Nuclear Experiment Publications (50)

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Nuclear Experiment Publications

The first collisions of lead nuclei, delivered by the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the end of 2010, at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, marked the beginning of a new era in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Following the Run 1 period, LHC also successfully delivered PbPb collisions at the collision energy $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5. Read More


The first collisions of lead nuclei, delivered by the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the end of 2010, at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, marked the beginning of a new era in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The study of the properties of the produced hot and dense strongly-interacting matter at these unprecedented energies is currently experimentally pursued by all four big LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Read More


Exclusive measurements of the quasi-free $pn \to pp\pi^-$ and $pp \to pp\pi^0$ reactions have been performed by means of $pd$ collisions at $T_p$ = 1.2 GeV using the WASA detector setup at COSY. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained covering the energy region $T_p = 0. Read More


We derive formulas for the efficiency correction of cumulants with many efficiency bins. The derivation of the formulas is simpler than the previously suggested method, but the numerical cost is drastically reduced from the naive method. From analytical and numerical analyses in simple toy models, we show that the use of the averaged efficiency in the efficiency correction can lead to wrong corrected values, which have larger deviation for higher order cumulants. Read More


In this talk the role of spin and polarization is discussed in experimental search for new excited baryon states and in the study of the internal quark-gluon structure of the proton and neutron. Also the perspective of spin physics at the 12 GeV CEBAF electron accelerator is discussed and what we hope to learn about fundamental properties of hadrons such as their multi-dimensional structure through the momentum and spatial imaging, and about the forces on the quarks in the proton and how quark confinement may be realized through the spatial distribution of such forces. Read More


The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) spectra in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC are analyzed with a thermodynamically consistent Tsallis distribution. The information about the freeze-out surface in terms of freeze-out volume, temperature and the non-extenisivity parameter, $q$, for $K^{0}_{S}$, $\Lambda+\bar{\Lambda}$, $\Xi^{-}+\bar{\Xi}^{+}$ and $\Omega^{-}+\bar{\Omega}^{+}$ are extracted by fitting the $p_{\rm T}$ spectra with Tsallis distribution function. The freeze-out parameters of these particles are studied as a function of charged particle multiplicity density ($dN_{ch}/d\eta$). Read More


Based on the experimental data released recently by the CLAS Collaboration, the $f_{1}(1285)$ photoproduction off a proton target is investigated in an effective Lagrangian approach. In our model, $s$-channel, $u$-channel, and $t$-channel Born terms are included to calculate the differential cross sections, which are compared with recent CLAS experiment. An interpolating Reggeized treatment is applied to the $t$ channel, and it is found that the $t$-channel contribution is dominant in the $f_1(1285)$ photoproduction and the $u$-channel contribution is responsible to the enhancement at backward angles. Read More


The scintillation properties of a $\mathrm{CdMoO_4}$ crystal have been investigated experimentally. The fluorescence yields and decay times measured from 22 K to 300 K demonstrate that $\mathrm{CdMoO_4}$ crystal is a good candidate for an absorber for a bolometer readout, for both heat and scintillation signals. The results from Monte Carlo studies taking the backgrounds from $\mathrm{2\nu2\beta}$ of $\mathrm{{}_{42}^{100}Mo}$ ($\mathrm{{}_{48}^{116}Cd}$) and internal trace nuclides $\mathrm{{}^{214}Bi}$ and $\mathrm{{}^{208}Tl}$ into account show that the expected sensitivity of $\mathrm{CdMoO_4}$ bolometer for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with an exposure of 100 $\mathrm{{kg}\cdot{years}}$ is one order of magnitude higher than those of the current sets of the $\mathrm{\lim{T^{0\nu\beta\beta}_{1/2}}}$ of $\mathrm{{}_{42}^{100}Mo}$ and $\mathrm{{}_{48}^{116}Cd}$. Read More


The ALICE detector has excellent Particle IDentification (PID) capabilities in the central barrel ($\lvert \eta \rvert <$ 0.9). This allows identified hadron production to be measured over a wide transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) range, using different sub-detectors and techniques: their specific energy loss (d$E$/d$x$), the velocity determination via time-of-flight measurement, the Cherenkov angle or their characteristic weak decay topology. Read More


We systematically study the large-$q_T$ (or small-$b$) matching of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) distributions to the twist-2 integrated parton distributions. Performing operator product expansion for a generic TMD operator at the next-to-leading order (NLO) we found the complete set of TMD distributions that match twist-2. These are unpolarized, helicity, transversity, pretzelosity and linearly polarized gluon distributions. Read More


Best present experimental achievements in double beta decay are presented. Possible progress in this field in the near and far future is discussed. Read More


The key reactions to study the Generalised Parton Distributions are Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). At COMPASS, these processes are investigated using a high intensity muon beam with a momentum of 160\,GeV/c and a 2.5\,m-long liquid hydrogen target. Read More


