# Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics Publications

Anthropogenic climate change increased the probability that a short-duration, intense rainfall event would occur in parts of southeast China. This type of event occurred in May 2015, causing serious flooding. Read More

An extensive data set of water level measurements of the September 2015 Chilean tsunami in rivers in Japan and a new methodology for data processing are used to verify that tsunami dissipation in a river at each instant and locality depends on the tidally-modified wave-locked slope of the river surface. As deduced from the observations, a relatively small tsunami or ocean noise traveling at mild wave-locked slopes can propagate virtually without losses to the upstream locations where observed tidal ranges are a fraction of that downstream; though at the higher slopes, tidal and riverine currents combined efficiently damp the shorter waves. The observed correlations between the tsunami admittance upriver and the traveled wave-locked slopes are explained analytically under the fully-nonlinear shallow-water approximation. Read More

Using parametric analysis (curve fitting) we find a persistent temperature bump, coincident with World War II (WW2), in eight independent time series, four land- and four ocean-based. We fit the data with a Gaussian on a quadratic background. Six parameters (constant, linear and quadratic background terms and the amplitude, position and width of the Gaussian) are free to vary. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Duke University,

^{2}Duke University

By reflecting solar radiation and reducing longwave emissions, clouds regulate the earth's radiation budget, impacting atmospheric circulation and cloud dynamics. Given the diurnal fluctuation of shortwave and longwave radiation, a shift in the cloud cycle phase (CCP) may lead to substantial feedbacks to the climate system. While most efforts have focused on the overall cloud feedback, the response of CCP to climate change has received much less attention. Read More

The influence of the surface curvature on the surface tension of small droplets in equilibrium with a surrounding vapour, or small bubbles in equilibrium with a surrounding liquid, can be expanded as $\gamma(R) = \gamma_0 + c_1\gamma_0/R + O(1/R^2)$, where $R = R_\gamma$ is the radius of the surface of tension and $\gamma_0$ is the surface tension of the planar interface, corresponding to zero curvature. According to Tolman's law, the first-order coefficient in this expansion is assumed to be related to the planar limit $\delta_0$ of the Tolman length, i.e. Read More

The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model or application specific and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce simulations, ensure a provenance in model data handling and initialisation, and a challenge to conduct model intercomparisons rigorously. Read More

Geophysical model domains typically contain irregular, complex fractal-like boundaries and physical processes that act over a wide range of scales. Constructing geographically constrained boundary-conforming spatial discretizations of these domains with flexible use of anisotropically, fully unstructured meshes is a challenge. The problem contains a wide range of scales and a relatively large, heterogeneous constraint parameter space. Read More

In this paper we consider the role of nonmodal instabilities in the dynamics of atmospheric tornadoes. For this purpose we consider the Euler equation, continuity equation and the equation of state and linearise them. As an example we study several different velocity profiles: the so-called Rankine vortex model; the Burgers-Rott vortex model; Sullivan and modified Sullivan vortex models. Read More

We show that some statistical properties of forced two-dimensional turbulence have an important sensitivity to the form of large-scale dissipation which is required to damp the inverse cascade. We consider three models of large-scale dissipation: linear "Ekman" drag, non-linear quadratic drag, and scale selective hypo-drag that damps only low-wavenumber modes. In all cases, the statistically steady vorticity field is dominated by almost axisymmetric vortices, and the probability density function of vorticity is non-Gaussian. Read More

Increasing interest in energetic particle effects on weather and climate has motivated development of a miniature scintillator-based detector intended for deployment on meteorological radiosondes or unmanned airborne vehicles. The detector was calibrated with laboratory gamma sources up to 1.3 MeV, and known gamma peaks from natural radioactivity of up to 2. Read More

We assess the skill and reliability of forecasts of winter and summer temperature, wind speed and irradiance over China, using the GloSea5 seasonal forecast system. Skill in such forecasts is important for the future development of seasonal climate services for the energy sector, allowing better estimates of forthcoming demand and renewable electricity supply. We find that although overall the skill from the direct model output is patchy, some high-skill regions of interest to the energy sector can be identified. Read More

"Eddy saturation" refers to a regime in which the total mass transport of an oceanic current is insensitive to the wind stress strength. Baroclinicity is currently believed to be key to the development of an eddy-saturated state. Here, we show that eddy saturation occurs in a barotropic flow over topography, without baroclinicity. Read More

We fit 12 independent surface temperature time series (zones of latitude), 6 land- and 6 ocean-based, with a Gaussian (centered around WW2) on a quadratic background. The four polar zones are unusable. Each of the remaining 8 shows evidence of a 0. Read More

