# Physics - Atomic Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Atomic Physics Publications

We study the influence of atomic interactions on quantum simulations in momentum-space lattices (MSLs), where driven atomic transitions between discrete momentum states mimic transport between sites of a synthetic lattice. Low energy atomic collisions, which are short ranged in real space, relate to nearly infinite-ranged interactions in momentum space. However, the distinguishability of the discrete momentum states coupled in MSLs gives rise to an added exchange energy between condensate atoms in different momentum orders, relating to an effectively attractive, finite-ranged interaction in momentum space. Read More

We have calculated the ground state spectroscopic constants and the molecular properties, of a molecular ion BeLi + , such as dipole moment, quadrupole moment and dipole polarizability at different levels of correlation: many-body perturbation theory (MP2), coupled cluster method with single and double excitations (CCSD) and CCSD with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)). The correlation consistent polarized valence cc-pVXZ (X=D, T, Q) basis sets and also their augmented counterparts are used together with the non-relativistic and relativistic Hamiltonians. The results are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit (CBS) using exponential-Gaussian function. Read More

The refractive index of silicon at $\gamma$-ray energies from 181 - 1959 keV was investigated using the GAMS6 double crystal spectrometer and found to follow the predictions of the classical scattering model. This is in contrast to earlier measurements on the GAMS5 spectrometer, which suggested a sign-change in the refractive index for photon energies above 500 keV. We present a re-evaluation of the original data from 2011 as well as data from a 2013 campaign in which we show that systematic errors due to diffraction effects of the prism can explain the earlier data. Read More

A two-step, two-color laser spectroscopy technique has been used to measure the hyperfine splitting of the $8p$ excited states in $^{203}$Tl and $^{205}$Tl, as well as the $7s - 8p$ transition isotope shifts. The same experimental scheme was used to measure the hyperfine splitting of the $^{115}$In $7p_{1/2}$ state and the hyperfine $a$, $b$, and $c$ constants within the $7p_{3/2}$ state. Our results improve the precision of earlier measurements by factors ranging from 2 to 30. Read More

Optical clock interrogation protocols, based on laser-pulse spectroscopy, are suffering from important variations of probe-induced frequency-shifts and laser power due to decoherence and relaxation by spontaneous emission or collisions below fractional frequency changes of $10^{-18}$. We propose to solve the fundamental problem of frequency-shifts induced by laser probe by deriving the exact canonical form of a multi-pulse generalized Hyper-Ramsey (GHR) resonance, including dissipative processes. We present a universal laser frequency stabilization scheme based on composite optical-pulse spectroscopy for fermionic and bosonic clock transitions, eliminating probe-induced frequency-shifts at all orders, using a magic combination of $\pm\pi/4$ and $\pm3\pi/4$ phase-modulated resonances. Read More

In the domain of quantum degenerate atomic gases, much interest has been raised recently by the use of Lanthanide atoms with large magnetic moments, in particular Dysprosium and Erbium. These species have been successfully brought to quantum degeneracy and are now excellent candidates for quantum simulations of physical phenom- ena due to long-range interactions. In this short article, we report on the progresses in the construction of a new experiment on Bose-Einstein condensation of Dysprosium atoms. Read More

The photon-ion merged-beams technique for the photoionization of mass/charge selected ionized atoms, molecules and clusters by x-rays from synchrotron radiation sources is introduced. Examples for photoionization of atomic ions are discussed by going from outer-shell ionization of simple few-electron systems to inner-shell ionization of complex many-electron ions. Fundamental ionization mechanisms are elucidated and the importance of the results for applications in astrophysics and plasma physics is pointed out. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{2}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{3}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{4}Argonne National Laboratory,

^{5}University of Bern

We report a methodology for measuring 85Kr/Kr isotopic abundances using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) that increases sample measurement throughput by over an order of magnitude to 6 samples per 24 hours. The noble gas isotope 85Kr (half-life = 10.7 yr) is a useful tracer for young groundwater in the age range of 5-50 years. Read More

