# Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics Publications (50)

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## Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics Publications

This study investigates short-crested wave breaking over a planar beach by using the mesh-free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model, GPUSPH. The short-crested waves are created by generating intersecting wave trains in a numerical wave basin. We examine the influence of beach slope, incident wave height, and incident wave angle on the generated short-crested waves. Read More

Rotationally coherent Lagrangian vortices (RCLVs) are identified from satellite-derived surface geostrophic velocities in the Eastern Pacific (180$^\circ$-130$^\circ$ W) using the objective (frame-invariant) finite-time Lagrangian-coherent-structure detection method of Haller et al. (2016) based on the Lagrangian-averaged vorticity deviation. RCLVs are identified for 30, 90, and 270 day intervals over the entire satellite dataset, beginning in 1993. Read More

Local bifurcations of stationary points and limit cycles have successfully been characterized in terms of the critical exponents of these solutions. Lyapunov exponents and their associated covariant Lyapunov vectors have been proposed as tools for supporting the understanding of critical transitions in chaotic dynamical systems. However, it is in general not clear how the statistical properties of dynamical systems change across a boundary crisis during which a chaotic attractor collides with a saddle. Read More

The emergence of oscillations in models of the El-Ni\~no effect is of utmost relevance. Here we investigate a coupled nonlinear delay differential system modeling theEl-Ni\~no/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which arises through the strong coupling of the ocean-atmosphere system. In particular, we study the temporal patterns of the sea surface temperature anomaly of the two sub-regions. Read More

Observations from the Odin/Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) instrument have been assimilated into the DIAMOND model (Dynamic Isentropic Assimilation Model for OdiN Data), in order to estimate the chemical ozone (O$_{3}$) loss in the stratosphere. This data assimilation technique is described in Sagi and Murtagh (2016), in which it was used to study the inter-annual variability in ozone depletion during the entire Odin operational time and in both hemispheres. Our study focuses on the Arctic region, where two O$_{3}$ destruction mechanisms play an important role, involving halogen and nitrogen chemical families (i. Read More

The high-resolution echelle spectrograph UVES of the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile has been regularly operated since April 2000. Thus, UVES archival data originally taken for astronomical projects but also including sky emission can be used to study airglow variations on a time scale longer than a solar cycle. Focusing on OH emission and observations until March 2015, we considered about 3,000 high-quality spectra from two instrumental set-ups centred on 760 and 860 nm, which cover about 380 nm each. Read More

A system of stochastic differential equations is formulated describing the heat and salt content of a two-box ocean. Variability in the heat and salt content and in the thermohaline circulation between the boxes is driven by fast Gaussian atmospheric forcing and by ocean-intrinsic, eddy-driven variability. The inclusion of eddy effects selects one of two stable equilibria of the circulation in the sense that one of the stable equilibria is essentially eliminated by the eddy dynamics. Read More

**Authors:**R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, M. Byrne, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, T. Fujii, M. Fukushima, T. Goto, W. Hanlon, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Honda, D. Ikeda, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, S. Jeong, C. C. H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. S. Kishigami, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, P. R. Krehbiel, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, J. Lan, R. LeVon, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, M. Minamino, K. Mukai, I. Myers, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, R. Nakamura, T. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, S. Ogio, J. Ogura, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, T. Okuda, M. Ono, R. Onogi, A. Oshima, S. Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, J. Remington, W. Rison, D. Rodeheffer, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, K. Saito, N. Sakaki, N. Sakurai, T. Seki, K. Sekino, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, H. S. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, T. A. Stroman, T. Suzawa, H. Takai, M. Takeda, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, R. J. Thomas, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, F. Urban, G. Vasiloff, T. Wong, M. Yamamoto, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, Z. Zundel

Bursts of energetic particle showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700 square kilometer cosmic ray observatory located in western Utah. Lightning position, time, and electric field information was collected by a lightning mapping array and slow antenna colocated with the TASD. Read More

