# Nuclear Theory Publications (50)

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## Nuclear Theory Publications

Spin and isospin are essential degrees of freedom in nuclear systems, and the relevant studies on their properties play important roles not only in nuclear physics but also in nuclear astrophysics, particle physics, and so on. In this presentation for the IUPAP Young Scientist Prize 2016, I would like to introduce the microscopic studies on nuclear spin-isospin properties in the framework of covariant density functional theory (DFT), by taking a few works that I have been joining in as examples. It is seen that the covariant scheme plays an important role in describing the spin properties in a consistent way, such as the spin-orbit splitting, the pseudospin symmetry, etc. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}ETH Zürich,

^{2}Ecole polytechnique, CPHT

We extend the study of quark spin-orbit correlations in the nucleon to the case of transverse polarization. At the leading-twist level, this completes the spin structure of the quark kinetic energy-momentum tensor. In particular, we revisit the transversity decomposition of angular momentum proposed a decade ago by Burkardt and introduce a new transverse correlation, namely between quark transversity and orbital angular momentum. Read More

One-neutron removal $(p,pn)$ reactions induced by two-neutron Borromean nuclei are studied within a Transfer-to-the-Continuum (TC) reaction framework, which incorporates the three-body character of the incident nucleus. The relative energy distribution of the residual unbound two-body subsystem, which is assumed to retain information on the structure of the original three-body projectile, is computed by evaluating the transition amplitude for different neutron-core final states in the continuum. These transition amplitudes depend on the overlaps between the original three-body ground-state wave function and the two-body continuum states populated in the reaction, thus ensuring a consistent description of the incident and final nuclei. Read More

Chiral symmetry is always broken in cold, dense matter, by chiral condensation at low densities and by diquark condensation at high density. We construct here, within a schematic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, the corresponding generalized Nambu-Goldstone pion, $\pi_G$. As we show, the $\pi_G$ mode naturally emerges as a linear combination of the $\langle \bar{q}q\rangle$ vacuum pion $\pi$ and the $\langle qq \rangle$ diquark pion $\tilde{\pi}$, with $q$ the quark field, and continuously evolves with increasing density from being $\pi$-like in the vacuum to $\tilde{\pi}$-like in the high density diquark pairing phase. Read More

The spin-independent and transversity generalised form factors (GFFs) of the $\phi$ meson are studied using lattice QCD calculations with light quark masses corresponding to a pion mass $m_\pi\sim450(5)$ MeV. One transversity and three spin-independent GFFs related to the lowest moments of leading-twist spin-independent and transversity gluon distributions are obtained at six non-zero values of the momentum transfer up to 1.2 GeV$^2$. Read More

Very strong magnetic fields can arise in non-central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies, which may not decay quickly in a conducting plasma. We carry out relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) simulations to study the effects of this magnetic field on the evolution of the plasma and on resulting flow fluctuations in the ideal RMHD limit. Our results show that magnetic field leads to enhancement in elliptic flow, though in general effects of magnetic field on elliptic flow are very complex. Read More

We study the charmonium spectrum using a complete one gluon exchange approach based on a relativistic $q\bar{q}$ potential model with Dirac spinors in momentum space. Our formulation does not rely on nonrelativistic approximations. We fit the lowest-lying charmonia (below the $D\bar{D}$ threshold) and predict the higher-lying resonances of the spectrum. Read More

We study time evolution of critical fluctuations of conserved charges near the QCD critical point in the context of relativistic heavy ion collisions. A stochastic diffusion equation is employed in order to describe the diffusion property of the critical fluctuation arising from the coupling of the order parameter field to conserved charges. We show that the diffusion property gives rise to a possibility of probing the early time fluctuations through the rapidity window dependence of the second-order cumulant and correlation function of conserved charges. Read More

The Bethe-Salpeter equation for three bosons with zero-range interaction is solved for the first time. For comparison the light-front equation is also solved. The input is the two-body scattering length and the outputs are the three-body binding energies, Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes and light-front wave functions. Read More

Various theories have predicted the deep Dirac levels (DDLs) in atoms for many years. However, the existence of the DDL is still under debating, and need to be confirmed experimentally. With the development of high intensive lasers, nowadays, electrons can been accelerated to relativistic energy by high intensive lasers, electron-positron pairs can be created, and nuclear reactions can been ignited, which provide a new tool to explore the DDL related fields. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Catania Department of Physics and Astronomy,

