# Physics - Atomic Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Atomic Physics Publications

We suggest a method to calculate hyperfine anomaly for many-electron atoms and ions. At first, we tested this method by calculating hyperfine anomaly for hydrogen-like thallium ion and obtained fairly good agreement with analytical expressions. Then we did calculations for the neutral thallium and tested an assumption, that the the ratio between the anomalies for $s$ and $p_{1/2}$ states is the same for these two systems. Read More

We present the results of a calculation of recombination coefficients for O^{2+} + e^- using an intermediate coupling treatment that fully accounts for the dependence of the distribution of population among the ground levels of O^{2+} on electron density and temperature. The calculation is extended down to low electron temperatures where dielectronic recombination arising from Rydberg states converging on the O^{2+} ground levels is an important process. The data, which consist of emission coefficients for 8889 recombination lines and recombination coefficients for the ground and metastable states of O^+ are in Cases A, B and C, and are organised as a function of the electron temperature and number density, as well as wavelength. Read More

The dynamic dipole polarizabilities of the low-lying states of Ca$^{+}$ for linearly and circularly polarized light are calculated by using relativistic configuration interaction plus core polarization (RCICP) approach. The magic wavelengths, at which the two levels of the transitions have the same ac Stark shifts, for $4s$-$4p_{j,m}$ and $4s$-$3d_{j,m}$ magnetic sublevels transitions are determined. The present magic wavelengths for linearly polarized light agree with the available results excellently. Read More

Numerous few-electron atomic systems are considered, which can be effectively used for observing a potential variation of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$ and the electron-proton mass ratio $m_e/m_p$. We examine magnetic dipole transitions between hyperfine-structure components in heavy highly charged H-like and Li-like ions with observably high sensitivity to a variation of $\alpha$ and $m_e/m_p$. The experimental spectra of the proposed systems consist of only one, strong line, which simplifies significantly the data analysis and shortens the necessary measurement time. Read More

We present a theoretical study of ionization of the hydrogen atom due to an XUV pulse in the presence of an IR laser with both fields linearly polarized in the same direction. In particular, we study the energy distribution of photoelectrons emitted perpendicularly to the polarization direction. By means of a very simple semiclassical model which considers electron trajectories born at different ionization times, the electron energy spectrum can be interpreted as the interplay of Intra and Intercycle interferences. Read More

The quality of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations predominantly relies on precise and ultra-stable time and frequency (T&F) standards, usually hydrogen masers (HM), maintained locally at each VLBI station. Here, we present an operational solution in which the VLBI observations are routinely carried out without use of a local HM, but using remote synchronization via a stabilized, long-distance fibre-optic link. The T&F reference signals, traceable to international atomic timescale (TAI), are delivered to the VLBI station from a dedicated timekeeping laboratory. Read More

We study the quantum stability of the dynamics of ions in a Paul trap. We revisit the results of Wang et al. [Phys. Read More

The quantum dynamics of a system of Rb atoms, modeled by a V-type three-level system interacting with intense probe and pump pulses, are studied. The time-delay-dependent transient-absorption spectrum of an intense probe pulse is thus predicted, when this is preceded or followed by a strong pump pulse. Numerical results are interpreted in terms of an analytical model, which allows us to quantify the oscillating features of the resulting transient-absorption spectra in terms of the atomic populations and phases generated by the intense pulses. Read More

**Authors:**Goulven Quéméner

This paper deals with the theory of collisions between two ultracold particles with a special focus on molecules. It describes the general features of the scattering theory of two particles with internal structure, using a time-independent quantum formalism. It starts from the Schr\"odinger equation and introduces the experimental observables such as the differential or integral cross sections, and rate coefficients. Read More

We present additional magic wavelengths ($\lambda_{\rm{magic}}$) for the clock transitions in the alkaline-earth metal ions considering circular polarized light aside from our previously reported values in [J. Kaur et al., Phys. Read More

The coherence time of a quantum system is affected by its interaction with the environment. To reduce the decoherence rate $T_2^{-1}$, every improvement that reduces the pure dephasing rate $T_\varphi^{-1}$ is limited by the longitudinal relaxation of the population, $(2T_1)^{-1}$. We show theoretically that a two-level system ultrastrongly coupled to a cavity mode can be used as a quantum memory. Read More