We develop a theory of three-dimensional slow Rossby waves in rotating spherical density stratified convection. The excited by a non-axisymmetric instability, slow Rossby waves with frequency that is much smaller than the rotating frequency, interact with the density stratified convection and the inertial waves. The density stratification is taken into account using the anelastic approximation for very low-Mach-number flows. Read More

In 2013, the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency refined the historical rainfall estimates over the African Continent and produced the African Rainfall Climate version 2.0 (ARC2) estimator. ARC2 offers a nearly complete record of daily rainfall estimates since 1983 at 0. Read More

Line lists for the ground electronic ground state for six major isotopologues of nitric oxide are presented. The line lists are constructed using empirical energy levels (and line positions) and high-level {\it ab inito} intensities. The energy levels were obtained using a combination of two approaches, from an effective Hamiltonian and from solving the rovibronic Schr\"{o}dinger equation variationally. Read More

A model of ice floe breakup under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave breakup events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a breakup criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i)~solves wave scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii)~computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii)~fractures the floes satisfying the breakup criterion and (iv)~generates an updated FSD, initialising the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. Read More

The distribution of cloud-base mass flux is studied using large-eddy simulations (LES) of two reference cases, one representing conditions over the tropical ocean, and another one representing mid-latitude conditions over land. To examine what sets the difference between the two distributions, nine additional LES cases are set up as variations of the two reference cases. We find that the total surface heat flux and its changes over the diurnal cycle do not influence the distribution shape. Read More

A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometer are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow to reconstruct with sufficient accuracy the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding an unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist-Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The anaysis of several regions of the world, based on the data of the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness (Falchi et al 2016, Sci. Read More

Layer clouds are abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. Such clouds do not become sufficiently strongly charged to generate lightning, but they show weak charging along the upper and lower cloud boundaries where there is a conductivity transition. Cloud edge charging has recently been observed using balloon-carried electrometers. Read More

Lightning is common throughout the Solar System, and charging of particles occurs in all atmospheres due to ionization from galactic cosmic rays. Here, some electrical processes relevant to the atmosphere of Venus are outlined and discussed in a comparative planetology context. Read More

We present an extensive numerical comparison of a family of balance models appropriate to the semi-geostrophic limit of the rotating shallow water equations, and derived by variational asymptotics in Oliver (2006) for small Rossby numbers ${\mathrm{Ro}}$. This family of generalized large-scale semi-geostrophic (GLSG) models contains the $L_1$-model introduced by Salmon (1983) as a special case. We use these models to produce balanced initial states for the full shallow water equations. Read More

When studying tropical cyclones using the $f$-plane, axisymmetric, gradient balanced model, there arises a second-order elliptic equation for the transverse circulation. Similarly, when studying zonally symmetric meridional circulations near the equator (the tropical Hadley cells) or the katabatically forced meridional circulation over Antarctica, there also arises a second order elliptic equation. These elliptic equations are usually derived in the pressure coordinate or the potential temperature coordinate, since the thermal wind equation has simple non-Jacobian forms in these two vertical coordinates. Read More

Predicting the Arctic sea ice extent is a notoriously difficult forecasting problem, even from lead times as short as one month. Motivated by Arctic intra-annual variability phenomena such as sea surface temperature reemergence and sea ice reemergence, we use a prediction approach for sea ice anomalies based on analog forecasting. Traditional analog forecasting relies on identifying a single analog in a historical record, usually by minimizing Euclidean distance, and forming a forecast from the analog's historical trajectory. Read More

Polarization measurements of the twilight background with Wide-Angle Polarization Camera (WAPC) are used to detect the depolarization effect caused by stratospheric aerosol near the altitude of 20 km. Based on a number of observations in central Russia in spring and summer 2016, we found the parameters of lognormal size distribution of aerosol particles. This confirmed the previously published results of the colorimetric method as applied to the same twilights. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Duke University,