At COMPASS DVCS and DVMP processes are studied in order to probe the partonic structure of the nucleon by constraining GPD models. Extending beyond semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, the measurement of lepton-induced exclusive reactions enables the study of GPDs, which ultimately reveal the three dimensional picture of the nucleon and the decomposition of its total angular momentum. Exploiting the flavour filtering character of DVMP measurements, the COMPASS experiment is able to access different combinations of quark and gluon GPDs by determining the cross sections for various mesons. Read More


In order for a Sullivan-like process to provide reliable access to a meson target as $t$ becomes spacelike, the pole associated with that meson should remain the dominant feature of the quark-antiquark scattering matrix and the wave function describing the related correlation must evolve slowly and smoothly. Using continuum methods for the strong-interaction bound-state problem, we explore and delineate the circumstances under which these conditions are satisfied: for the pion, this requires $-t \lesssim 0.6\,$GeV$^2$, whereas $-t\lesssim 0. Read More


New high-precision total and differential cross sections for $\eta$ and $\eta'$ photoproduction on the proton obtained by the A2 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron are presented. The data for $\eta$ photoproduction demonstrate a cusp at the energy W$\sim$1.9~GeV. Read More


High purity Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) crystals are produced starting from elemental Zn and Se to be used for the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{\nu}DBD) of 82Se. In order to increase the number of emitting nuclides, enriched 82Se is used. Dedicated production lines for the synthesis and conditioning of the Zn82Se powder in order to make it suitable for crystal growth were assembled compliant with radio-purity constraints specific to rare event physics experiments. Read More


In these proceedings, we present recent results of $\Upsilon$ measurements in heavy-ion collisions from the STAR experiment at RHIC. Nuclear modification factors ($R_{AA}$) for $\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\Upsilon(1S+2S+3S)$ in U+U collisions at \sqrtsNN\ = 193 GeV are measured through the di-electron channel and compared to those in Au+Au collisions at \sqrtsNN\ = 200 GeV and Pb+Pb collisions at \sqrtsNN\ = 2.76 TeV. Read More


Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This paper presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering in a water-based detector operated $\gtrsim10$ km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. Read More


The new data on the elastic $pp$ and single pion production reaction $pp\to pn \pi^{+}$ taken at the incident proton momentum 1683 MeV/c are presented. The data on the $pp\to pn \pi^{+}$ reaction are compared with predictions from the OPE model. To extract contributions of the leading partial waves the single pion production data are analyzed in the framework of the event-by-event maximum likelihood method together with the data measured earlier. Read More


Tensor-polarized structure functions of a spin-1 hadron are additional observables which do not exist for the spin-1/2 nucleon. They could probe novel aspects of internal hadron structure. Twist-2 tensor-polarized structure functions are $b_1$ and $b_2$, and they are related by $2x b_1 =b_2$ in the Bjorken scaling limit. Read More


Nuclear clustering describes the appearance of structures resembling smaller nuclei such as alpha particles (4He nuclei) within the interior of a larger nucleus. While clustering is important for several well-known examples, little is known about the general nature of clustering in nuclei. In this letter we present lattice Monte Carlo calculations based on chiral effective field theory for the ground states of helium, beryllium, carbon, and oxygen isotopes. Read More


The effect of core excitations in transfer reactions of the form A(d, p)B has been found to affect significantly the calculated cross sections and to depend strongly and non-linearly on the incident deuteron energy in Faddeev/AGS calculations. Our goal is to investigate these effects within a coupled-channels formulation of the scattering problem which, in addition of being computationally less demanding than the Faddeev counterpart, may help shed some light into the physical interpretation of the cited effects. We use an extended version of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method with explicit inclusion of target excitations within a coupled-channels Born approximation (CDCC-BA) formulation of the transfer transition amplitude. Read More


[Background] Long-Baseline experiments such as T2K, NOvA or the planned Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) require theoretical descriptions of the complete event in a neutrino-nucleus reaction. Since nuclear targets are used this requires a good understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions. [Purpose] One of the dominant reaction channels in neutrino-nucleus interactions is pion production. Read More


The shape transitions and shape coexistence in the Ge and Se isotopes are studied within the interacting boson model (IBM) with the microscopic input from the self-consistent mean-field calculation based on the Gogny-D1M energy density functional. The mean-field energy surface as a function of the quadrupole shape variables $\beta$ and $\gamma$, obtained from the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method, is mapped onto the expectation value of the IBM Hamiltonian with configuration mixing in the boson condensate state. The resultant Hamiltonian is used to compute excitation energies and electromagnetic properties of the selected nuclei $^{66-94}$Ge and $^{68-96}$Se. Read More


