# Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons Publications (50)

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## Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons Publications

A new highly efficient method is developed for computation of traveling periodic waves (Stokes waves) on the free surface of deep water. A convergence of numerical approximation is determined by the complex singularites above the free surface for the analytical continuation of the travelling wave into the complex plane. An auxiliary conformal mapping is introduced which moves singularities away from the free surface thus dramatically speeding up numerical convergence by adapting the numerical grid for resolving singularities while being consistent with the fluid dynamics. Read More

We examine the spectral properties of single and multiple matter-wave dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in parabolic traps, where the scattering length is periodically modulated. In addition to the large-density limit picture previously established for homogeneous nonlinearities, we explore a perturbative analysis in the vicinity of the linear limit, which provides good agreement with the observed spectral modes. Between these two analytically tractable limits, we use numerical computations to fill in the relevant intermediate regime. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}UPMC,

^{2}UPMC,

^{3}UPMC

The propagation of waves in the nonlinear acoustic metamaterials (NAMs) is fundamentally different from that in the conventional linear ones. In this article we consider two one-dimensional NAM systems featuring respectively a diatomic and a tetratomic meta unit-cell. We investigate the attenuation of the wave, the band structure and the bifurcations to demonstrate novel nonlinear effects, which can significantly expand the bandwidth for elastic wave suppression and cause nonlinear wave phenomena. Read More

The existence, stability, and dynamics of bound pairs of symbiotic matter waves in the form of dark-bright soliton pairs in two-component mixtures of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated. Motivated by the tunability of the atomic interactions in recent experiments, we explore in detail the impact that changes in the interaction strengths have on these bound pairs by considering significant deviations from the Manakov (integrable) limit. It is found that dark-bright soliton pairs exist as stable configurations in a wide parametric window spanning both the miscible and the immiscible regime of interactions. Read More

Nonlinear systems can exhibit a rich set of dynamics that are inherently sensitive to their initial conditions. One such example is modulational instability, which is believed to be one of the most prevalent instabilities in nature. By exploiting a shallow zero-crossing of a Feshbach resonance, we characterize modulational instability and its role in the formation of matter-wave soliton trains from a Bose-Einstein condensate. Read More

We present the results of an experimental and numerical investigation into temporally non-local coherent interactions between ultrashort pulses, mediated by Raman coherence, in gas-filled kagom\'{e}-style hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. A pump pulse first set up the Raman coherence, creating a refractive index grating in the gas that travels at the group velocity of the pump pulse. Varying the arrival time of a second probe pulse allows high degree of control over its evolution as it propagates along the fiber, in particular soliton self-compression and dispersive wave (DW) emission. Read More

We present a study of disorder origination and growth inside an ordered phase processes induced by the presence of multiplicative noise within mean-field approximation. Our research is based on the study of solutions of the nonlinear self-consistent Fokker-Planck equation for a stochastic spatially extended model of a chemical reaction. We carried out numerical simulation of the probability distribution density dynamics and statistical characteristics of the system under study for varying noise intensity values and system parameter values corresponding to a spatially inhomogeneous ordered state in a deterministic case. Read More

The ability to control a desired dynamics or pattern in reaction-diffusion systems has attracted considerable attention over the last decades and it is still a fundamental problem in applied nonlinear science. Besides traveling waves, moving localized spots -- also called dissipative solitons -- represent yet another important class of self-organized spatio-temporal structures in non-equilibrium dissipative systems. In this work, we focus attention to control aspects and present an efficient method to control both the position and orientation of these moving localized structures according to a prescribed protocol of movement. Read More

Chimera states are characterized by the symmetry-breaking coexistence of synchronized and incoherent groups of oscillators in certain chains of identical oscillators. We report on the direct experimental observation of states reminiscent of such chimeras within a ring of coupled electronic (Wien-bridge) oscillators, and compare these to numerical simulations of a theoretically derived model. Following up on earlier work characterizing the pairwise interaction of Wien-bridge oscillators by Kuramoto-Sakaguchi phase dynamics, we develop a lattice model for a chain thereof, featuring an {\it exponentially decaying} spatial kernel. Read More

The propagation of nonlinear waves in a lattice of repelling particles is studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple experimental setup is proposed, consisting in an array of coupled magnetic dipoles. By driving harmonically the lattice at one boundary, we excite propagating waves and demonstrate different regimes of mode conversion into higher harmonics, strongly influenced by dispersion and discreteness. Read More

We present a numerical study of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation in two transverse dimensions, relevant for the propagation of light in certain exotic media. A well known feature of the model is the existence of flat-top bright solitons of fixed intensity, whose dynamics resembles the physics of a liquid. They support traveling wave solutions, consisting of rarefaction pulses and vortex-antivortex pairs. Read More