Angle-resolved (AR) RABBIT measurements offer a high information content measurement scheme, due to the presence of multiple, interfering, ionization channels combined with a phase-sensitive observable in the form of angle and time-resolved photoelectron interferograms. In order to explore the characteristics and potentials of AR-RABBIT, a perturbative 2-photon model is developed; based on this model, example AR-RABBIT results are computed for model and real systems, for a range of RABBIT schemes. These results indicate some of the phenomena to be expected in AR-RABBIT measurements, and suggest various applications of the technique in photoionization metrology. Read More

Ultracold atoms placed in a tight cigar-shaped trap are usually described in terms of the Lieb-Liniger model. We study the extensions of this model which arise when van der Waals interaction between atoms is taken into account. We find that the corrections induced by the finite range of interactions can become especially important in the vicinity of narrow Feshbach resonances and suggest realistic schemes of their experimental detection. Read More

Anderson localization is related to exponential localization of a particle in the configuration space in the presence of a disorder potential. Anderson localization can be also observed in the momentum space and corresponds to quantum suppression of classical diffusion in systems that are classically chaotic. Another kind of Anderson localization has been recently proposed, i. Read More

We analyze a similar scheme for producing light-mediated entanglement between atomic ensembles, as first realized by Julsgaard, Kozhekin and Polzik [Nature {\bf 413}, 400 (2001)]. In the standard approach to modeling the scheme, a Holstein-Primakoff approximation is made, where the atomic ensembles are treated as bosonic modes, and is only valid for short interaction times. In this paper, we solve the time evolution without this approximation, which extends the region of validity of the interaction time. Read More

We calculate ionization energies and fundamental vibrational transitions for H$_2^+$, D$_2^+$, and HD$^+$ molecular ions. The NRQED expansion for the energy in terms of the fine structure constant $\alpha$ is used. Previous calculations of orders $m\alpha^6$ and $m\alpha^7$ are improved by including second-order contributions due to the vibrational motion of nuclei. Read More

We demonstrate a two dimensional grating magneto-optical trap (2D GMOT) with a single input beam and a planar diffraction grating in $^{87}$Rb. This configuration increases experimental access when compared with a traditional 2D MOT. As configured in the paper, the output flux is several hundred million rubidium atoms/s at a mean velocity of 19. Read More

Benchmark reactions involving molecular hydrogen, such as H$_2$+D or H$_2$+Cl, provide the ideal platforms to investigate the effect of Near Threshold Resonances (NTR) on scattering processes. Due to the small reduced mass of those systems, shape resonances due to particular partial waves can provide features at scattering energies up to a few Kelvins, reachable in recent experiments. We explore the effect of NTRs on elastic and inelastic scattering for higher partial waves $\ell$ in the case of H$_2$+Cl for $s$-wave and H$_2$+D for $p$-wave scattering, and find that NTRs lead to a different energy scaling of the cross sections as compared to the well known Wigner threshold regime. Read More

We spectroscopically investigate the hyperfine, rotational and Zeeman structure of the vibrational levels $\text{v}'=0$, $7$, $13$ within the electronically excited $c^3\Sigma_g^+$ state of $^{87}\text{Rb}_2$ for magnetic fields of up to $1000\,\text{G}$. As spectroscopic methods we use short-range photoassociation of ultracold Rb atoms as well as photoexcitation of ultracold molecules which have been previously prepared in several well-defined quantum states of the $a^3\Sigma_u^+$ potential. As a byproduct, we present optical two-photon transfer of weakly bound Feshbach molecules into $a^3\Sigma_u^+$, $\text{v}=0$ levels featuring different nuclear spin quantum numbers. Read More

We study light propagation through a slab of cold gas using both the standard electrodynamics of polarizable media, and massive atom-by-atom simulations of the electrodynamics. The main finding is that the predictions from the two methods may differ qualitatively when the density of the atomic sample $\rho$ and the wavenumber of resonant light $k$ satisfy $\rho k^{-3}\gtrsim 1$. The reason is that the standard electrodynamics is a mean-field theory, whereas for sufficiently strong light-mediated dipole-dipole interactions the atomic sample becomes correlated. Read More

