Physics - Chemical Physics Publications (50)

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Physics - Chemical Physics Publications

We theoretically and experimentally investigate colloid-oil-water-interface interactions of charged, sterically stabilized, poly(methyl-methacrylate) colloidal particles dispersed in a low-polar oil (dielectric constant $\epsilon=5-10$) that is in contact with an adjacent water phase. In this model system, the colloidal particles cannot penetrate the oil-water interface due to repulsive van der Waals forces with the interface whereas the multiple salts that are dissolved in the oil are free to partition into the water phase. The sign and magnitude of the Donnan potential and/or the particle charge is affected by these salt concentrations such that the effective interaction potential can be highly tuned. Read More


By explicitly including fractionally ionic contributions to the polarizability of a many-component system we are able to significantly improve on previous atom-wise many-body van der Waals approaches with essentially no extra numerical cost. For non-ionic systems our method is comparable in accuracy to existing approaches. However, it offers substantial improvements in ionic solids, e. Read More


The influence of the surface curvature on the surface tension of small droplets in equilibrium with a surrounding vapour, or small bubbles in equilibrium with a surrounding liquid, can be expanded as $\gamma(R) = \gamma_0 + c_1\gamma_0/R + O(1/R^2)$, where $R = R_\gamma$ is the radius of the surface of tension and $\gamma_0$ is the surface tension of the planar interface, corresponding to zero curvature. According to Tolman's law, the first-order coefficient in this expansion is assumed to be related to the planar limit $\delta_0$ of the Tolman length, i.e. Read More


Neural networks are being used to make new types of empirical chemical models as inexpensive as force fields, but with accuracy close to the ab-initio methods used to build them. Besides modeling potential energy surfaces, neural-nets can provide qualitative insights and make qualitative chemical trends quantitatively predictable. In this work we present a neural-network that predicts the energies of molecules as a sum of bond energies. Read More


The prototypical Hydrogen bond in water dimer and Hydrogen bonds in the protonated water dimer, in other small molecules, in water cyclic clusters, and in ice, covering a wide range of bond strengths, are theoretically investigated by first-principles calculations based on the Density Functional Theory, considering a standard Generalized Gradient Approximation functional but also, for the water dimer, hybrid and van-der-Waals corrected functionals. We compute structural, energetic, and electrostatic (induced molecular dipole moments) properties. In particular, Hydrogen bonds are characterized in terms of differential electron densities distributions and profiles, and of the shifts of the centres of Maximally localized Wannier Functions. Read More


We present a nonlocal electrostatic formulation of nonuniform ions and water molecules with interstitial voids that uses a Fermi-like distribution to account for steric and correlation effects in electrolyte solutions. The formulation is based on the volume exclusion of hard spheres leading to a steric potential and Maxwell's displacement field with Yukawa-type interactions resulting in a nonlocal electric potential. The classical Poisson-Boltzmann model fails to describe steric and correlation effects important in a variety of chemical and biological systems, especially in high field or large concentration conditions found in and near binding sites, ion channels, and electrodes. Read More


Scalable quantum technologies will require an unprecedented combination of precision and complexity for designing stable structures of well-controllable quantum systems. It is a challenging task to find a suitable elementary building block, of which a quantum network can be comprised in a scalable way. Here we present the working principle of such a basic unit, engineered using molecular chemistry, whose control and readout are executed using a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Read More


Quantum Tunneling is ubiquitous across different fields, from quantum chemical reactions, and magnetic materials to quantum simulators and quantum computers. While simulating the real-time quantum dynamics of tunneling is infeasible for high-dimensional systems, quantum tunneling also shows up in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations that scale polynomially with system size. Here we extend a recent results obtained for quantum spin models {[{Phys. Read More


Comparative molecular dynamics simulations of a hexamer cluster of the protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate are performed using density functional theory (DFT) and density functional-based tight binding (DFTB) methods. The focus is on assessing the performance of the DFTB approach to describe the dynamics and infrared spectroscopic signatures of hydrogen bonding between the ions. Average geometries and geometric correlations are found to be rather similar. Read More