^{2}INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud,

^{3}University of Catania Department of Physics and Astronomy

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

We discuss the propagation of heavy quarks (charm and bottom) through the QGP by means of a relativistic Boltzmann transport approach including both collisional and radiative energy loss mechanisms. In particular we investigate the impact of induced gluon radiation by dynamical QCD medium implementing in our transport model a formula for the emitted gluon spectrum calculated in a higher-twist scheme. We notice that in the region of high transverse momentum ($p_T > 10$ GeV) radiative processes play an essential role giving a dominant contribution to the generation of $R_{AA}$ and $v_2$ at momentum values for which the energy loss by collisions is in the perturbative regime. Read More

The third-order particle-hole ring diagrams are evaluated for a NN-contact interaction of the Skyrme type. The pertinent four-loop coefficients in the energy per particle $\bar E(k_f) \sim k_f^{5+2n}$ are reduced to double-integrals over cubic expressions in euclidean polarization functions. Dimensional regularization of divergent integrals is performed by subtracting power-divergences and the validity of this method is checked against the known analytical results at second-order. Read More

Starting from the quasiparticle random phase approximation based on the Skyrme interaction SLy5, we study the effects of phonon-phonon coupling~(PPC) on the low-energy electric dipole response in $^{40-58}$Ca. Using the same set of parameters we describe available experimental data for $^{40,44,48}$Ca and give prediction for $^{50-58}$Ca. The inclusion of the PPC results in the formation of low-energy $1^-$ states. Read More

On the basis of the L\"uscher's finite volume formula, a simple test (sanity check) is introduced and applied to inspect the recent claims of the existence of the nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) bound state(s) for heavy quark masses in lattice QCD. We show that the consistency between the scattering phase shifts at $k^2 > 0$ and/or $k^2 < 0$ obtained from the lattice data and the behavior of phase shifts from the effective range expansion (ERE) around $k^2=0$ exposes the validity of the original lattice data, otherwise such information is hidden in the energy shift $\Delta E$ of the two nucleons on the lattice. We carry out this sanity check for all the lattice results in the literature claiming the existence of the $NN$ bound state(s) for heavy quark masses, and find that (i) some of the $NN$ data show clear inconsistency between the behavior of ERE at $k^2 > 0$ and that at $k^2 < 0$, (ii) some of the $NN$ data exhibit singular behavior of the low energy parameter (such as the divergent effective range) at $k^2<0$, (iii) some of the $NN$ data have the unphysical residue for the bound state pole in S-matrix, and (iv) the rest of the $NN$ data are inconsistent among themselves. Read More

**Authors:**Takayasu Sekihara

^{1}, Tetsuo Hyodo

^{2}, Daisuke Jido

^{3}, Junko Yamagata-Sekihara

^{4}, Shigehiro Yasui

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}JAEA, Ibaraki,

^{2}Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto,

^{3}Tokyo Metropolitan U.,

^{4}Kyoto Sangyo U.,

^{5}Tokyo Inst. Tech.

Recently, the compositeness, defined as the norm of a two-body wave function for bound and resonance states, has been investigated to discuss the internal structure of hadrons in terms of hadronic molecular components. From the studies of the compositeness, it has been clarified that the two-body wave function of a bound state can be extracted from the residue of the scattering amplitude at the bound state pole. Of special interest is that the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude is automatically normalized. Read More

Stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds via the deuteron (D), but only a small change in the fundamental constants of nature is required to unbind it. Here, we investigate the effect of altering the binding energy of the deuteron on proton burning in stars. We find that the most definitive boundary in parameter space that divides probably life-permitting universes from probably life-prohibiting ones is between a bound and unbound deuteron. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}INFN-Rome,

^{2}ITA-S. Jose' dos Campos,

^{3}ITA-S. Jose' dos Campos,

^{4}INFN-Pisa

The possibility of solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski space, even for fermionic systems, is becoming actual, through the applications of well-known tools: i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and ii) the light-front projection onto the null-plane. The theoretical background and some preliminary calculations are illustrated, in order to show the potentiality and the wide range of application of the method. Read More