A new highly efficient method is developed for computation of traveling periodic waves (Stokes waves) on the free surface of deep water. A convergence of numerical approximation is determined by the complex singularites above the free surface for the analytical continuation of the travelling wave into the complex plane. An auxiliary conformal mapping is introduced which moves singularities away from the free surface thus dramatically speeding up numerical convergence by adapting the numerical grid for resolving singularities while being consistent with the fluid dynamics. Read More

Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. Key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. Read More

We formulate a model for the mass exchange between oil at and below the sea surface. This is a particularly important aspect of modeling oil spills. Surface and subsurface oil have different chemical and transport characteristics and lumping them together would compromise the accuracy of the resulting model. Read More

The analysis of clouds in the earth's atmosphere is important for a variety of applications, viz. weather reporting, climate forecasting, and solar energy generation. In this paper, we focus our attention on the impact of cloud on the total solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface. Read More

Aqua MODIS, unlike its predecessor on board the Terra spacecraft, had always been thought to have been spared from significant deleterious impacts of electronic crosstalk on its imagery. However, recent efforts brought to our attention the presence of striping artifacts in Aqua MODIS images from band 24 (4.47$\mu$m), which upon further inspection proved to have a noticeable impact on the quality of the L1B product and to have been present since the beginning of the mission, in 2002. Read More

Using the same measurement techniques as those of Saket et al. (2017), we have investigated the breaking threshold proposed by Barthelemy et al. (arXiv:1508. Read More

The El Ni\~{n}o Modoki in 2010 lead to historic droughts in Brazil. We quantify the global and Brazilian carbon response to this event using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) framework. Satellite observations of CO$_2$, CO, and solar induced fluorescence (SIF) are ingested into a 4D-variational assimilation system driven by carbon cycle models to infer spatially resolved carbon fluxes including net ecosystem exchange, biomass burning, and gross primary productivity (GPP). Read More

In this paper, we consider the 3D primitive equations of oceanic and atmospheric dynamics with only horizontal eddy viscosities in the horizontal momentum equations and only vertical diffusivity in the temperature equation. Global well-posedness of strong solutions is established for any initial data such that the initial horizontal velocity $v_0\in H^2(\Omega)$ and the initial temperature $T_0\in H^1(\Omega)\cap L^\infty(\Omega)$ with $\nabla_HT_0\in L^q(\Omega)$, for some $q\in(2,\infty)$. Moreover, the strong solutions enjoy correspondingly more regularities if the initial temperature belongs to $H^2(\Omega)$. Read More

On the morning of the August 11th 1999, a total eclipse of the sun plunged Cornwall and parts of Devon into darkness. The event of the eclipse was bound to attract a great deal of scientific and media attention. Realizing that the differences in day-time/night-time propagation of VLF/LF/MF to HF bands would also apply during the darkness of the eclipse, the eclipse offered a rare PR opportunity to promote radio to the general public. Read More

Nonlinear wave interactions affect the evolution of steep wave groups, their breaking and the associated kinematic field. Laboratory experiments are performed to investigate the effect of the underlying focussing mechanism on the shape of the breaking wave and its velocity field. In this regard, it is found that the shape of the wave spectrum plays a substantial role. Read More

This paper presents a system based on a Two-Way Particle-Tracking Model to analyze possible crash positions of flight MH370. The particle simulator includes a simple flow simulation of the debris based on a Lagrangian approach and a module to extract appropriated ocean current data from netCDF files. The influence of wind, waves, immersion depth and hydrodynamic behavior are not considered in the simulation. Read More

Understanding the statistics of ocean geostrophic turbulence is of utmost importance in understanding its interactions with the global ocean circulation and the climate system as a whole. Here, a study of eddy-mixing entropy in a forced-dissipative barotropic ocean model is presented. Entropy is a concept of fundamental importance in statistical physics and information theory; motivated by equilibrium statistical mechanics theories of ideal geophysical fluids, we consider the effect of forcing and dissipation on eddy-mixing entropy, both analytically and numerically. Read More

A two-phase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model has been developed on the basis of GPUSPH, which is an open-source implementation of the weakly compressible SPH method on graphics processing units, to investigate oil dispersion under breaking waves. By assuming that the multiple phases are immiscible, the two-phase model solves the same set of governing equations for both phases. Density in each phase is preserved by renormalization, and the harmonic mean of viscosities is used in the transition zone. Read More

We formulate a general criterion for the exact preservation of the "lake at rest" solution in general mesh-based and meshless numerical schemes for the strong form of the shallow-water equations with bottom topography. The main idea is a careful mimetic design for the spatial derivative operators in the momentum flux equation that is paired with a compatible averaging rule for the water column height arising in the bottom topography source term. We prove consistency of the mimetic difference operators analytically and demonstrate the well-balanced property numerically using finite difference and RBF-FD schemes in the one- and two-dimensional cases. Read More