A combined analysis of the reactions $\pi^+p\to \pi^+p$, $\pi^-p\to \pi^-p$ and $\pi^-p\to \pi^0n$ is carried out with a chiral quark model. The observations are reasonably described from the $\Delta(1232)$ resonance region up to the $N(1440)$ resonance region. Besides the $\Delta(1232)P_{33}$, a confirmed role of $N(1440)P_{11}$ is found in the polarizations of the $\pi^-p\to \pi^-p$ and $\pi^-p\to\pi^0n$ reactions. Read More


This work reports on accurate, high-resolution measurements of the $^{25}$Mg($n, \gamma$)$^{26}$Mg and $^{25}$Mg($n, tot$) cross sections in the neutron energy range from thermal to about 300 keV, leading to a significantly improved $^{25}$Mg($n, \gamma$)$^{26}$Mg parametrization. The relevant resonances for $n+^{25}$Mg were characterized from a combined R-matrix analysis of the experimental data. This resulted in an unambiguous spin/parity assignment of the corresponding excited states in $^{26}$Mg. Read More


Generalized transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (GTMDs) are the most general parton correlation functions of hadrons. By considering the exclusive double Drell-Yan process it is shown for the first time how quark GTMDs can be measured. Specific GTMDs can be addressed by means of polarization observables. Read More


We consider the possibility that the reactor antineutrino anomaly is due to a miscalculation of one or more of the $^{235}\text{U}$, $^{238}\text{U}$, $^{239}\text{Pu}$, and $^{241}\text{Pu}$ reactor antineutrino fluxes. From the fit of the data we obtain the precise determination $\sigma_{f,235} = ( 6.33 \pm 0. Read More


We have studied elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) of $\phi$-mesons in the framework of a multi phase transport (AMPT) model at LHC energy. In the realms of AMPT model we observe $\phi$-mesons at intermediate transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) deviate from the previously observed (at RHIC) particle type grouping of $v_{2}$ according to the number of quark content i.e, baryons and mesons. Read More


Using non-linear evolution equations of QCD, we compute the von Neumann entropy of the system of partons resolved by deep inelastic scattering at a given Bjorken $x$ and momentum transfer $q^2 = - Q^2$. We interpret the result as the entropy of entanglement between the spatial region probed by deep inelastic scattering and the rest of the proton. At small $x$ the relation between the entanglement entropy $S(x)$ and the parton distribution $xG(x)$ becomes very simple: $S(x) = \ln[ xG(x) ]$. Read More


Using examples of several well-known, two-body interaction models, this work finds violations of the universality of the large scattering length, $a$, limit. Two classes of underlying interactions are identified. For hard interactions the density approximately scales as $1/k^4$ for momenta that are much less than the inverse of the effective range, $r_e$. Read More


The $^{58}$Ni$(n,\gamma)^{59}$Ni cross section was measured with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The neutron activations were performed at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the quasi-stellar neutron spectrum at $kT=25$ keV produced by the $^7$Li($p,n$)$^7$Be reaction. Read More


Studies of the $\gamma$-ray strength functions can reveal useful information concerning underlying nuclear structure. Accumulated experimental data on the strength functions show an enhancement in the low $\gamma$ energy region. We have calculated the M1 strength functions for the $^{49,50}$Cr and $^{48}$V nuclei in the $f_{7/2}$ shell-model basis. Read More


The PHENIX experiment at BNL-RHIC recently reported the single transverse spin asymmetry $A_N$ for forward neutrons measured in polarized proton-nucleus collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200\,$GeV; $A_N$ in proton-aluminum and proton-gold collisions are -0.015 and 0.18, respectively, which are clearly different from $A_N=-0. Read More


The neutron lifetime is one of the basic parameters in the weak interaction, and is used for predicting the light element abundance in the early universe. Our group developed a new setup to measure the lifetime with the goal precision of 0.1% at the polarized beam branch BL05 of MLF, J-PARC. Read More


This work reports on investigations of the effects on the evolution of viscous hydrodynamics and on the flow coefficients of thermal dileptons, originating from a temperature-dependent specific shear viscosity $\eta/s (T)$ in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formed at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). We show that the elliptic flow of thermal dileptons can resolve the magnitude of $\eta/s$ at the high temperatures probed by the QGP, whereas discriminating between different specific functional forms will likely not be possible at RHIC using this observable. Read More


A lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculation of the nuclear matrix element relevant to the $nn\to ppee\overline{\nu}_e\overline{\nu}_e$ transition is described in detail, expanding on the results presented in Ref. [1]. This matrix element, which involves two insertions of the weak axial current, is an important input for phenomenological determinations of double-$\beta$ decay rates of nuclei. Read More


We present the preliminary results of measurements of single spin asymmetries, $A_L$ for $W^\pm$ boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV and measurements of cross section ratios, $\sigma _{W^+} / \sigma _{W^-}$, for $W^+,W^-$ boson production in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 500 and 510 GeV. The asymmetry measurements are based on 246.2 pb$^{-1}$ of data taken in the RHIC 2013 run and the cross section ratio measurements are based on 102 pb$^{-1}$ of data taken during RHIC 2011 and 2012 runs by the STAR experiment. Read More