We present the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations of collision-induced fusion and fragmentation of C$_{60}$ fullerenes, performed by means of the MBN Explorer software package. The simulations provide information on the structural differences of the fused compound depending on kinematics of the collision process. The analysis of fragmentation dynamics at different initial conditions shows that the size distributions of molecular fragments produced are peaked for dimers, which is in agreement with a well-established mechanism of C$_{60}$ fragmentation via preferential C$_2$ emission. Read More

We use accurate ab initio and quantum scattering calculations to explore the prospects for sympathetic cooling of the heavy molecular radical SrOH($^2\Sigma$) by ultracold Li atoms in a magnetic trap. A two-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the triplet electronic state of Li-SrOH is calculated ab initio using the partially spin-restricted coupled cluster method with single, double and perturbative triple excitations and a large correlation-consistent basis set. The highly anisotropic PES has a deep global minimum in the skewed Li-HOSr geometry with $D_e=4932$ cm$^{-1}$ and saddle points in collinear configurations. Read More

This study addresses the effect of the magnetic hyperfine interaction on the relativistic H1s wave functions. These are used to calculate the electric, magnetic, and confinement force densities acting on the 1s electron. The magnetic field couples Dirac equations for different angular momenta. Read More

Recently a paper on the construction of consistent Wigner functions for cylindrical phase spaces S^1 x R, i.e. for the canonical pair angle and angular momentum, was presented (arXiv:1601. Read More

We report on rubidium vapor-cell Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a 0.7~T magnetic field where all involved levels are in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime, and the Rydberg state exhibits a strong diamagnetic interaction with the magnetic field. Signals from both $^{85}\mathrm{Rb}$ and $^{87}\mathrm{Rb}$ are present in the EIT spectra. Read More

The mechanical action of light on atoms is nowadays a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics. In the semiclassical regime where the atomic motion is treated classically, the computation of the mean force acting on a two-level atom requires in the most general case numerical approaches. Here we show that this problem can be tackled in a pure analytical way. Read More

Magnetic field-induced giant modification of the probabilities of five transitions of $5S_{1/2}, F_g=2 \rightarrow 5P_{3/2}, F_e=4$ of $^{85}$Rb and three transitions of $5S_{1/2}, F_g=1 \rightarrow 5P_{3/2}, F_e=3$ of $^{87}$Rb forbidden by selection rules for zero magnetic field has been observed experimentally and described theoretically for the first time. For the case of excitation with circularly-polarized ($\sigma^+$) laser radiation, the probability of $F_g=2, ~m_F=-2 \rightarrow F_e=4, ~m_F=-1$ transition becomes the largest among the seventeen transitions of $^{85}$Rb $F_g=2 \rightarrow F_e=1,2,3,4$ group, and the probability of $F_g=1,~m_F=-1 \rightarrow F_e=3,~m_F=0$ transition becomes the largest among the nine transitions of $^{87}$Rb $F_g=1 \rightarrow F_e=0,1,2,3$ group, in a wide range of magnetic field 200 -- 1000 G. Complete frequency separation of individual Zeeman components was obtained by implementation of derivative selective reflection technique with a 300 nm-thick nanocell filled with Rb, allowing formation of narrow optical resonances. Read More

We show how to emulate a conventional pump-probe scheme using a single frequency-chirped ultrashort UV pulse to obtain a time-resolved image of molecular ultrafast dynamics. The chirp introduces a spectral phase in time that encodes the delay between the pump and the probe frequencies contained in the pulse. By comparing the results of full dimensional ab initio calculations for the H$^+_2$ molecule with those of a simple sequential model, we demonstrate that, by tuning the chirp parameter, two-photon energy-differential ionization probabilities directly map the wave packet dynamics generated in the molecule. Read More

Long-range Rydberg molecules, often exemplified by "trilobite" molecules, are a subject of much recent interest at high principal quantum number $n$. We use a high-resolution pulsed amplifier to study previously-detected transitions to a low-$n$ Rydberg molecule state near the $5s+7p$ asymptote in $^{85}$Rb$_2$. The excited-state structure is modeled and a lower bound of $\tau > 1. Read More

