# Physics - Atomic Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Atomic Physics Publications

The contributions of one-loop vacuum polarization insertions to the two-photon exchange to the true muonium hyperfine splitting arising from $e$ and $\tau$ loops is obtained numerically for $m_\mu\alpha^6,m_\mu\alpha^7,m_\mu\alpha^8$. The contribution to the hyperfine splitting is $ \frac{m_\mu\alpha^6}{\pi^2 n^3}\left[2.5109696(1)+3. Read More

A long-time quantum memory capable of storing and measuring quantum information at the single-qubit level is an essential ingredient for practical quantum computation and com-munication. Recently, there have been remarkable progresses of increasing coherence time for ensemble-based quantum memories of trapped ions, nuclear spins of ionized donors or nuclear spins in a solid. Until now, however, the record of coherence time of a single qubit is on the order of a few tens of seconds demonstrated in trapped ion systems. Read More

We present experimental measurements of the steady-state ion number in a linear Paul trap (LPT) as a function of the ion-loading rate. These measurements, taken with (a) constant Paul trap stability parameter $q$, (b) constant radio-frequency (rf) amplitude, or (c) constant rf frequency, show nonlinear behavior. At the loading rates achieved in this experiment, a plot of the steady-state ion number as a function of loading rate has two regions: a monotonic rise (region I) followed by a plateau (region II). Read More

Our computation effort is primarily concentrated on support of current and future measurements being carried out at various synchrotron radiation facilities around the globe, and photodissociation computations for astrophysical applications. In our work we solve the Schr\"odinger or Dirac equation for the appropriate collision problem using the R-matrix or R-matrix with pseudo-states approach from first principles. The time dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method is also used in our work. Read More

We renormalize the two-body contact interaction based on the exact solution of two interacting particles in a harmonic trap. This renormalization extends the validity of the contact interaction to large scattering lengths. We apply this renormalized interaction to a degenerate unitary Bose gas to study its stationary properties and elementary excitations using the mean-field theory and the hyperspherical method. Read More

This work examines superradiance in initially inverted clouds of \textit{multi-level} atoms. We develop a set of equations that can approximately calculate the temporal evolution of $N$ coupled atoms. This allows us to simulate clouds containing hundreds of multi-level atoms while eschewing the assumption and/or approximation of symmetric dipole-dipole interactions. Read More

We propose and demonstrate the existence of robust qubit control solutions, which require only chirping and detuning of a single laser pulse to manipulate a two-level system. Our numerical study, along with a proof-of-principle experiment performed with femtosecond laser interaction on cold atomic qubits, shows that a qubit driven by an as-shaped pulse can evolve through a cusp on the Bloch sphere, suggesting the qubit dynamics to be of robust against power fluctuation, due to zero curvature of fidelity always occuring at the cusp. This solution is particularly simple and thus applicable to a wide range of potential applications. Read More

HfF$^+$ cation is a very promising system to search for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), and corresponding experiment is carried out by E. Cornell group. Here we theoretically investigate the cation to search for another T,P-odd effect -- the nuclear magnetic quadrpole moment (MQM) interaction with electrons. Read More

We demonstrate with a RF-MOT the one dimensional, transverse magneto-optical compression of a cold beam of calcium monofluoride (CaF). By continually alternating the magnetic field direction and laser polarizations of the magneto-optical trap, a photon scattering rate of $2\pi \times$0.4 MHz is achieved. Read More

We report on the development of a microfabricated atomic magnetic gradiometer based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms in the vapor phase. The gradiometer, which operates in the spin-exchange relaxation free regime, has a length of 60 mm and cross sectional diameter of 12 mm, and consists of two chip-scale atomic magnetometers which are interrogated by a common laser light. The sensor can measure differences in magnetic fields, over a 20 mm baseline, of 10 fT/Hz$^{1/2}$ at frequencies above 20 Hz. Read More

Chemical reactions can be surprisingly efficient at ultracold temperatures ( < 1mK) due to the wave nature of atoms and molecules. The study of reactions in the ultracold regime is a new research frontier enabled by cooling and trapping techniques developed in atomic and molecular physics. In addition, ultracold molecular gases that offer diverse molecular internal states and large electric dipolar interactions are sought after for studies of strongly interacting many-body quantum physics. Read More