Functional oscillator networks, such as neuronal networks in the brain, exhibit switching between metastable states involving many oscillators. Chimeras - localized frequency synchrony patterns - are candidates for such states, but their spatial location has predominantly been considered fixed. We show that dynamical transitions of the location of frequency synchrony arise in paradigmatic phase oscillator networks through metastable chimeras joined by heteroclinic connections. Read More

Taking all the magnon modes into account, we derive the skyrmion dynamics in response to a weak external drive. A skyrmion is centrosymmetric and the magnon modes can be characterized by an angular momentum. For a weak distortion of a skyrmion, only the magnon modes with an angular momentum $|m|=1$ govern the dynamics of skyrmion topological center. Read More

We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension ($D = 1. Read More

We investigate the dynamics of a coupled waveguide system with competing linear and nonlinear loss-gain profiles which can facilitate power saturation. We show the usefulness of the model in achieving unidirectional beam propagation. In this regard, the considered type of coupled waveguide system has two drawbacks, (i) difficulty in achieving perfect isolation of light in a waveguide and (ii) existence of blow-up type behavior for certain input power situations. Read More

We study pattern formation aspects in a 2-D reaction-diffusion (RD) sub-cellular model characterizing the effect of a spatial gradient of a plant hormone distribution on a family of G-proteins associated with root-hair (RH) initiation in the plant cell \emph{Arabidopsis thaliana}. The activation of these G-proteins, known as the Rho of Plants (ROPs), by the plant hormone auxin, is known to promote certain protuberances on root hair cells, which are crucial for both anchorage and the uptake of nutrients from the soil. Our mathematical model for the activation of ROPs by the auxin gradient is an extension of the model proposed by Payne and Grierson [PLoS ONE, {\bf 12}(4), (2009)], and consists of a two-component generalized Schnakenberg RD system with spatially heterogeneous coefficients on a 2-D domain. Read More

We study the generation of dissipative solitons (DSs) in the model of the fiber-laser cavities under the combined action of cubic-quintic nonlinearity, multiphoton absorption and/or multiphoton emission (nonlinear gain) and gain dispersion. A random component of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) is included too. The DS creation and propagation is studied by means of a variational approximation and direct simulations, which are found to be in reasonable agreement. Read More

In this work we experimentally demonstrate the generation of exciton-polariton X-waves and study their dynamics in time. X-waves belong to the category of localized packets, a class of states able to sustain their shape without the need of any nonlinearity. This allows to keep the packet shape for very low densities and very long times compared, for instance, to soliton waves which, on the contrary, always need nonlinearity to compensate the diffusion. Read More

We consider a propagation of transition fronts in one-dimensional chains with bi-stable nondegenerate on-site potential. If one adopts linear coupling in the chain and piecewise linear on-site force, then it is possible to develop well-known exact solutions for the front and accompanying oscillatory tail. We demonstrate that these solutions are essentially non-robust. Read More

Understanding how desertification takes place in different ecosystems is an important step in attempting to forecast and prevent such transitions. Dryland ecosystems often exhibit patchy vegetation, which has been shown to be an important factor on the possible regime shifts that occur in arid regions in several model studies. In particular, both gradual shifts that occur by front propagation, and abrupt shifts where patches of vegetation vanish at once, are a possibility in dryland ecosystems due to their emergent spatial heterogeneity. Read More

Nonlinear wave interactions affect the evolution of steep wave groups, their breaking and the associated kinematic field. Laboratory experiments are performed to investigate the effect of the underlying focussing mechanism on the shape of the breaking wave and its velocity field. In this regard, it is found that the shape of the wave spectrum plays a substantial role. Read More

We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger/Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted fibers. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. Read More

Large responses of ecosystems to small changes in the conditions--regime shifts--are of great interest and importance. In spatially extended ecosystems, these shifts may be local or global. Using empirical data and mathematical modeling, we investigated the dynamics of the Namibian fairy circle ecosystem as a case study of regime shifts in a pattern-forming ecosystem. Read More

In the present work, we explore a nonlinear Dirac equation motivated as the continuum limit of a binary waveguide array model. We approach the problem both from a near-continuum perspective as well as from a highly discrete one. Starting from the former, we see that the continuum Dirac solitons can be continued for all values of the discretization (coupling) parameter, down to the uncoupled (so-called anti-continuum) limit where they result in a 9-site configuration. Read More

A dual-core waveguide with balanced gain and loss in different arms and with intermodal coupling is considered. The system is not invariant under the conventional $PT$ symmetry but obeys $CPT$ symmetry where an additional spatial inversion $C$ corresponds to swapping the coupler arms. We show that second-order dispersion of coupling allows for unbroken $CPT$ symmetry and supports propagation of stable vector solitons along the coupler. Read More