^{2}Duke University

Clouds' efficiency at reflecting solar radiation and trapping the terrestrial one is strongly modulated by their diurnal cycle. Much attention has been paid to mean cloud properties due to their critical role in climate projections; however, less research has been devoted to their diurnal cycle. Here, we quantify the mean, amplitude, and phase of the cloud cycles in current climate models and compare them with satellite observations and reanalysis data. Read More

Traditional matched field processing is based on the comparison of the complex amplitudes of the measured and calculated wave fields at the aperture of the receiving antenna. This paper considers an alternative approach based on comparing the intensity distributions of these fields in the "depth -- arrival angle" plane. To construct these intensities, the formalism of coherent states borrowed from quantum mechanics is used. Read More

There is widespread agreement that ice sheets flowed into the ocean in tropical latitudes at sea level during the Earth's past. Whether these extreme ice ages were snowball Earth events, with the entire surface covered in ice, or whether ocean water remained ice free in regions about the equator, continues to be controversial. For the latter situation to occur, the effect of positive ice albedo feedback would have to be damped to stabilize an advancing ice sheet shy of the equator. Read More

Ensemble data assimilation methods such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) are a key component of probabilistic weather forecasting. They represent the uncertainty in the initial conditions by an ensemble which incorporates information coming from the physical model with the latest observations. High-resolution numerical weather prediction models ran at operational centers are able to resolve non-linear and non-Gaussian physical phenomena such as convection. Read More

Light pollution is a worldwide phenomenon whose consequences for the natural environment and the human health are being intensively studied nowadays. Most published studies address issues related with light pollution inland. Coastal waters, however, are spaces of high environmental interest, due to their biodiversity richness and their economical significance. Read More

The main properties of the climate of waves in the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea and its decadal changes since 1990 are estimated from satellite altimetry data. The data set of significant wave heights (SWH) from all existing nine satellites, cleaned and cross-validated against in situ measurements, shows overall a very consistent picture. A comparison with visual observations shows a good correspondence with correlation coefficients of 0. Read More

We propose an approximation for the total ice nucleation rate J=J(T,R) in supercooled water droplets as a function of both droplet radius R and temperature T, taking account of both volume-based and surface-stimulated nucleation modes. Its crucial idea is that, even in the surface-stimulated mode crystal nuclei initially emerge (as sub-critical clusters) homogeneously in the sub-surface layer, not "pseudo-heterogeneously" at the surface. This mode is negligible in large droplets, but becomes increasingly important with decreasing droplet size and is dominant in small droplets. Read More

Almost all parameterizations of turbulence in NWP models and GCM make the assumption of equality of exchange coefficients for heat $K_h$ and water $K_w$. However, large uncertainties exists in old papers published in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, where the turbulent Lewis number Le_t $= K_h / K_w$ have been evaluated from observations and then set to Le_t$=1$. The aim of this note is: 1) to trust the recommendations of Richardson (1919), who suggested to use the moist-air entropy as a variable on which the turbulence is acting; 2) to compute a new exchange coefficients $K_s$ for the moist-air entropy; 3) to determine the values of the new entropy-Lewis number Le_ts $= K_s / K_w$ from observations (M\'et\'eopole-Flux and Cabauw masts) and from LES and SCM outputs for the IHOP case (Couvreux et al. Read More

The seasonal ice cover in the Baltic Sea causes measurement gaps by forcing an early recovery of the instruments. We study the impact of these gaps on exceedance value estimates by restricting the model hindcast to only times that coincide with buoy measurements. The comparison reveals that including the time not captured by the wave buoy can affect the estimates for the significant wave height by roughly 20% for an exceedance frequency of once per five years. Read More