We show that the theoretical predictions on high energy behavior of the photoionization cross section of fullerenes depends crucially on the form of the function $V(r)$ which approximates the fullerene field. The shape of the high energy cross section is obtained without solving of the wave equation. The cross section energy dependence is determined by the analytical properties of the function $V(r)$. Read More

The study of topological effects in physics is a hot area, and only recently researchers were able to address the important issues of topological properties of interacting quantum systems. But it is still a great challenge to describe multi-particle and interaction effects. Here, we introduce multi-particle Wannier states for interacting systems with co-translational symmetry. Read More

We observe the breakup dynamics of an elongated cloud of condensed Rb$^{85}$ atoms placed in an optical waveguide. The number of localized wave packets observed in the breakup is compared with the number of solitons predicted by a plane-wave stability analysis of the nonpolynomial nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, an effective 1D approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for cigar-shaped condensates. It is shown that the numbers predicted from the fastest growing sidebands are consistent with the experimental data, suggesting that modulational instability is the key underlying physical mechanism driving the breakup. Read More

The nature of excited states of open quantum systems produced by incoherent natural thermal light is analyzed based on a description of the generator of the dynamics. Natural thermal light is shown to generate long-lasting coherent dynamics because of (i) the super-Ohmic character of the radiation, and (ii) the absence of pure dephasing dynamics. In the presence of an environment, the long-lasting coherences induced by suddenly turned-on incoherent light dissipate and stationary coherences are established. Read More

In a recent paper, we have proposed a novel laser cooling scheme for reducing collisional energy of a pair of atoms by using photoassociative transitions. In that paper, we considered two atoms in free space, that is we have not considered the effects of trap on the cooling process. Here in this paper, we qualitatively discuss the possibility of extending this idea for Raman sideband cooling of a pair of interacting atoms trapped in Lamb-Dicke (LD) regime. Read More

The ability to cool and manipulate levitated nano-particles in vacuum is a promising new tool for exploring macroscopic quantum mechanics\cite{WanPRL2016,Scala2013,Zhang2013}, precision measurements of forces, \cite{GambhirPRA2016} and non-equilibrium thermodynamics \cite{GieselerNatNano2014,MillenNat2014}. The extreme isolation afforded by optical levitation offers a low noise, undamped environment that has to date been used to measure zeptonewton forces \cite{GambhirPRA2016}, radiation pressure shot noise,\cite{Jain2016} and to demonstrate the cooling of the centre-of-mass motion \cite{LiNatPhys2011,Gieseler2012}. Ground state cooling, and the creation and measurement of macroscopic quantum superpositions, are now within reach, but control of both the center-of-mass and internal temperature is required. Read More

**Authors:**C. Smorra, A. Mooser, M. Besirli, M. Bohman, M. J. Borchert, J. Harrington, T. Higuchi, H. Nagahama, G. L. Schneider, S. Sellner, T. Tanaka, K. Blaum, Y. Matsuda, C. Ospelkaus, W. Quint, J. Walz, Y. Yamazaki, S. Ulmer

**Category:**Physics - Atomic Physics

We report on the detection of individual spin quantum transitions of a single trapped antiproton in a Penning trap. The spin-state determination, which is based on the unambiguous detection of axial frequency shifts in presence of a strong magnetic bottle, reaches a fidelity of 92.1$\%$. Read More

We demonstrate in situ fluorescence detection of $^7$Li atoms in a 1D optical lattice with single atom precision. Even though illuminated lithium atoms tend to boil out, when the lattice is deep, molasses beams without extra cooling retain the atoms while producing sufficient fluorescent photons for detection. When the depth of the potential well at an antinode is 2. Read More

Annihilation momentum densities and correlation enhancement factors for low-energy positron annihilation on valence and core electrons of noble-gas atoms are calculated using many-body theory. s, p and d-wave positrons of momenta up to the positronium-formation threshold of the atom are considered. The enhancement factors parametrize the effects of short-range electron-positron correlations which increase the annihilation probability beyond the independent-particle approximation. Read More