We report on an ion-optical system that serves as a microscope for ultracold ground state and Rydberg atoms. The system is designed to achieve a magnification of up to 1000 and a spatial resolution in the 100nm range, thereby surpassing many standard imaging techniques for cold atoms. The microscope consists of four electrostatic lenses and a microchannel plate in conjunction with a delay line detector in order to achieve single particle sensitivity with high temporal and spatial resolution. Read More

This paper investigates the Fano-Feshbach resonance with a two-channel coupled-square-well model in both the frequency and time domains. This systems is shown to exhibit Fano lineshape profiles in the energy absorption spectrum. The associated time-dependent dipole response has a phase shift that has recently been understood to be related to the Fano lineshape asymmetric $q$ parameter by $\phi=2arg(q-i)$. Read More

**Authors:**H. Hartman

^{1}, L. Engstrom

^{2}, H. Lundberg

^{3}, H. Nilsson

^{4}, P. Quinet

^{5}, V. Fivet

^{6}, P. Palmeri

^{7}, G. Malcheva

^{8}, K. Blagoev

^{9}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Material Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Malmo University,

^{2}Department of Physics, Lund University,

^{3}Department of Physics, Lund University,

^{4}Lund Observatory, Lund University,

^{5}Physique Atomique et Astrophysique, Université de Mons,

^{6}Physique Atomique et Astrophysique, Université de Mons,

^{7}Physique Atomique et Astrophysique, Université de Mons,

^{8}Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,

^{9}Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

This work reports new experimental radiative lifetimes and calculated oscillator strengths for transitions from 3d8 4d levels of astrophysical interest in singly ionized nickel. Radiative lifetimes of seven high-lying levels of even parity in Ni II (98400 -100600 cm-1) have been measured using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence method. Two-step photon excitation of ions produced by laser ablation has been utilized to populate the levels. Read More

The stabilization of lasers to absolute frequency references is a fundamental requirement in several areas of atomic, molecular and optical physics. A range of techniques are available to produce a suitable reference onto which one can 'lock' the laser, many of which depend on the specific internal structure of the reference or are sensitive to laser intensity noise. We present a novel method using the frequency modulation of an acousto-optic modulator's carrier (drive) signal to generate two spatially separated beams, with a frequency difference of only a few MHz. Read More

Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is at the heart of many exotic band-structures and can give rise to many-body states with topological order. Here we present a general scheme based on a combination of microwave driving and lattice shaking for the realization of time-reversal invariant 2D SOC with ultracold atoms in systems with inversion symmetry. We show that the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC can be independently tuned in a spin-dependent square lattice. Read More

We measured the magnetic resonance of rubidium atoms passing through periodic magnetic fields generated by two types of multilayered transmission magnetic grating. One of the gratings reported here was assembled by stacking four layers of magnetic films so that the direction of magnetization alternated at each level. The other grating was assembled so that the magnetization at each level was aligned. Read More

We investigate the quantum Zeno dynamics of the rogue waves that are encountered in optics and quantum mechanics. Considering their usage in modeling rogue wave dynamics, we analyze the quantum Zeno dynamics of the Akhmediev breathers, Peregrine and Akhmediev-Peregrine soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. We show that frequent measurements of the wave inhibits its movement in the observation domain for each of these solutions. Read More

We present a hybrid laser frequency stabilization method combining modulation transfer spectroscopy (MTS) and frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) for the cesium D2 transition. In a typical pump-probe setup, the error signal is a combination of the DC-coupled MTS error signal and the AC-coupled FMS error signal. This combines the long-term stability of the former with the high signal-to-noise ratio of the latter. Read More

A very promising recent trend in applied quantum physics is to combine the advantageous features of different quantum systems into what is called "hybrid quantum technology". One of the key elements in this new field will have to be a quantum memory enabling to store quanta over extended periods of time. Systems that may fulfill the demands of such applications are comb-shaped spin ensembles coupled to a cavity. Read More