We show that the theoretical predictions on high energy behavior of the photoionization cross section of fullerenes depends crucially on the form of the function $V(r)$ which approximates the fullerene field. The shape of the high energy cross section is obtained without solving of the wave equation. The cross section energy dependence is determined by the analytical properties of the function $V(r)$. Read More


Water splitting allows the storage of solar energy into chemical bonds (H2+O2) and will help to implement the urgently needed replacement of limited available fossil fuels. Particularly in neutral environment electrochemically initiated water splitting suffers from low efficiency due to high overpotentials caused by the anode. Electro-activation of X20CoCrWMo10-9, a Co-based tool steel resulted in a new composite material (X20CoCrWMo10-9//Co3O4) that catalyzes the anode half-cell reaction of water electrolysis with a so far unequalled effectiveness. Read More


Understanding the thermally activated escape from a metastable state is at the heart of important phenomena such as the folding dynamics of proteins, the kinetics of chemical reactions or the stability of mechanical systems. In 1940 Kramers calculated escape rates both in the high damping and the low damping regime and suggested that the rate must have a maximum for intermediate damping. This phenomenon, today known as the Kramers turnover, has triggered important theoretical and numerical studies. Read More


Resonance energy transfer (RET) is an inherently anisotropic process. Even the simplest, well-known F\"orster theory, based on the transition dipole-dipole coupling, implicitly incorporates the anisotropic character of RET. In this theoretical work, we study possible signatures of the fundamental anisotropic character of RET in hybrid nanomaterials composed of a semiconductor nanoparticle (NP) decorated with molecular dyes. Read More


Self-diffusion and NMR relaxation of ethylammonium (EA) cations were studied in the protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) confined between parallel polar glass plates separated by a few um as a function of time after placement in a magnetic field of 9.40 T. Immediately after sample placement, the diffusion coefficient of EA (D) increased by a factor of 2, while the transverse NMR relaxation of NH3 protons decreased by factors of up to 22 in comparison with bulk EAN, according to previously published data. Read More


A comparison of the performance of high resolution lithographic tools is presented here. We use extreme ultraviolet interference lithography, electron beam lithography, and He ion beam lithography tools on two different resists that are processed under the same conditions. The dose-to-clear and the lithographic contrast are determined experimentally and are used to compare the relative efficiency of each tool. Read More


Modulating heterogeneous microstructure in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) by external stimuli is an important approach for understanding and designing the external field induced chemical reactions in natural and applicable systems. Here, we report for the first time the redistribution of oxygen molecules in RTILs due to laser-induced microstructure changes probed by triplet excited state dynamics of porphyrin and rotational dynamics of coumarin 153. A remarkably long-lived triplet excited state of porphyrin is observed in air-saturated ionic liquid with the changes of microstructure after irradiation, suggesting that more charge-shifted O2 induced by external laser field move into the polar domains of ionic liquid [C8mim][PF6] from nonpolar domains through electrostatic interactions. Read More


Janus type Water-Splitting Catalysts have attracted highest attention as a tool of choice for solar to fuel conversion. AISI Ni 42 steel was upon harsh anodization converted in a bifunctional electrocatalyst. Oxygen evolution reaction- (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are highly efficiently and steadfast catalyzed at pH 7, 13, 14, 14. Read More


The concept of seniority number is generalized, as well as that of seniority number operator. It affords to define new hierarchies of configuration interaction spaces. The usefulness of such a hierarchy is illustrated on the buckminsterfullerene system treated at the H{\"u}ckel level of theory. Read More


The nature of excited states of open quantum systems produced by incoherent natural thermal light is analyzed based on a description of the generator of the dynamics. Natural thermal light is shown to generate long-lasting coherent dynamics because of (i) the super-Ohmic character of the radiation, and (ii) the absence of pure dephasing dynamics. In the presence of an environment, the long-lasting coherences induced by suddenly turned-on incoherent light dissipate and stationary coherences are established. Read More


In the present article, we show how to formulate the partially contracted n-electron valence second order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) energies in the atomic and active molecular orbital basis by employing the Laplace transformation of orbital-energy denominators (OED). As atomic-orbital (AO) basis functions are inherently localized and the number of active orbitals is comparatively small, our formulation is particularly suited for a linearly-scaling NEVPT2 implementation. Some of the NEVPT2 energy contributions can be formulated completely in the AO basis as single-reference second-order M{\o}ller-Plesset perturbation theory and benefit from sparse active-pseudo density matrices - particularly if the active molecular orbitals are localized only in parts of a molecule. Read More