We demonstrate a method for probing interaction effects in a thermal beam of strontium atoms using simultaneous measurements of Rydberg EIT and spontaneously created ions or electrons. We present a Doppler-averaged optical Bloch equation model that reproduces the optical signals and allows us to connect the optical coherences and the populations. We use this to determine that the spontaneous ionization process in our system occurs due to collisions between Rydberg and ground state atoms in the EIT regime. Read More

We propose an effective method to decrease the Ramsey linewidth of microwave atomic clock by tracking the coherent atomic phase through nondestructive measurement. The free evolution time T between two Ramsey pulses is divided into N subsections. In each subsection, the coherent phase of the atomic ensemble is probed by an additional large-detuning laser. Read More

Molecules are the most demanding quantum systems to be simulated by quantum computers because of their complexity and the emergent role of quantum nature. The recent theoretical proposal of Huh et al. (Nature Photon. Read More

We perform Zeeman spectroscopy on a Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system in a room-temperature Cs vapor cell, in magnetic fields up to 50~Gauss. The magnetic interaction of the $|6S_{1/2}, F_g=4 \rangle$ ground, $|6P_{3/2}, F_e=5 \rangle$ intermediate, and $|33S_{1/2} \rangle$ Rydberg states that form the ladder-type EIT system are in the linear Zeeman, quadratic Zeeman, and the deep hyperfine Paschen-Back regimes, respectively. We identify all lines observed in the EIT spectra and explain their magnetic-field and polarization-dependence. Read More

Attosecond x-ray pulses offer unprecedented opportunities for probing and triggering new types of ultrafast motion. At the same time, pulse characterization of x-rays presents new challenges that do not exist in the UV regime. Inner-shell ionization is the dominant ionization mechanism for x-rays and it is followed by secondary processes like fluorescence, Auger decay, and shake-up. Read More

Recently a scheme has been proposed for generating the 2D Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for ultracold atomic bosons in a bilayer geometry [S.-W. Su et al, Phys. Read More

Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Read More

When internal states of atoms are manipulated using coherent optical or radio-frequency (RF) radiation, it is essential to know the polarization of the radiation with respect to the quantization axis of the atom. We first present a measurement of the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the electric-field amplitude of a linearly-polarized pulsed RF electric field at $\sim 25.6\,$GHz and its angle with respect to a static electric field. Read More

The mean-field treatment of the Bose-Hubbard model predicts properties of non-zero temperature lattice-trapped gases to be insensitive to the specific lattice geometry once system energies are scaled by the lattice coordination number $z$. We test this predicted scaling directly and quantitatively by comparing the coherence properties of quantum gases prepared identically and loaded into optical lattices of either the kagome or triangular geometry, so that $z$ is either four or six, as we increase interactions and drive a phase transition between the superfluid and Mott insulating states. We find that the coherent fraction is suppressed in the kagome lattice throughout the phase transition and our data are consistent with the scaling prediction. Read More

The mathematical foundation of the so-called extended coupled-cluster method for the solution of the many-fermion Schr\"odinger equation is here developed. We prove an existence and uniqueness result, both in the full infinite-dimensional amplitude space as well as for discretized versions of it. The extended coupled-cluster method is formulated as a critical point of an energy function using a generalization of the Rayleigh-Ritz principle: the bivariational principle. Read More

Extensive self-consistent multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations are performed for the $3s^2 3p^6 3d^k$ ($k=1-9$) ground configurations of highly charged ions ($Z=72-83$). Complete and consistent data sets of \textbf{excitation energies}, wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition rates among all these levels are given. We have compared our results with the results available in the literature and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Read More