We present results and suggestions on how to confirm the existence and resonant nature of the $Pc(4450)$ detected at LHCb through photoproduction experiments. We find that this narrow structure might have escaped detection in past experiments and use those to give a constraint for the upper limit of the branching ratio/coupling to the $J/\psi p$ channel. Read More

Nuclear systems are treated within a quantum statistical approach. Correlations and cluster formation are relevant for the properties of warm dense matter, but the description is challenging and different approximations are discussed. The equation of state, the composition, Bose condensation of bound fermions, the disappearance of bound states at increasing density because of Pauli blocking are of relevance for different applications in astrophysics, heavy ion collisions, and nuclear structure. Read More

We report a calculation of the nucleon axial form factors $G_A^q(Q^2)$ and $G_P^q(Q^2)$ for all three light quark flavors $q\in\{u,d,s\}$ in the range $0\leq Q^2\lesssim 1.2\text{ GeV}^2$ using lattice QCD. This work was done using a single ensemble with pion mass 317 MeV and made use of the hierarchical probing technique to efficiently evaluate the required disconnected loops. Read More

Fully constrained bubble chamber data on the pp -> pi+ pn and pp -> pi+ d reactions are used to investigate the ratio of the counting rates for the two processes at low pn excitation energies. Whereas the ratio is in tolerable agreement with that found in a high resolution spectrometer experiment, the angular distribution in the final pn rest frame shows that the deviation from the predictions of final state interaction theory must originate primarily from higher partial waves in the pn system. These considerations might also be significant for the determination of the S-wave Lambda:p scattering length from data on the pp -> K+ Lambda p reaction. Read More

The hadronic phase in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions has a large influence on final state observables like multiplicity, flow and $p_t$ spectra, as studied in the UrQMD approach. In this model one assumes that a non-equilibrium decoupling phase follows a fluid dynamical description of the high density phase. Hadrons are produced assuming local thermal equilibrium and dynamically decouple during the hadronic rescattering until the particles are registered in the detectors. Read More

We calculate the production of large-pTcharmonium and narrow resonance state (exotic charmonium) in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions with the semi-coherent two-photon interactions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and Future Circular Collider (FCC) energies. Using the large quasi-real photon fluxes, we present the \gamma\gamma->H differential cross section for charmonium and narrow resonance state production at large transverse momentum in ultra-peripheral heavy ion collisions. The numerical results demonstrate that the experimental study of ultra-peripheral col-lisions is feasible at RHIC, LHC, and FCC energies. Read More

The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations for the five-body eta-4N problem are solved for the case of the driving eta N and NN potentials limited to s-waves. The quasi-particle (Schmidt) method is employed to convert the equations into the effective two-body form. Numerical results are presented for the eta-4He scattering length. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Tuebingen, Germany

**Category:**Nuclear Theory

There are three different methods used to search the neutrino mass: - The electron antineutrino mass can probably best be determined by the Triton decay. - The neutrinoless Double Beta Decay yields information, if the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. It can also determine the Majorana neutrino mass. Read More

We report microscopic calculation of key $\beta$-decay properties for some of the crucial waiting point species having neutron closed magic shells 50 and 82. Our calculation bear astrophysical significance vis-\'{a}-vis speeding of the $r$-process. The $\beta$-decay properties include half-lives, energy rates of $\beta$-delayed neutrons and their emission probabilities, both under terrestrial and stellar conditions. Read More

Starting from IP-Glasma initial conditions, we investigate the effects of bulk pressure on thermal dilepton production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. Though results of the thermal dilepton $v_2$ under the influence of both bulk and shear viscosity is presented for top RHIC energy, more emphasis is put on LHC energy where such a calculation is computed for the first time. The effects of the bulk pressure on thermal dilepton $v_2$ at the LHC are explored through bulk-induced modifications on the dilepton yield. Read More

We study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions at small-x in a consistent framework that takes into account the TMD evolution and small-x evolution simultaneously. The small-x evolution effects are included by computing the TMDs at appropriate scales in terms of the dipole scattering amplitudes, which obey the relevant Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. Meanwhile, the TMD evolution is obtained by resumming the Collins-Soper type large logarithms emerged from the calculations in small-x formalism into Sudakov factors. Read More

