infinitesimal parts---will give us a classical Hamiltonian system. Read More


Hyperbolic metamaterials are strongly anisotropic artificial composite materials at a subwavelength scale and can greatly widen the engineering feasibilities for manipulation of wave propagation. However, limited by the empirical structure topologies, the previously reported hyperbolic elastic metamaterials (HEMMs) suffer from the limitations of relatively narrow frequency width, inflexible adjusting operating subwavelength scale and being difficult to further ameliorate imaging resolution. Here, we develop an inverse-design approach for HEMMs by topology optimization based on the effective medium theory. Read More


We consider the relativistic generalization of the problem of the "least uncomfortable" linear trajectory from point A to point B. The traditional problem minimizes the time-integrated squared acceleration (termed the "discomfort"), and there is a universal solution for all distances and durations. This universality fails when the maximum speed of the trajectory becomes relativistic, and we consider the more general case of minimizing the squared proper acceleration over a proper time. Read More


In the present article the classical problem of electromagnetic scattering by a single homogeneous sphere is revisited. Main focus is the study of the scattering behavior as a function of the material contrast and the size parameters for all electric and magnetic resonances of a dielectric sphere. Specifically, the Pad\'e approximants are introduced and utilized as an alternative system expansion of the Mie coefficients. Read More


Manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by thin and planar devices, known as metasurfaces, has been extensively studied, in view of many important applications. Reflective and refractive metasurfaces are designed using the generalized reflection and Snell's laws, which tell that local phase shifts at the metasurface supply extra momentum to the wave, presumably allowing arbitrary control of reflected or transmitted waves. However, as it has been recently shown for the electromagnetic counterpart, conventional metasurfaces based on the generalized laws of reflection and refraction have important drawbacks in terms of power efficiency. Read More


The screened Coulomb interaction between a pair of infinite parallel planes with spatially varying surface charge is considered in the limit of small electrical potentials for arbitrary Debye lengths. A simple expression for the disjoining pressure is derived in terms of a two dimensional integral in Fourier space. The integral is evaluated for periodic and random charge distributions and the disjoining pressure is expressed as a sum over Fourier-Bloch reciprocal lattice vectors or in terms of an integral involving the autocorrelation function respectively. Read More


We provide an experimental framework where periodically driven PT-symmetric systems can be investigated. The set-up, consisting of two UHF oscillators coupled by a time-dependent capacitance, demonstrates a cascade of PT-symmetric broken domains bounded by exceptional point degeneracies. These domains are analyzed and understood using an equivalent Floquet frequency lattice with local PT-symmetry. Read More


We introduce unusual electromagnetic disturbances resembling rings, loops, links, globules, lines, knots, roses and clouds. Each of these is an exact solution of Maxwell's equations with looped electric and magnetic field lines of finite extent, a localised appearance in all three spatial dimensions and a monochromatic time dependence. The generation of our unusual electromagnetic disturbances in the laboratory is briefly considered and some possible directions for future research are highlighted. Read More


The most general linear and local set of boundary conditions, involving relations between the normal components of the D and B vectors and tangential components of the E and H vectors at each point of the boundary, are considered in this paper. Reflection of a plane wave from a boundary defined by general conditions in an isotropic half space is analyzed and an analytic expression for the reflection dyadic is derived. It is shown that any plane wave can be decomposed in two components which do not interact in reflection. Read More


We investigate the q-statistics of n harmonic oscillators appealing to the mathematical tools used in [EPJB 89, 150 (2016) and arXiv:1702.03535 (2017)] We obtain both bound and unbound states and also detect gravitational effects. Read More


After a short critique of the Minkowski formulae for the electromagnetic constitutive laws in moving media, we argue that in actual fact the problem of Lorentz-covariant electromagnetic response theory is automatically solved within the framework of modern microscopic electrodynamics of materials. As an illustration, we first rederive the well-known relativistic transformation behavior of the microscopic conductivity tensor. Thereafter, we deduce from first principles the long-sought-after transformation law of the wavevector- and frequency-dependent dielectric tensor under Lorentz boost transformations. Read More


A general method of description of a spontaneously polarized isotropic dielectric is constructed. It is based on the Maxwell equations for a medium and on the statistical averaging of the sources of spontaneous polarization (dipoles or multipoles). We show that the sources of spontaneous polarization in the Maxwell equations should be considered as conditionally foreign charges. Read More


In this work a design is proposed for an active, permanent magnet based, self-propelled magnetic bearing i.e. levitating motor having the following features : (a) simple winding structure, (b) high load supporting capacity, (c) no eccentricity sensors, (d) stable confinement in all translational dimensions, (e) stable confinement in all rotational dimensions and (f) high efficiency. Read More


Surface scattering of neutral helium beams created by supersonic expansion is an established technique for measuring structural and dynamical properties of surfaces on the atomic scale. Helium beams have also been used in Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction experiments. Due to the short wavelength of the atom beams of typically 0. Read More


This paper describes an efficient algorithm for computing steady two-dimensional surface gravity wave in irrotational motion. The algorithm complexity is O(N log N), N being the number of Fourier modes. The algorithm allows the arbitrary precision computation of waves in arbitrary depth, i. Read More


The paradox of a free falling radiating charged particle in a gravitational field, is a well-known fascinating conceptual challenge that involves classical electrodynamics and general relativity. We discuss this paradox considering the emission of radiation as a consequence of an explicit space/time symmetry breaking involving the electric field within the trajectory of the particle seen from an external observer. This occurs in certain particular cases when the relative motion of the charged particle does not follow a geodesic of the motion dictated by the explicit Lagrangian formulation of the problem and thus from the metric of spacetime. Read More