A three-dimensional semiclassical model is used to study double ionization of Ar when driven by a near-infrared and near-single-cycle laser pulse for intensities ranging from 0.85$\times$10$^{14}$ W/cm$^{2}$ to 5$\times$10$^{14}$ W/cm$^{2}$. Asymmetry parameters, distributions of the sum of the two electron momentum components along the direction of the polarization of the laser field and correlated momenta are computed as a function of intensity and of the carrier envelope phase. Read More

We demonstrate the successful experimental implementation of a multi-stage Zeeman decelerator utilizing the new concept described in the accompanying paper. The decelerator consists of an array of 25 hexapoles and 24 solenoids. The performance of the decelerator in acceleration, deceleration and guiding modes is characterized using beams of metastable Helium ($^3S$) atoms. Read More

We present a new concept for a multi-stage Zeeman decelerator that is optimized particularly for applications in molecular beam scattering experiments. The decelerator consists of a series of alternating hexapoles and solenoids, that effectively decouple the transverse focusing and longitudinal deceleration properties of the decelerator. It can be operated in a deceleration and acceleration mode, as well as in a hybrid mode that makes it possible to guide a particle beam through the decelerator at constant speed. Read More

We have laser cooled 3$\times10^6$ $^{87}$Rb atoms to 3$\mu$K in a micro-fabricated grating magneto-optical trap (GMOT), enabling future mass-deployment in highly accurate compact quantum sensors. We magnetically trap the atoms, and use Larmor spin precession for magnetic sensing in the vicinity of the atomic sample. Finally, we demonstrate an array of magneto-optical traps with a single laser beam, which will be utilised for future cold atom gradiometry. Read More

We present a two-species laser cooling apparatus capable of simultaneously collecting Rb and Hg atomic gases into a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The atomic sources, laser system, and vacuum set-up are described. While there is a loss of Rb atoms in the MOT due to photoionization by the Hg cooling laser, we show that it does not prevent simultaneous trapping of Rb and Hg. Read More

We have used laser ablation and helium buffer-gas cooling to produce the titanium-helium van der Waals molecule at cryogenic temperatures. The molecules were detected through laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Ground-state Ti-He binding energies were determined for the ground and first rotationally excited states from studying equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and found to agree well with theoretical calculations based on newly calculated ab initio Ti-He interaction potentials, opening up novel possibilities for studying the formation, dynamics, and non-universal chemistry of van der Waals clusters at low temperatures. Read More

We develop a scheme for deterministic generation of an entangled state between two atoms on different Rydberg states via a chirped adiabatic passage, which directly connects the initial ground and target entangled states and also does not request the normally needed blockade effect. The occupancy of intermediate states suffers from a strong reduction via two pulses with proper time-dependent detunings and the electromagnetically induced transparency condition. By solving the analytical expressions of eigenvalues and eigenstates of a two-atom system, we investigate the optimal parameters for guaranteeing the adiabatic condition. Read More

A photon channel perspective on high harmonic generation (HHG) is proposed by using a nonperturbative full quantum theory. It is shown that the HHG yield can be expressed as a sum of the contribution of all the photon channels. From this perspective, the contribution of a specific photon channel follows a brief analytical formula and the competition between the channels is well interpreted. Read More

Optical frequency combs (OFC) provide a convenient reference for the frequency stabilization of continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate a frequency control method relying on tracking over a wide range and stabilizing the beat note between the laser and the OFC. The approach combines fast frequency ramps on a millisecond timescale in the entire mode-hop free tuning range of the laser and precise stabilization to single frequencies. Read More

New approach to study the spontaneous emission of the atomic system in the presence of the high-intensity laser field is used to study the process of harmonic generation. The analysis is based on the consideration of quantum system interaction with quantized field modes beeing in vacuum state, while the intense laser field is considered classically beyond the perturbation theory. The numerical analysis of the emission from the single one-electron one dimensional atom irradiated by the femtosecond laser pulse of Ti-Sa laser is discussed. Read More

Systems which can spontaneously reveal periodic evolution are dubbed time crystals. This is in analogy with space crystals that display periodic behavior in configuration space. While space crystals are modelled with the help of space periodic potentials, crystalline phenomena in time can be modelled by periodically driven systems. Read More