We discuss the effects of the electromagnetic interaction in high-energy proton collisions with nuclei of large Z at strong coupling $\lambda=g^2N_c$. Using the holographic dual limit of large $N_c>\lambda\gg 1$, we describe the Reggeon exchange as a twisted surface and show that it gets essentially modified by the electromagnetic interaction. Read More

Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) provides the only known systematic, nonperturbative method for first-principles calculations of nucleon structure. However, for quantities such as light-front parton distribution functions (PDFs) and generalized parton distributions (GPDs), the restriction to Euclidean time prevents direct calculation of the desired observable. Recently, progress has been made in relating these quantities to matrix elements of spatially non-local, zero-time operators, referred to as quasi-distributions. Read More

An extended analysis of the key role of direct interactions, i.e., breakup, stripping and pick-up processes, has been carried out for deuteron-induced reactions. Read More

We study the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in a medium at finite temperature and net baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polykov-loop extended Quark-Meson Lagrangian, that includes the coupling of quarks to vector meson and temporal gauge fields. The Functional Renormalization Group is employed to properly account for the $O(4)$ criticality at the phase boundary. Read More

We present a simple toy model for a scalar-isoscalar two-point correlator, which can serve as a testing ground for the extraction of resonance parameters from Lattice QCD calculations. We discuss in detail how the model correlator behaves when it is restricted to a finite spatial volume, and how the finite-volume data can be used to reconstruct the spectral function of the correlator in the infinite volume, which allows to extract properties of the resonance from such data. Read More

Yield ratios of identified hadrons observed in high multiplicity p+p and p+Pb collisions at LHC show remarkable similarity with those in Pb+Pb collisions, indicating some important and universal underlying dynamics in hadron production for different quark gluon final states. We use the quark combination model to explain the data of yield ratios in these three collision systems. The observed $p/\pi$ and $\Lambda/K_s^0$ can be reproduced simultaneously by quark combination, and these two ratios reflect the rate of baryon production at hadronization which is the same in light sector and strange sector and is roughly constant in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collision systems over three orders of magnitude in charged particle multiplicity. Read More

In this Letter, we analytically solve the evolution equations for the small-$x$ asymptotic behavior of the (flavor singlet) quark helicity distribution in the large-$N_c$ limit. These evolution equations form a set of coupled integro-differential equations, which previously could only be solved numerically. This approximate numerical solution, however, revealed simplifying properties of the small-$x$ asymptotics, which we exploit here to obtain an analytic solution. Read More

We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from 3+1d quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare charged-hadron multiplicity, identified-particle spectra, identified-particle average transverse momentum, charged-particle elliptic flow, and identified-particle elliptic flow produced in LHC 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions. Read More

A simple approach based on the separation of wounded nucleons in an A-A collision in two categories, those suffering single collisions - corona and the rest - core, estimated within a Glauber Monte-Carlo approach, explains the centrality dependence of the light flavor hadrons production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV. The core contribution does not include any dependence of any process on the fireball shape as a function of the impact parameter. Read More

Background: Formation of a fully equilibrated compound nucleus is a critical step in the heavy-ion fusion reaction mechanism but can be hindered by orders of magnitude by quasifission, a process in which the dinuclear system breaks apart prior to full equilibration. To provide a complete description of heavy-ion fusion it is important to characterize the quasifission process. In particular, the impact of changing the neutron-richness of the quasifission process is not well known. Read More

We propose the universal approach to describe spreading widths of monopole, dipole and quadrupole giant resonances in heavy and superheavy spherical nuclei. Our approach is based on the ideas of the random matrix distribution of the coupling between one-phonon and two-phonon states generated in the random phase approximation. We use the Skyrme interaction SLy4 as our model Hamiltonian to create a single-particle spectrum and to analyze excited states of the doubly magic nuclei $^{132}$Sn, $^{208}$Pb and $^{310}$126. Read More