Using a thermal gas, we model the signal of a trapped interferometer. This interferometer uses two short laser pulses, separated by time T, which act as a phase grating for the matter waves. Near time 2T, there is an echo in the cloud's density due to the Talbot-Lau effect. Read More

We show that a newly proposed Shannon-like entropic measure of shape complexity applicable to spatially-localized or periodic mathematical functions known as configurational entropy (CE) can be used as a predictor of spontaneous decay rates for one-electron atoms. The CE is constructed from the Fourier transform of the atomic probability density. For the hydrogen atom with degenerate states labeled with the principal quantum number n, we obtain a scaling law relating the n-averaged decay rates to the respective CE. Read More

In several settings of physics and chemistry one has to deal with molecules interacting with some kind of an external environment, be it a gas, a solution, or a crystal surface. Understanding molecular processes in the presence of such a many-particle bath is inherently challenging, and usually requires large-scale numerical computations. Here, we present an alternative approach to the problem - that based on the notion of the angulon quasiparticle. Read More

We investigate the deexcitation of the $^{229}$Th nucleus via the excitation of an electron. Detailed calculations are performed for the enhancement of the nuclear decay width due to this so called electron bridge (EB) compared to the direct photoemission from the nucleus. The results are obtianed for triply ionized thorium by using a B-spline pseudo basis approach to solve the Dirac equation for a local $x_\alpha$ potential. Read More

All physical interactions are mediated by forces. Ultra-sensitive force measurements are therefore a crucial tool for investigating the fundamental physics of magnetic, atomic, quantum, and surface phenomena. Laser cooled trapped atomic ions are a well controlled quantum system and a standard platform for precision metrology. Read More

Employing two state-of-the-art methods, multiconfiguration Dirac--Hartree--Fock and second-order many-body perturbation theory, the excitation energies and lifetimes for the lowest 200 states of the $2s^2 2p^4$, $2s 2p^5$, $2p^6$, $2s^2 2p^3 3s$, $2s^2 2p^3 3p$, $2s^2 2p^3 3d$, $2s 2p^4 3s$, $2s 2p^4 3p$, and $2s 2p^4 3d$ configurations, and multipole (electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), and electric quadrupole (E2)) transition rates, line strengths, and oscillator strengths among these states are calculated for each O-like ion from Cr XVII to Zn XXIII. Our two data sets are compared with the NIST and CHIANTI compiled values, and previous calculations. The data are accurate enough for identification and deblending of new emission lines from the sun and other astrophysical sources. Read More

We apply a three-dimensional (3D) implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time-delay in photoionization. First, we obtain the ground state by propagation in imaginary time. We show that the flexibility of the TD-RASSCF on the choice of the active orbital space makes it possible to consider only relevant active space orbitals, facilitating the convergence to the ground state compared to the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock method, used as a benchmark to show the accuracy and efficiency of TD-RASSCF. Read More

How do isolated quantum systems approach an equilibrium state? We experimentally and theoretically address this question for a prototypical spin system formed by ultracold atoms prepared in two Rydberg states with different orbital angular momenta. By coupling these states with a resonant microwave driving we realize a dipolar XY spin-1/2 model in an external field. Starting from a spin-polarized state we suddenly switch on the external field and monitor the subsequent many-body dynamics. Read More

Using a three-dimensional semiclassical model, double ionization for strongly-driven He is studied fully accounting for magnetic field effects. It was previously found that the average sum of the components of the electron momenta parallel to the propagation direction of the laser field are unexpectedly large at intensities that are smaller than the intensities predicted for magnetic-field effects to arise. The mechanism responsible for this large sum of the electron momenta is identified. Read More

We offer interferometry models for thermal ensembles with one-body losses and the phenomenological inclusion of perturbations covering most of the thermal atom experiments. A possible extension to the many-body case is briefly discussed. The Ramsey pulses are assumed to have variable durations and the detuning during the pulses is distinguished from the detuning during evolution. Read More