We study the dependence of the intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) on urban geometry. UHI is a urban climate phenomenon referring to the air temperature difference between rural and urban areas. We use multi-year data for urban-rural temperature differences, combined with building footprint data and a simple heat radiation scaling model to demonstrate for more than 50 cities world-wide that structural morphology -- measured by a building distribution function and the sky view factor -- explains city-to-city variations in nocturnal UHI. Read More

BIGHORNS is a total power radiometer developed to identify the signal from the Epoch of Reionisation in the all-sky averaged radio spectrum at low frequencies (70-300 MHz). In October 2014, the system with a conical log spiral antenna was deployed at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) and has been collecting data since then. The system has been monitoring the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment at the future site of the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array. Read More

Environmental pollution, comprising of air, water and soil have emerged as a serious problem in past two decades. The air pollution is caused by contamination of air due to various natural and anthropogenic activities. The growing air pollution has diverse adverse effects on human health and other living species. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LIH, NSU,

^{2}LAMA,

^{3}LAMA

In this study we investigate shallow turbidity density currents and underflows from mechanical point of view. We propose a simple hyperbolic model for such flows. On one hand, our model is based on very basic conservation principles. Read More

Effects of subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) on the diurnal migrating tides are investigated from the mesosphere to the upper thermosphere for September equinox conditions, using a general circulation model coupled with the extended spectral nonlinear GW parameterization of Yi\u{g}it et al (2008). Simulations with GW effects cut-off above the turbopause and included in the entire thermosphere have been conducted. GWs appreciably impact the mean circulation and cool the thermosphere down by up to 12-18%. Read More

Kraichnan seminal ideas on inverse cascades yielded new tools to study common phenomena in geophysical turbulent flows. In the atmosphere and the oceans, rotation and stratification result in a flow that can be approximated as two-dimensional at very large scales, but which requires considering three-dimensional effects to fully describe turbulent transport processes and non-linear phenomena. Motions can thus be classified into two classes: fast modes consisting of inertia-gravity waves, and slow quasi-geostrophic modes for which the Coriolis force and horizontal pressure gradients are close to balance. Read More

Ocean flows are routinely inferred from low-resolution satellite altimetry measurements of sea surface height (SSH) assuming a geostrophic balance. Recent nonlinear dynamical systems techniques have revealed that altimetry-inferred flows can support mesoscale eddies with material boundaries that do not filament for many months, thereby representing effective mechanisms for coherent transport. However, the significance of such coherent Lagrangian eddies is not free from uncertainty due to the impossibility of altimetry to resolve ageostrophic submesoscale motions, which have the potential of quickly eroding their boundaries. Read More

The paper "On the theory of storm" (Zur Sturmtheorie) is the last one Max Margules has published in 1906, just before to "bid farewell to Meteorology" (using his words). The lack of English translation of this paper might be filled by this attempt which can be certainly improved, however. Read More

The moist-air entropy can be used to analyze and better understand the general circulation of the atmosphere or convective motions. Isentropic analyses are commonly based on studies of different equivalent potential temperatures, all of which are assumed to fully represent the entropy of moist air. It is, however, possible to rely on statistical physics or the third law of thermodynamics when defining and computing the absolute entropy of moist air and to study the corresponding third-law potential temperature, which is different from the previous ones. Read More

Seven data sources are analyzed and combined to form a surface wind speed climatology for the Gulf of California. Read More

The atmospheric pressure fluctuations on Mars induce an elastic response in the ground that creates a ground tilt, detectable as a seismic signal on the InSight seismometer SEIS. The seismic pressure noise is modeled using Large Eddy Simulations of the wind and surface pressure at the InSight landing site and a Green's function ground deformation approach that is subsequently validated via a detailed comparison with two other methods based on Sorrells' theory (Sorrels 1971; Sorrels et al. 1971). Read More