We demonstrate parallel composite quantum logic gates with phases implemented locally through nanoscale movement of ions within a global laser beam of fixed pulse duration. We show that a simple four-pulse sequence suffices for constructing ideal arbitrary single-qubit rotations in the presence of large intensity inhomogeneities across the ion trap due to laser beam-pointing or beam-focusing. Using such sequences, we perform parallel arbitrary rotations on ions in two trapping zones separated by 700 $\mu$m with fidelities comparable to those of our standard laser-controlled gates. Read More

Ionization by relativistically intense short laser pulses is studied in the framework of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. Distinctive patterns are found in the energy probability distributions of photoelectrons. Except of the already observed patterns, which were studied in Phys. Read More

We tabulate spontaneous emission rates for all possible 811 electric-dipole-allowed transitions between the 75 lowest-energy states of Ca I. These involve the $4sns$ ($n=4-8$), $4snp$ ($n=4-7$), $4snd$ ($n=3-6$), $4snf$ ($n=4-6$), $4p^2$, and $3d4p$ electronic configurations. We compile the transition rates by carrying out ab initio relativistic calculations using the combined method of configuration interaction and many-body perturbation theory. Read More

We review experimental and theoretical efforts aimed at a detailed understanding of the recombination of electrons with highly-charged tungsten ions characterised by an open 4f sub-shell. Highly-charged tungsten occurs as a plasma contaminant in ITER-like tokamak experiments, where it acts as an unwanted cooling agent. Modelling of the charge state populations in a plasma requires reliable thermal rate coefficients for charge-changing electron collisions. Read More

Using examples of several well-known, two-body interaction models, this work finds violations of the universality of the large scattering length, $a$, limit. Two classes of underlying interactions are identified. For hard interactions the density approximately scales as $1/k^4$ for momenta that are much less than the inverse of the effective range, $r_e$. Read More

We consider a system with spin-orbit coupling and derive equations of motion which include the effects of Berry curvatures. We apply these equations to investigate the dynamics of particles with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. In our derivation, the adiabatic transformation is performed first and leads to quantum Heisenberg equations of motion for momentum and position operators. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}DPM, LKB,

^{2}DPM, LKB,

^{3}BLTP-JINR

We present calculations of the one-loop vacuum polarization correction (Uehling potential) for the three-body problem in the NRQED formalism. The case of one-electron molecular systems is considered. Numerical results of the vacuum polarization contribution at m$\alpha$7 and higher orders for the fundamental transitions (v = 0, L = 0) $\rightarrow$ (v ' = 1, L ' = 0) in the H2+ and HD+ molecular ions are presented and compared with calculations performed in the adiabatic approximation. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}I2M

We study the formation of the RbCs molecule by an intense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the system is modeled by a two degree of freedom rovibrational Hamiltonian, which includes the ground electronic potential energy curve of the diatomic molecule and the interaction of the molecular polarizability with the electric field of the laser. As the laser intensity increases, we observe that the formation probability first increases and then decreases after reaching a maximum. Read More

We report on the spectral analysis and the local measurement of intensity correlations of microwave fields using ultra cold quantum gases. The fluctuations of the electromagnetic field induce spin flips in a magnetically trapped quantum gas and generate a multi-mode atomlaser. The output of the atomlaser is measured with high temporal resolution on the single atom level, from which the spectrum and intensity correlations of the generating microwave field are reconstructed. Read More

We tested a fifth force using cold atom experiments. The accelerated expansion of the universe implies the possibility of the presence of a scalar field throughout the universe driving the acceleration. This field would result in a detectable force between normal-matter objects. Read More

We present a versatile laser system which provides more than 1.5W of narrowband light, tunable in the range from 455-463 nm. It consists of a commercial Titanium-Sapphire laser which is frequency doubled using resonant cavity second harmonic generation and stabilized to an external reference cavity. Read More