We investigate the energetics of the atom exchange reaction in the SrF+alkali-metal atom and CaF+alkali-metal atom systems to explore the prospects for sympathetic cooling of these molecules using ultracold atoms. Such reaction is possible only for collisions of SrF and CaF with the lithium atoms, while for other alkali-metal atoms it is energetically forbidden. We focus more on SrF interacting with Li, Rb and Sr atoms, and use {\it ab initio} methods to demonstrate that the SrF+Li and SrF+Sr reactions are barrierless. Read More


Studying chemical reactions at very low temperatures is of importance for the understanding of fundamental physical and chemical processes. At very low energies, collisions are dominated by only a few partial waves. Thus, studies in this regime allow the characterisation of quantum effects which depend on the collisional angular momentum, e. Read More


Our published and new experimental results by means of deuteron NMR spectroscopy in studies of molecular mobility in confinement are summarized and annalysed. Conclusions about limits of applicability of methods in disclosing several features are achieved. A set of molecules: D2, CD4, D2O, ND3, CD3OD and (CD3)2CO was chosen and introduced into zeolites with faujasite structure. Read More


Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations for systems with large active spaces are notoriously difficult and cannot be successfully tackled by standard methods. In this letter, we generalize a Green's function QM/QM embedding method called self-energy embedding theory (SEET) that has the potential to be successfully employed to treat large active spaces. In generalized SEET, active orbitals are grouped into intersecting groups of few orbitals allowing us to perform multiple parallel calculations yielding results comparable to the full active space treatment. Read More


The Wannier localization problem in quantum physics is mathematically analogous to finding a localized representation of a subspace corresponding to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. While Wannier localization is well understood for insulating materials with isolated eigenvalues, less is known for metallic systems with entangled eigenvalues. Currently, the most widely used method for treating systems with entangled eigenvalues is to first obtain a reduced subspace (often referred to as disentanglement) and then to solve the Wannier localization problem by treating the reduced subspace as an isolated system. Read More


First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density uctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. Read More


Given a partitioning of a large quantum mechanical (QM) system into small subsystems, we present a simple way of modeling the long range electrostatic potential of the individual fragments via a set of multipoles. Applied to environmental fragments, this leads to an effective electrostatic embedding of the active QM region, without notable loss of precision. We coupled our formalism to the DFT code BigDFT, which uses a minimal set of localized in-situ optimized basis functions; this property eases the fragment definition while still describing the electronic structure with great precision. Read More


In several settings of physics and chemistry one has to deal with molecules interacting with some kind of an external environment, be it a gas, a solution, or a crystal surface. Understanding molecular processes in the presence of such a many-particle bath is inherently challenging, and usually requires large-scale numerical computations. Here, we present an alternative approach to the problem - that based on the notion of the angulon quasiparticle. Read More


Charge transfer among individual atoms in a molecule is the key concept in the modern electronic theory of chemical bonding. In this work, we defined an atomic region between two atoms by Slater orbital exponents of valence electrons and suggested a method for analytical calculation of charge penetration between all atoms in a molecule. Computation of charge penetration amount is self-consistently performed until each orbital exponent converges to its certain values respectively. Read More


Two hybrid van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DFs) are constructed using 25%, Fock exchange with i) the consistent-exchange vdW-DF-cx functional and ii) with the vdW-DF2 functional. The ability to describe covalent and non-covalent binding properties of molecules are assessed. For properties related to covalent binding, atomization energies (G2-1 set), molecular reaction energies (G2RC set), as well as ionization energies (G21IP set) are benchmarked against experimental reference values. Read More


A model of localized electron wave packets (WPs) with variable position and width (floating and breathing) that are spin-coupled as per the valence-bond theory is presented. It produces accurate potential energy curves of LiH in the ground singlet and triplet states. Quantization in a mean-field approximation of the motion of a WP that corresponds to the Li 2s electron generates semi-quantitative potential energy curves of low energy excited states. Read More