Symmetries and topology are central to an understanding of physics. Topology explains the precise quantization of the Hall effect and the protection of surface states in topological insulators against scattering by non-magnetic impurities or bumps. Subsequent to the discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect, states of matter with different topological properties were classified according to the discrete symmetries of the system. Read More

Detecting causal associations in time series datasets is a key challenge for novel insights into complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system or the human brain. Interactions in high-dimensional dynamical systems often involve time-delays, nonlinearity, and strong autocorrelations. These present major challenges for causal discovery techniques such as Granger causality leading to low detection power, biases, and unreliable hypothesis tests. Read More

Although iceberg models have been used for decades, they have received far more widespread attention in recent years, in part due to efforts to explicitly represent icebergs in climate models. This calls for increased scrutiny of all aspects of typical iceberg models. An important component of iceberg models is the representation of iceberg capsizing, or rolling. Read More

In the present work, we investigate the potential of fractional derivatives to model atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. We propose simple fractional differential equation models for the steady state spatial distribution of concentration of a non-reactive pollutant in Planetary Boundary Layer. We solve these models and we compare the solutions with a real experiment. Read More

The polar vortices play a crucial role in the formation of the ozone hole and can cause severe weather anomalies. Their boundaries, known as the vortex `edges', are typically identified via methods that are either frame-dependent or return non-material structures, and hence are unsuitable for assessing material transport barriers. Using two-dimensional velocity data on isentropic surfaces in the northern hemisphere, we show that elliptic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) identify the correct outermost material surface dividing the coherent vortex core from the surrounding incoherent surf zone. Read More

Hydro-meteorological variables, like precipitation, streamflow are significantly influenced by various climatic factors and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Efficient water resources management requires an understanding of the effects of climate indices on the accurate predictability of precipitation. This study aims at understanding the standalone teleconnection between precipitation across India and the four climate indices, namely, Ni\~no 3. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}JAD,

^{2}LAMA

This paper describes an efficient algorithm for computing steady two-dimensional surface gravity wave in irrotational motion. The algorithm complexity is O(N log N), N being the number of Fourier modes. The algorithm allows the arbitrary precision computation of waves in arbitrary depth, i. Read More

Vortex-split stratospheric sudden warmings (S-SSWs) are investigated by using the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), a spherical barotropic quasi-geostrophic (QG) model, and equilibrium statistical mechanics. The QG model reproduces well the evolution of the composite potential vorticity (PV) field obtained from JRA-55 by considering a time-dependent effective topography given by the composite height field of the 550 K potential temperature surface. The zonal-wavenumber-2 component of the effective topography is the most essential feature required to observe the vortex splitting. Read More

Arctic sea ice extent has declined continuously for the past decade, owing partially to light absorption by black carbon (BC) and other impurities deposited on snow and the underlying pack. We present simulations for the contemporary period showing that the optical depth contributed by Arctic ice algal chlorophyll may be comparable during Boreal Spring to the corresponding values attributable to BC. The largest chlorophyll attenuation is obtained in the bottom layer, which supports pigment concentrations of about 300 to 1000 mg/m3 in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk. Read More

Short term unpredictability is discovered numerically for high Reynolds number fluid flows under periodic boundary conditions. Furthermore, the abundance of the short term unpredictability is also discovered. These discoveries support our theory that fully developed turbulence is constantly driven by such short term unpredictability. Read More

Using the formalism of the classical nucleation theory, we derive an expression for the reversible work $W_*$ of formation of a binary crystal nucleus in a liquid binary solution of non-stoichiometric composition (incongruent crystallization). Applied to the crystallization of aqueous nitric acid (NA) droplets, the new expression more adequately takes account of the effect of nitric acid vapor compared to the conventional expression of MacKenzie, Kulmala, Laaksonen, and Vesala (MKLV) [J.Geophys. Read More

The computation of transmission spectra is a central ingredient in the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. First, we revisit the theory of transmission spectra, unifying ideas from several workers in the literature. Transmission spectra lack an absolute normalization due to the a priori unknown value of a reference transit radius, which is tied to an unknown reference pressure. Read More

We present results of observation of Cygnus-A radiosource scintillation in the Earth's ionosphere in quiet and disturbed geomagnetic condition at Irkutsk incoherent scattering radar (IISR). Scintillation method applied for ionosphere testing at IISR confidently defines Fresnel frequency and power cutoff - the spectral characteristics usually related to the velocities and spatial spectra of ionospheric plasma irregularities. We also use IGFR magnetic field model in order to show relation between shape of discrete radio source scintillation spectra and direction to the radio source with respect to geomagnetic field. Read More