In this manuscript, we demonstrate the ability of nonlinear light-atom interactions to produce tunably non-Gaussian, partially self-healing optical modes. Gaussian spatial-mode light tuned near to the atomic resonances in hot rubidium vapor is shown to result in non-Gaussian output mode structures that may be controlled by varying either the input beam power or the temperature of the atomic vapor. We show that the output modes exhibit a degree of self-reconstruction after encountering an obstruction in the beam path. Read More

We report on calculations of harmonic generation by neon in a mixed (800-nm + time-delayed 400-nm) laser pulse scheme. In contrast with previous studies we employ a short (few-cycle) 400-nm pulse, finding that this affords control of the interference between electron trajectories contributing to the cutoff harmonics. The inclusion of the 400-nm pulse enhances the yield and cutoff energy, both of which exhibit a strong dependence on the time delay between the two pulses. Read More

A spectroscopic study of Rydberg states of helium ($n$ = 30 and 45) in magnetic, electric and combined magnetic and electric fields with arbitrary relative orientations of the field vectors is presented. The emphasis is on two special cases where (i) the diamagnetic term is negligible and both paramagnetic Zeeman and Stark effects are linear ($n$ = 30, $B \leq$ 120 mT and $F$ = 0 - 78 V/cm ), and (ii) the diamagnetic term is dominant and the Stark effect is linear ($n$ = 45, $B$ = 277 mT and $F$ = 0 - 8 V/cm). Both cases correspond to regimes where the interactions induced by the electric and magnetic fields are much weaker than the Coulomb interaction, but much stronger than the spin-orbit interaction. Read More

Frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy has been extended to the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Coherent VUV laser radiation is produced by resonance-enhanced sum-frequency mixing ($\nu_{\mathrm{VUV}}=2\nu_{\mathrm{UV}}+\nu_2$) in Kr and Xe using two near-Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses of frequencies $\nu_{\mathrm{UV}}$ and $\nu_2$. Sidebands generated in the output of the second laser ($\nu_2$) using an electro-optical modulator operating at the frequency $\nu_{\mathrm{mod}}$ are directly transfered to the VUV and used to record FM spectra. Read More

We propose a marginally stable optical resonator suitable for atom interferometry. The resonator geometry is based on two flat mirrors at the focal planes of a lens that produces the large beam waist required to coherently manipulate cold atomic ensembles. Optical gains of about 100 are achievable with optics of part-per-thousand losses. Read More

In recent years the interest in studying interactions of Rydberg atoms or ensembles thereof with optical and microwave frequency fields has steadily increased, both in the context of basic research and for potential applications in quantum information processing. We present measurements of the dispersive interaction between an ensemble of helium atoms in the 37s Rydberg state and a single resonator mode by extracting the amplitude and phase change of a weak microwave probe tone transmitted through the cavity. The results are in quantitative agreement with predictions made on the basis of the dispersive Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian. Read More

We demonstrate cavity cooling of all motional degrees of freedom of an atomic ensemble using light that is far detuned from the atomic transitions by several gigahertz. The cooling is achieved by cavity-induced frequency-dependent asymmetric enhancement of the atomic emission spectrum, thereby extracting thermal kinetic energy from the atomic system. Within $100 ~\mathrm{ms}$, the atomic temperature is reduced from $200 ~\mu\mathrm{K}$ to $10 ~\mu\mathrm{K}$, where the final temperature is mainly limited by the linewidth of the cavity. Read More

Achieving the Heisenberg limit (HL) in an experiment with very large number of atoms N is a challenging task. One mechanism for doing so is to make use of the experimentally achievable one axis twist spin squeezing in combination with unsqueezing which results in the generation of a Schr\"odinger cat state corresponding to an equal superposition of the extremal Dicke collective states. However, the protocol for achieving this result critically requires the knowledge of whether the total number of atoms is even or odd. Read More

The pair-production process in the presence of strong linearly polarized laser fields with subcycle structure is considered. Laser pulses with different envelope shapes are examined by means of a nonperturbative numerical technique. We analyze two different "flat" envelope shapes and two shapes without a plateau for their various parameters including the carrier-envelope phase. Read More

We report on two-photon photoassociation (PA) spectroscopy of ultracold heteronuclear LiRb molecules. This is used to determine the binding energies of the loosely bound levels of the electronic ground singlet and the lowest triplet states of LiRb. We observe strong two-photon PA lines with power broadened line widths greater than 20 GHz at relatively low laser intensity of 30 W/cm$^{2}$. Read More