We present the first measurement of the two-particle transverse momentum differential correlation function, $P_2\equiv\langle \Delta p_{\rm T} \Delta p_{\rm T} \rangle /\langle p_{\rm T} \rangle^2$, in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =$ 2.76 TeV. Results for $P_2$ are reported as a function of relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta \eta$) and azimuthal angle ($\Delta \varphi$) between two particles for different collision centralities. Read More


The initial geometry effect on collective flows, which are inherited from projectile's or target's nuclear structure, is studied in heavy-ion collisions by using a multi-phase transport model (AMPT). Elliptic flow ($v_2$) and triangular flow ($v_3$) which are significantly resulted from the Chain and Triangle structure of $^{12}\mathrm{C}$ with three-$\alpha$ clusters, respectively, in central $^{12}\mathrm{C}$+$^{197}\mathrm{Au}$ collisions are compared with the flow from the Woods-Saxon distribution of nucleons in $^{12}\mathrm{C}$. $v_3/v_2$ is proposed as a probe to distinguish the pattern of $\alpha$-clustered $^{12}\mathrm{C}$. Read More


Background: The discovery of neutrinoless double-beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay would demonstrate the nature of neutrinos, have profound implications for our understanding of matter-antimatter mystery, and solve the mass hierarchy problem of neutrinos. The calculations for the nuclear matrix elements $M^{0\nu}$ of $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay are crucial for the interpretation of this process. Purpose: We study the effects of relativity and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nuclear matrix elements $M^{0\nu}$ by assuming the mechanism of exchanging light or heavy neutrinos for the $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay. Read More


Nuclear thermodynamics studies evidenced the existence of a first order phase transition, namely of the liquid-gas type, without paying attention to the isospin degree of freedom. On the other hand, only few results with the introduction of the isospin variable have been so far obtained. Moreover above all a key question remains. Read More


Nuclear recoil backgrounds are one of the most dangerous backgrounds for many dark matter experiments. A primary source of nuclear recoils is radiogenic neutrons produced in the detector material itself. These neutrons result from fission and $(\alpha,n)$ reactions originating from uranium and thorium contamination. Read More


We have measured the total kinetic energy release (TKE), its variance and associated fission product distributions for the neutron induced fission of 232Th and 235U for En = 2 - 90 MeV. The neutron energies were determined on an event by event basis by time of flight measurements with the white spectrum neutron beam from LANSCE. The TKE decreases non-linearly with increasing neutron energy for both systems, while the TKE variances are sensitive indicators of nth chance fission. Read More


Elliptic flow, $v_2$, and triangular flow, $v_3$, are to a good approximation linearly proportional to the corresponding spatial anisotropies of the initial density profile, $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$. Using event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations, we point out when deviations from this linear scaling are to be expected. When these deviations are negligible, relative $v_n$ fluctuations are equal to relative $\varepsilon_n$ fluctuations, and one can directly probe models of initial conditions using ratios of cumulants, for instance $v_n\{4\}/v_n\{2\}$. Read More


Light-by-light scattering ($\gamma\gamma\rightarrow\gamma\gamma$) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead (Pb) ions. Using 480 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5. Read More


We present the first azimuthally differential measurements of the pion source size relative to the second harmonic event plane in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV. The measurements have been performed in the centrality range 0-50% and for pion pair transverse momenta $0. Read More


The $^{13}{\rm C}(\alpha,n)^{16}{\rm O}$ reaction is considered to be the main neutron source responsible for the production of heavy nuclides (from ${\rm Sr}$ to ${\rm Bi}$) through slow $n$-capture nucleosynthesis ($s$-process) at low temperatures during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of low mass stars ($\lesssim 3-4\;{\rm M}_{\odot}$, or LMSs). In recent years, several direct and indirect measurements have been carried out to determine the cross section at the energies of astrophysical interest (around $190\pm40\;{\rm keV}$). However, they yield inconsistent results causing a highly uncertain reaction rate and affecting the neutron release in LMSs. Read More


The richness of the data set, collected by the INDRA collaboration during the last twenty years, enabled us to build a set of caloric curves for nuclei of various sizes, by using, for the first time, a single experimental set-up and a single experimental protocol. We will therefore present the different caloric curves ($E^{\ast}-T$) obtained by a new calorimetry, for Quasi-Projectiles produced by symmetric or quasi symmetric reactions at different incident energies (Au+Au, Xe+Sn, Ni+Ni). For all these systems, a clear change of the de-excitation process of hot nuclei is observed but this one is neither a plateau nor a back-bending, but a sudden change of slope. Read More