In this paper we survey the various implementations of a new data assimilation (downscaling) algorithm based on spatial coarse mesh measurements. As a paradigm, we demonstrate the application of this algorithm to the 3D Leray-$\alpha$ subgrid scale turbulence model. Most importantly, we use this paradigm to show that it is not always necessary that one has to collect coarse mesh measurements of all the state variables, that are involved in the underlying evolutionary system, in order to recover the corresponding exact reference solution. Read More

The specific impacts of El Ni\~no's two flavors, East Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) El Ni\~no, have been studied intensively in recent years, mostly by applying linear statistical or composite analyses. These techniques, however, focus on average spatio-temporal patterns of climate variability and do not allow for a specific assessment of related extreme impacts. Here, we use event coincidence analysis to study the differential imprints of EP and CP types of both, El Ni\~no and La Ni\~na on global extreme precipitation patterns. Read More

An analytical wind turbine wake model is proposed to predict the wind velocity distribution for all distances downwind of a wind turbine, including the near-wake. This wake model augments the Jensen model and subsequent derivations thereof, and is a direct generalization of that recently proposed by Bastankhah and Porte-Agel. The model is derived by applying conservation of mass and momentum in the context of actuator disk theory, and assuming a distribution of the double-Gaussian type for the velocity deficit in the wake. Read More

Source localization is solved as a classification problem by training a feed-forward neural network (FNN) on ocean acoustic data. The pressure received by a vertical linear array is preprocessed by constructing a normalized sample covariance matrix (SCM), which is used as input for the FNN. Each neuron of the output layer represents a discrete source range. Read More

Remote sensing experiments require high-accuracy, preferably sub-percent, line intensities and in response to this need we present computed room temperature line lists for six symmetric isotopologues of carbon dioxide: $^{13}$C$^{16}$O$_2$, $^{14}$C$^{16}$O$_2$, $^{12}$C$^{17}$O$_2$, $^{12}$C$^{18}$O$_2$, $^{13}$C$^{17}$O$_2$ and $^{13}$C$^{18}$O$_2$, covering the range 0-8000 \cm. Our calculation scheme is based on variational nuclear motion calculations and on a reliability analysis of the generated line intensities. Rotation-vibration wavefunctions and energy levels are computed using the DVR3D software suite and a high quality semi-empirical potential energy surface (PES), followed by computation of intensities using an \abinitio\ dipole moment surface (DMS). Read More

Enstrophy, kinetic energy (KE) fluxes and spectra are estimated in different parts of the mid-latitudinal oceans via altimetry data. To begin with, using geostrophic currents derived from sea-surface height anomaly data provided by AVISO, we confirm the presence of a strong inverse flux of surface KE at scales larger than approximately 250 km. We then compute enstrophy fluxes to help develop a clearer picture of the underlying dynamics at smaller scales, i. Read More

The temporal fluctuations in global mean surface temperature is an example of a geophysical quantity which can be described using the notions of long-range persistence and scale invariance/scaling, but this description has suffered from lack of a generally accepted physical explanation. Processes with these statistical signatures can arise from non-linear effects, for instance through cascade-like energy transfer in turbulent fluids, but they can also be produced by linear models with scale-invariant impulse-response functions. This paper demonstrates that on time scales from months to centuries, the scale-invariant impulse-response function of global surface temperature can be explained from simple linear multi-box energy balance models. Read More

In this paper we quantify the performances of an automated weather forecast system implemented on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site at Mt. Graham (Arizona) in forecasting the main atmospheric parameters close to the ground. The system employs a mesoscale non-hydrostatic numerical model (Meso-Nh). Read More

We use an extensive NOAA database of hourly precipitation data from 5995 stations in the 48 contiguous United States over the period 1949--2009 to investigate possible trends in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, defined as periods of intense precipitation. The frequency and intensity of these events are quantified by a dimensionless storminess, defined as the variance of the hourly rainfall at a site normalized by the square of the mean rainfall at that site. For 1722 stations with sufficient data, we compute the rate of change of the logarithm of the storminess at each station and set bounds on its mean (over stations) trend; use of the logarithms weights trends at calm stations equally to those at stormy stations and enhances the statistical power of the mean. Read More

A drop of water that freezes from the outside-in presents an intriguing problem: the expansion of water upon freezing is incompatible with the self-confinement by a rigid ice shell. Using high-speed imaging we show that this conundrum is resolved through an intermittent fracturing of the brittle ice shell and cavitation in the enclosed liquid, culminating in an explosion of the partially frozen droplet. We propose a basic model to elucidate the interplay between a steady build-up of stresses and their fast release. Read More