We observe nonlinear scattering of 39 K atomic bright solitons launched in a one-dimensional (1D) speckle disorder. We directly compare it with the scattering of non-interacting particles in the same disorder. The atoms in the soliton tend to be collectively either reflected or transmitted, in contrast with the behavior of independent particles, thus demonstrating a clear nonlinear effect in scattering. Read More

Population inversion on the 5D-6P transition in Rb atoms produced by cw excitation at different wavelengths has been analysed by comparing the generated mid-IR radiation at 5.23 um originated from amplified spontaneous emission and isotropic blue fluorescence at 420 nm. A novel method of detecting two-photon excitation in atomic vapours using ASE is suggested. Read More

Combining the recently reported electric dipole moment (EDM) of $^{199}$Hg atom due to breaking of parity and time-reversal symmetries with the improved relativistic atomic calculations, precise limits on the tensor-pseudotensor (T-PT) electron-nucleus (e-N) coupling coefficient and the nuclear Schiff moment (NSM) interactions are determined. Using these limits with the nuclear calculations, we infer limits on the EDMs of neutron and proton as $d_n < 2.2 \times 10^{-26} |e| \rm{cm}$ and $d_p < 2. Read More

We show that four heavy fermions interacting resonantly with a lighter atom (4+1 system) become Efimovian at mass ratio 13.279(2), which is smaller than the corresponding 2+1 and 3+1 thresholds. We thus predict the five-body Efimov effect for this system in the regime where any of its subsystem is non-Efimovian. Read More

**Authors:**ACME Collaboration, Jacob Baron, Wes C. Campbell, David DeMille, John M. Doyle, Gerald Gabrielse, Yulia V. Gurevich, Paul W. Hess, Nicholas R. Hutzler, Emil Kirilov, Ivan Kozyryev, Brendon R. O'Leary, Cristian D. Panda, Maxwell F. Parsons, Benjamin Spaun, Amar C. Vutha, Adam D. West, Elizabeth P. West

We recently set a new limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) (J. Baron et al., ACME collaboration, Science 343 (2014), 269-272), which represented an order-of-magnitude improvement on the previous limit and placed more stringent constraints on many CP-violating extensions to the Standard Model. Read More

The dynamics of dark bright solitons beyond the mean-field approximation is investigated. We first examine the case of a single dark-bright soliton and its oscillations within a parabolic trap. Subsequently, we move to the setting of collisions, comparing the mean-field approximation to that involving multiple orbitals in both the dark and the bright component. Read More

We discuss the quantum simulation of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states for interacting fermions in quasi-one-dimensional gases of alkaline-earth-like atoms such as $^{173}$Yb. Taking advantage of the separation of orbital and nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in these atoms, we consider Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings in the clock states, which, together with the spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds, give rise to SPT states for interacting fermions. We numerically investigate the effects of bulk interactions on the topological properties of the system, characterize the interaction-induced topological phase boundaries, and map out the phase diagram. Read More

The ground bound states in the five-body muonic ions $a b \mu e_2$ (or $(a b \mu e_2)^{-}$), where $(a, b) = (p, d, t)$, are considered for the first time. As follows from accurate numerical computations of these five-body ions they are similar to the negatively charged hydrogen ion H$^{-}$ with a three-particle central quasi-nucleus $a b \mu$ (or $(a b \mu)^{+}$). These five-body ions play some role in the muon-catalyzed fusion of nuclear reaction in liquid deuterium and/or deuterium-tritium mixtures. Read More

We present numerical results for rate coefficients of reaction and vibrational quenching in the collision of H with D$_2(v,j)$ at cold and ultracold temperatures. We explore both ortho-D$_2(j\!=\!0)$ and para-D$_2(j\!=\!1)$ for several initial vibrational states $(v\leq 5)$, and find resonant structures in the energy range 0.01--10 kelvin, which are sensitive to the initial rovibrational state $(v,j)$. Read More

We report the development of a parallel FORTRAN code, RCCPAC, to solve the relativistic coupled-cluster equations for closed-shell and one-valence atoms and ions. The parallelization is implemented through the use of message passing interface, which is suitable for distributed memory computers. The coupled-cluster equations are defined in terms of the reduced matrix elements, and solved iteratively using Jacobi method. Read More