We introduce a hybrid many-body approach that combines the flexibility of the No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) with the efficiency of Multi-Configurational Perturbation Theory (MCPT) to compute ground- and excited-state energies in arbitrary open-shell nuclei in large model spaces. The NCSM in small model spaces is used to define a multi-determinantal reference state that contains the most important multi-particle multi-hole correlations and the second-order MCPT correction is used to capture additional correlation effects from a large model space. We apply this new ab initio approach for the calculation of ground-state and excitation energies of even and odd-mass carbon and oxygen isotopes and find excellent agreement with large-scale NCSM calculations that are computationally much more demanding. Read More

We present NN potentials through five orders of chiral effective field theory ranging from leading order (LO) to next-to-next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N4LO). The construction is consistent in the sense that the same power counting scheme as well as the same cutoff procedures are applied in all orders. Moreover, the long-range parts of these potentials are fixed by the very accurate pi-N LECs as determined in the Roy-Steiner equations analysis by Hoferichter, Ruiz de Elvira and coworkers. Read More

The mass and decay width of the $\phi$ meson in cold nuclear matter are computed in an effective Lagrangian approach. The medium dependence of these properties are obtained by evaluating kaon-antikaon loop contributions to the $\phi$ self-energy, employing the medium-modified kaon masses, calculated using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integral is regularized with a dipole form factor, and the sensitivity of the results to the choice of cutoff mass in the form factor is investigated. Read More

We present a theory for how nucleon polarizability could be used to extract energy from nucleons by special electromagnetic conditions. A presentation of an experiment that validates the theory is presented. Also an new theory for a long range strong force is introduced by enhance the role of the $\sigma_{I=2}$ meson in nucleon nucleon potential made from mixed isospin $\sigma$ meson. Read More

The quantum-mechanical theory of the decay of unstable states is revisited. We show that the decay is non-exponential both in the short-time and long-time limits using a more physical definition of the decay rate than the one usually used. We report results of numerical studies based on Winter's model that may elucidate qualitative features of exponential and non-exponential decay more generally. Read More

In present paper, we report about the calculation of Gamow-Teller and double-beta decay properties for nuclei around 132Sn within the framework of the realistic shell model. The effective shell-model hamiltonian and Gamow-Teller transition operator are derived by way of many-body perturbation theory, without resorting to empirical effective quenching factor for the Gamow-Teller operator. The results are then compared with the available experimental data, in order to establish the reliability of our approach. Read More

Recent data on the deutron and $^3$He production in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies measured by the NA49 collaboration are analyzed within the model of the three-fluid dynamics (3FD) complemented by the coalescence model for the light-fragment production. The simulations are performed with different equations of state---with and without deconfinement transition. It is found that scenarios with the deconfinement transition are preferable for reproduction rapidity distributions of deuterons and $^3$He, the corresponding results well agree with the experimental data. Read More

Single inclusive particle production cross sections in high energy hadron collisions at forward rapidity are an important benchmark process for the CGC picture of small x QCD. Recent calculations of this process have not led to a stable perturbative expansion for this quantity at high transverse momenta. We consider the quark channel production cross section using the new rapidity factorization procedure proposed by Iancu et al. Read More

We have analyzed the data on $\psi'$ production in proton-nucleus ($p+A$) collisions, available from the NA50 Collaboration in the SPS energy domain. The investigated data sets include the absolute production cross sections as well as $\psi'$-to-Drell Yan (DY) cross section ratios. An adapted version of two component QVZ model has been employed to calculate $\psi'$ production cross sections. Read More

The kinetic freeze-out temperatures $T_0$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies are extracted by four methods: i) the Blast-Wave model with Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics (the BGBW model), ii) the Blast-Wave model with Tsallis statistics (the TBW model), iii) the Tsallis distribution with flow effect (the improved Tsallis distribution), and iv) the intercept in $T=T_0+am_0$ (the alternative method), where $m_0$ denotes the rest mass and $T$ denotes the effective temperature which can be obtained by different distribution functions. It is found that the values of $T_0$ obtained by the four methods are incongruous in some cases. In particular, the relative sizes of $T_0$ in central and peripheral collisions obtained by the the first method with the traditional treatment are contradictory in tendency with others. Read More

The cross section of high-energy $e^+e^-$ pair production by a heavy charged particle in the atomic field is investigated in detail. We take into account the interaction with the atomic field of $e^+e^-$ pair and a heavy particle as well. The calculation is performed exactly in the parameters of the atomic field. Read More