Upon hydrogen bond formation, electronic charge density is transferred between the donor and acceptor, impacting processes ranging from hydration to spectroscopy. Here we use ab initio path integral simulations to elucidate the role of nuclear quantum effects in determining the charge transfer in a range of hydrogen bonded species in the gas and liquid phase. We show that the quantization of the nuclei gives rise to large changes in the magnitude of the charge transfer as well as its temperature dependence. Read More


H$_2^+$ is an ideal candidate for a detailed study of strong field coherent control strategies inspired by basic mechanisms referring to some specific photodissociation resonances. Two of them are considered in this work, namely: Zero-width resonances (ZWR) on one hand, and coalescing pairs of resonances at exceptional points (EP) on the other hand. An adiabatic transport theory based on Floquet Hamiltonian formalism is developed within the challenging context of multiphoton dynamics involving nuclear continua. Read More


The positive definite Kohn-Sham kinetic energy(KS-KE) density plays crucial role in designing semilocal meta generalized gradient approximations(meta-GGAs) for low dimensional quantum systems. It has been rigorously shown that near nucleus and at the asymptotic region, the KE-KS differ from its von Weizs\"{a}cker(VW) counterpart as contributions from different orbitals (i.e. Read More


A hybrid stochastic-deterministic approach for computing the second-order perturbative contribution $E^{(2)}$ within multireference perturbation theory (MRPT) is presented. The idea at the heart of our hybrid scheme $-$ based on a reformulation of $E^{(2)}$ as a sum of elementary contributions associated with each determinant of the MR wave function $-$ is to split $E^{(2)}$ into a stochastic and a deterministic part. During the simulation, the stochastic part is gradually reduced by dynamically increasing the deterministic part until one reaches the desired accuracy. Read More


Biomolecular machines consume free energy to break symmetry and make directed progress. Nonequilibrium ATP concentrations are the typical free-energy source, with one cycle of a molecular machine consuming a certain number of ATP, providing a fixed free-energy budget. Since evolution is expected to favor rapid-turnover machines that operate efficiently, we investigate how this free-energy budget can be distributed to maximize flux. Read More


We develop a generalization of the density functional theory + Hubbard $U$ (DFT+$U$) method to the excited-state regime, in the form of Hubbard $U$ corrected linear-response time-dependent DFT or 'TDDFT+$U$'. Combined with calculated linear-response Hubbard $U$ parameters, this represents a computationally light, first-principles method for the simulation of tightly-bound excitons on transition-metal ions and more generally. In detailed calculations on closed-shell nickel coordination complexes, we find that the exchange-like Hubbard $U$ correction to the TDDFT interaction kernel acts to substantially mitigate the excitation energy increase with $U$ in the underlying Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. Read More


We present a new wavefunction ansatz that combines the technique of spin projection with the language of matrix product states (MPS) and matrix product operators (MPO) as used in the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Specifically, spin-projected matrix product states (SP-MPS) are constructed as $|\Psi^{(N,S,M)}_{SP-MPS}\rangle=\mathcal{P}_S|\Psi_{MPS}^{(N,M)}\rangle$, where $\mathcal{P}_S$ is the spin projector for total spin $S$ and $|\Psi_{MPS}^{(N,M)}\rangle$ is an MPS wavefunction with a given particle number $N$ and spin projection $M$. This new ansatz possesses several attractive features: (1) It provides a much simpler route to achieve spin-adaptation (i. Read More


The inverse problem of density functional theory (DFT) is often solved in an effort to benchmark and design approximate exchange-correlation potentials. The forward and inverse problems of DFT rely on the same equations but the numerical methods for solving each problem are substantially different. We examine both problems in this tutorial with a special emphasis on the algorithms and error analysis needed for solving the inverse problem. Read More


The redistribution of energy levels between energy bands is studied for a family of simple effective Hamiltonians depending on one control parameter and possessing axial symmetry and energy-reflection symmetry. Further study is made on the topological phase transition in the corresponding semi-quantum and completely classical models, and finally the image of the energy-momentum map for the classical model is quantized in a semi-classical treatment. Through these comparative analyses, mutual correspondence is demonstrated to exist among the redistribution of energy levels between energy bands for the quantum Hamiltonian, the modification of Chern numbers of eigenline bundles for the corresponding semi-quantum Hamiltonian, and the presence of Hamiltonian monodromy for the complete classical analog. Read More


Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has been extensively applied to probe interfacial water in many interdisciplinary fields but the disturbance of the probes on the hydrogen-bonding structure of water has remained an intractable problem. Here we report submolecular-resolution imaging of the water clusters on a NaCl(001) surface within the nearly non-invasive region by a qPlus-based noncontact atomic force microscopy. Comparison with theoretical simulations reveals that the key lies in probing the weak high-order electrostatic force between the quadrupole-like CO-terminated tip and the polar water molecules at large tip-water distances. Read More


We propose a surface hopping Gaussian beam method to numerically solve a class of high frequency linear transport systems in high spatial dimensions, based on asymptotic analysis. The stochastic surface hopping is combined with Gaussian beam method to deal with the multiple characteristic directions of the transport system in high dimensions. The Monte Carlo nature of the proposed algorithm makes it easy for parallel implementations. Read More


It is well known in enzyme kinetics that the Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation is applicable only to enzymes in the steady state. We show that the result obtained in the previous work [Phys. Rev. Read More


A software package, called DFTBaby, is published, which provides the electronic structure needed for running non-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations at the level of charge-consistent tight-binding DFT. A long-range correction is incorporated to avoid spurious charge transfer states. Excited state energies, their analytic gradients and scalar non-adiabatic couplings are computed using tight-binding TD-DFT. Read More


We propose a systematic approach to the basis set extension for nonadiabatic dynamics of entangled combination of nuclear coherent states (CSs) evolving according to the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). TDVP provides a rigorous framework for fully quantum nonadiabatic dynamics of closed systems, however, quality of results strongly depends on available basis functions. Starting with a single nuclear CS replicated vertically on all electronic states, our approach clones this function when replicas of the CS on different electronic states experience increasingly different forces. Read More


Single ion solvation free energies are one of the most important properties of electrolyte solution and yet there is ongoing debate about what these values are. Experimental methods can only determine the values for neutral ion pairs. Here, we use DFT interaction potentials with molecular dynamics simulation (DFT-MD) combined with a modified version of the quasi-chemical theory (QCT) to calculate these energies for the lithium and fluoride ions. Read More


A proposal to link the equation of state of a monocomponent hard-disk fluid to the equation of state of a polydisperse hard-disk mixture mixture is presented. Event-driven molecular dynamics simulations, performed to obtain data for the compressibility factor of the monocomponent fluid and of polydisperse mixtures with different size distributions, are used to assess the proposal and to infer the values of the compressibility factor of the monocomponent hard-disk fluid in the metastable region from those of mixtures in the high-density region. The collapse of the curves for the different mixtures is excellent in the stable region. Read More


The ability of metallic nanoparticles to supply heat to a liquid environment under exposure to an external optical field has attracted growing interest for biomedical applications. Controlling the thermal transport properties at a solid-liquid interface then appears to be particularly relevant. In this work, we address the thermal transport between water and a gold surface coated by a polymer layer. Read More


A quasi-relativistic two-component approach for an efficient calculation of $\mathcal{P,T}$-odd interactions caused by a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is presented. The approach uses a (two-component) complex generalized Hartree-Fock (cGHF) and a complex generalized Kohn-Sham (cGKS) scheme within the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA). In applications to select heavy-elemental polar diatomic molecular radicals, which are promising candidates for an eEDM experiment, the method is compared to relativistic four-component electron-correlation calculations and confirms values for the effective electrical field acting on the unpaired electron for RaF, BaF, YbF and HgF. Read More


We study several aspects of the recently introduced fixed-phase spin-orbit diffusion Monte Carlo (FPSODMC) method, in particular, its relation to the fixed-node method and its potential use as a general approach for electronic structure calculations. We illustrate constructions of spinor-based wave functions with the full space-spin symmetry without assigning up or down spin labels to particular electrons, effectively "complexifying" even ordinary real-valued wave functions. Interestingly, with proper choice of the simulation parameters and spin variables, such fixed-phase calculations enable one to reach also the fixed-node limit. Read More