The potential scattering of electrons carrying non--zero quanta of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is studied in a framework of the generalized Born approximation, developed in our recent paper by Karlovets \textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Read More

The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation, and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole-dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. Read More

We present novel approaches for solving Milne's equation, which was introduced in 1930 as an efficient numerical scheme for the Schr\"odinger equation. Milne's equation appears in a wide class of physical problems, ranging from astrophysics and cosmology, to quantum mechanics and quantum optics. We show how a third order linear differential equation is equivalent to Milne's non-linear equation, and can be used to accurately calculate Milne's amplitude and phase functions. Read More

The production of anti-hydrogen ions in the GBAR experiment will occur via a two step charge exchange process. In a first reaction, the anti-protons from the ELENA ring at CERN will capture a positron from a positronium target producing anti-hydrogen atoms. Those interacting in the same positronium target will produce in a second step anti-hydrogen ions. Read More

We present a trajectory dynamically tracing compensation method to smooth the spatial fluctuation of the static magnetic field (C-field) that provides a quantization axis in the fountain clock. The C-field coil current is point-to-point adjusted in accordance to the atoms experienced magnetic field along the flight trajectory. A homogeneous field with a 0. Read More

We reported a detailed experimental study of the cold collision of Barium monofluoride (BaF) with buffer gas and the high-resolution spectroscopy relevant with direct laser cooling. BaF molecules are efficiently produced with laser ablation and buffer-gas cooled in a cryogenic apparatus. The laser cooling relevant transition $|X^2\Sigma, v=0, N=1\rangle$ to $|A^2\Pi, v'=0, J'=1/2\rangle$ is identified. Read More

**Authors:**H. Pihan-Le Bars, C. Guerlin, R. -D. Lasseri, J. -P. Ebran, Q. G. Bailey, S. Bize, E. Khan, P. Wolf

We introduce an improved model that links the frequency shift of the $^{133}\text{Cs}$ hyperfine Zeeman transitions $\vert F = 3, m_F> \longleftrightarrow \vert F = 4, m_F >$ to the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME) coefficients of the proton and neutron. The new model uses Lorentz transformations developed to second order in boost and additionally takes the nuclear structure into account, beyond the simple Schmidt model used previously in SME analyses, thereby providing access to both proton and neutron SME coefficients including the isotropic coefficient $\tilde{c}_{TT}$. Using this new model in a second analysis of the data delivered by the FO2 dual Cs/Rb fountain at Paris Observatory and previously analysed in arXiv:hep-ph/0601024v1, we improve by up to 12 orders of magnitude the present maximum sensitivities (see arXiv:0801. Read More

The process of internal conversion from excited electronic states is investigated theoretically for the case of the vacuum-ultraviolet nuclear transition of $^{229}{\mathrm Th}$. Due to the very low transition energy, the $^{229}{\mathrm Th}$ nucleus offers the unique possibility to open the otherwise forbidden internal conversion nuclear decay channel for thorium ions via optical laser excitation of the electronic shell. We show that this feature can be exploited to investigate the isomeric state properties via observation of internal conversion from excited electronic configurations of ${\mathrm Th}^+$ and ${\mathrm Th}^{2+}$ ions. Read More

A study is made of nuclear size corrections to the energy levels of single-electron atoms for the ground state of hydrogen like atoms. We consider Fermi charge distribution to the nucleus and calculate atomic energy level shift due to the finite size of the nucleus in the perturbation theory context. The exact relativistic correction based upon the available analytical calculations is compared to the result of first-order relativistic perturbation theory and the non-relativistic approximation. Read More

We observe interspecies Feshbach resonances due to s-wave bound states in ultracold $^{39}$K-$^{133}$Cs scattering for three different spin mixtures. The resonances are observed as joint atom loss and heating of the K sample. We perform least-squares fits to obtain improved K-Cs interaction potentials that reproduce the observed resonances, and carry out coupled-channel calculations to characterize the scattering and bound-state properties for $^{39}$K-Cs, $^{40}$K-Cs and $^{41}$K-Cs. Read More