Probabilistic sea-level projections have not yet integrated insights from physical ice-sheet models representing mechanisms, such as ice-shelf hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse, that can rapidly increase ice-sheet discharge. Here, we link a probabilistic framework for sea-level projections to a small ensemble of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) simulations incorporating these physical processes to explore their influence on projections of global-mean sea-level (GMSL) and relative sea-level (RSL) change. Under high greenhouse gas emissions (Representative Concentration Pathway [RCP] 8. Read More

We search for the signature of universal properties of extreme events, theoretically predicted for Axiom A flows, in a chaotic and high dimensional dynamical system by studying the convergence of GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) and GP (Generalized Pareto) shape parameter estimates to a theoretical value, expressed in terms of partial dimensions of the attractor, which are global properties. We consider a two layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) atmospheric model using two forcing levels, and analyse extremes of different types of physical observables (local, zonally-averaged energy, and the average value of energy over the mid-latitudes). Regarding the predicted universality, we find closer agreement in the shape parameter estimates only in the case of strong forcing, producing a highly chaotic behaviour, for some observables (the local energy at every latitude). Read More

The main objective of this article is to derive a mathematical theory associated with the nonlinear stability and dynamic transitions of the basic shear flows associated with baroclinic instability, which plays a fundamental role in the dominant mechanism shaping the cyclones and anticyclones that dominate weather in mid-latitudes, as well as the mesoscale eddies that play various roles in oceanic dynamics and the transport of tracers. This article provides a general transition and stability theory for the two-layer quasi-geostrophic model originally derived by Pedlosky \cite{ped1970}. We show that the instability and dynamic transition of the basic shear flow occur only when the Froude number $F>(\gamma^2+1)/2$, where $\gamma$ is the weave number of lowest zonal harmonic. Read More

In this paper we demonstrate numerical computations of turbulent wind blowing over group of waves that are growing in time. The numerical model adopted for the turbulence model is based on differential second-moment model that was adopted for growing idealized waves by Drullion and Sajjadi (2014). The results obtained here demonstrate the formation of cat's-eye which appear asymmetrically over the waves within a group. Read More

A stochastic method is introduced for geometric modeling aerosol surface roughness with random field and discrete differential geometry theory. Optical scattering properties are computed for randomly oriented spheroidal particles with uniformly random surface roughness. Invariant imbedding T-Matrix and geometric optics method are applied to compute light scattering properties of aerosol particles covered from Rayleigh to geometric optics region. Read More

The Model Coupling Executable Library (MCEL), developed at the University of Southern Mississippi's Center of Higher Learning, has been successfully used to couple the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) and the ocean wave model WAVEWATCH. An example of its application is shown for Hurricane Gordon, showing that two-way coupling results affects boundary layer physics differently than one-way coupling --- in this case, resulting in larger z_o and, consequently, larger surface fluxes and a more intense hurricane. However, since analyzing MCEL is difficult because the wave physics is inaccurate, improvements to the wave algorithms are also part of the deliverables. Read More

To develop a better understanding of energy transfer between wind and different types of waves a model was created to determine growth factors and energy transfers on breaking waves and the resulting velocity vectors. This model was used to build on the research of Sajjadi et al. (1996) on the growth of waves by sheared flow and takes models of wave velocities developed by Weber and Melsom (1993) and end energy transfer by Sajjadi, Hunt and Drullion (2014). Read More

During summer, melt ponds have a significant influence on Arctic sea-ice albedo. The melt pond fraction (MPF) also has the ability to forecast the Arctic sea-ice in a certain period. It is important to retrieve accurate melt pond fraction (MPF) from satellite data for Arctic research. Read More

A nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation with variable coefficients for surface waves on a large-scale steady nonuniform current has been derived without the assumption of a relative smallness of the velocity of the current. This equation can describe with good accuracy the loss of modulation stability of a wave coming to a counter current, leading to the formation of so called rogue waves. Some theoretical estimates are compared to the numerical simulation with the exact equations for a two-dimensional potential motion of an ideal fluid with a free boundary over a nonuniform bottom at a nonzero average horizontal velocity. Read More