Ionization of acetylene by linearly-polarized, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulses is modelled using time-dependent density functional theory. Several laser wavelengths are considered including one that produces direct ionization to the first excited cationic state while another excites the molecules to a Rydberg series incorporating an autoionizing state. We show that for the wavelengths and intensities considered, ionization is greatest whenever the molecule is aligned along the laser polarization direction. Read More

We present and discuss a new computationally inexpensive method to study, within the single active electron approximation, the interaction of a complex system with an intense ultrashort laser pulse. As a first application, we consider the single ionisation of the highest occupied molecular orbital of the water molecule by a sub femtosecond XUV pulse. The ionisation yield is calculated for different orientations of the molecule with respect to the field polarization axis and for different carrier phases of the pulse. Read More

We present a technique to measure the amplitude of a center-of-mass (COM) motion of a two-dimensional ion crystal composed of $\sim$100 ions in a Penning trap. By measuring motion at frequencies far from the oscillator resonance frequency, we resolve amplitudes as small as 50 pm, 40 times smaller than the COM mode zero-point fluctuations. The technique employs a spin-dependent, optical-dipole force to couple the mechanical oscillation to the electron spins of the trapped ions, enabling a discrete measurement of one quadrature of the COM motion through a readout of the spin state. Read More

We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (such as gravitational and quadratic Doppler shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect, i.e. Read More

High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned acetylene molecules interacting with mid infra-red (IR), linearly polarized laser pulses is studied theoretically using a mixed quantum-classical approach in which the electrons are described using time-dependent density functional theory while the ions are treated classically. We find that for molecules aligned perpendicular to the laser polarization axis, HHG arises from the HOMO orbital while for molecules aligned along the laser polarization axis, HHG is dominated by the HOMO-1 orbital. In the parallel orientation the harmonic spectrum comprises a double plateau structure with the inner plateau arising from excitation of an autoionizing state. Read More

An ion in a radiofrequency ion trap interacting with a buffer gas of ultracold neutral atoms is a driven dynamical system which has been found to develop a non-thermal energy distribution with a power law tail. The exact analytical form of this distribution is unknown, but has often been represented empirically by q-exponential (Tsallis) functions. Based on the concepts of superstatistics, we introduce a framework for the statistical mechanics of an ion trapped in an RF field subject to collisions with a buffer gas. Read More

We demonstrate light-induced localization of Coulomb-interacting particles in multi-dimensional structures. Subwavelength localization of ions within small multi-dimensional Coulomb crystals by an intracavity optical standing wave field is evidenced by measuring the difference in scattering inside symmetrically red- and blue-detuned optical lattices and is observed even for ions undergoing substantial radial micromotion. These results are promising steps towards the structural control of ion Coulomb crystals by optical fields as well as for complex many-body simulations with ion crystals or for the investigation of heat transfer at the nanoscale, and have potential applications for ion-based cavity quantum electrodynamics, cavity optomechanics and ultracold ion chemistry. Read More

The $N$-particle wavefunction has too many dimensions for a direct time propagation of a many-body system according to the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation (TDSE). On the other hand, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) tells us that the single-particle density is, in principle, sufficient. However, a practicable equation of motion (EOM) for the accurate time evolution of the single-particle density is unknown. Read More

A simple procedure for obtaining a superposition of macroscopically distinct states is proposed and analyzed. We find that a thermal equilibrium state can be converted into the superposition when a single measurement of a macroscopic observable, such as magnetization, is made. This method is valid for systems with macroscopic degrees of freedom and finite (including zero) temperature. Read More

We study quantum dynamics of one-electron atom confined in a spherical impenetrable box with time-dependent radius. The behavior of the atomic electron interacting with the moving walls of the box is analyzed by computing average binding energy, average force and pressure. Linearly extending, contracting and harmonically breathing boxes are considered in the non-adiabatic regime i. Read More

The cross section of high-energy $e^+e^-$ pair production by a heavy charged particle in the atomic field is investigated in detail. We take into account the interaction with the atomic field of $e^+e^-$ pair and a heavy particle as well. The calculation is performed exactly in the parameters of the atomic field. Read More