The response of dynamical systems to varying conditions and disturbances is a fundamental aspect of their analysis. In spatially extended systems, particularly in pattern-forming systems, there are many possible responses, including critical transitions, gradual transitions and locally confined responses. Here, we use the context of vegetation dynamics in drylands in order to study the response of pattern-forming ecosystems to oscillating precipitation and local disturbances. Read More

Spatial patterns arising spontaneously due to internal processes are ubiquitous in nature, varying from regular patterns of dryland vegetation to complex structures of bacterial colonies. Many of these patterns can be explained in the context of a Turing instability, where patterns emerge due to two locally interacting components that diffuse with different speeds in the medium. Turing patterns are multistable, such that many different patterns with different wavelengths are possible for the same set of parameters, but in a given region typically only one such wavelength is dominant. Read More

We report on finite-sized-induced transitions to synchrony in a population of phase oscillators coupled via a nonlinear mean field, which microscopically is equivalent to a hypernetwork organization of interactions. Using a self-consistent approach and direct numerical simulations, we argue that a transition to synchrony occurs only for finite-size ensembles, and disappears in the thermodynamic limit. For all considered setups, that include purely deterministic oscillators with or without heterogeneity in natural oscillatory frequencies, and an ensemble of noise-driven identical oscillators, we establish scaling relations describing the order parameter as a function of the coupling constant and the system size. Read More

We present the results of asymptotic and numerical analysis of dissipative Kerr solitons in whispering gallery mode microresonators influenced by higher order dispersive terms leading to the appearance of a dispersive wave (Cherenkov radiation). Combining direct perturbation method with the method of moments we find expressions for the frequency, strength, spectral width of the dispersive wave and soliton velocity. Mutual influence of the soliton and dispersive wave was studied. Read More

We determine the stability and instability of a sufficiently small and periodic traveling wave to long wavelength perturbations, for a nonlinear dispersive equation which extends a Camassa-Holm equation to include all the dispersion of water waves and the Whitham equation to include nonlinearities of medium amplitude waves. In the absence of the effects of surface tension, the result qualitatively agrees with the Benjamin-Feir instability of a Stokes wave. In the presence of the effects of surface tension, it qualitatively agrees with those from formal asymptotic expansions of the physical problem and it improves upon that for the Whitham equation, correctly predicting the limit of strong surface tension. Read More

A distinct mechanism for the emergence of spatially localized states embedded in an oscillatory background is presented in the context of 2:1 frequency locking. The localization is of Turing type and appears in two space dimensions as comb-like states in either $\pi$ phase shifted Hopf oscillations or inside a spiral core. Specifically, the localized states appear outside the 2:1 resonance region and in absence of the well known flip-flop dynamics (associated with collapsed homoclinic snaking) that is known to arise in the vicinity of Hopf-Turing bifurcation in one space dimension. Read More

Over the last few decades, phase-field equations have found increasing applicability in a wide range of mathematical-scientific fields (e.g. geometric PDEs and mean curvature flow, materials science for the study of phase transitions) but also engineering ones (e. Read More

We consider the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of a nonlinear Schr\"odinger (NLS) model incorporating linear and nonlinear gain/loss. First, we describe analytically the dynamical regimes (depending on the gain/loss strengths), for finite-time collapse, decay, and global existence of solutions in the dynamics. Then, for all the above parametric regimes, we use direct numerical simulations to study the dynamics corresponding to algebraically decaying initial data. Read More

In this paper we propose an efficient tomographic approach for the early detection of 2D rogue waves. The method relies on the principle of detecting conical spectral features before rogue wave becomes evident in time. More specifically, the proposed method is based on constructing the 1D Radon transforms of the emerging conical 2D spectra of the wavefield using compressive sampling (CS) and then constructing 2D spectra from those projections using filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. Read More

Internal gravity waves play a primary role in geophysical fluids: they contribute significantly to mixing in the ocean and they redistribute energy and momentum in the middle atmosphere. Until recently, most studies were focused on plane wave solutions. However, these solutions are not a satisfactory description of most geophysical manifestations of internal gravity waves, and it is now recognized that internal wave beams with a confined profile are ubiquitous in the geophysical context. Read More

We study the scattering of a long longitudinal radiating bulk strain solitary wave in the delaminated area of a two-layered elastic structure with soft (`imperfect') bonding between the layers within the scope of the coupled Boussinesq equations. The direct numerical modelling of this and similar problems is challenging and has natural limitations. We develop a semi-analytical approach, based on the use of several matched asymptotic multiple-scale expansions and averaging with respect to the fast space variable, leading to the coupled Ostrovsky equations in bonded regions and uncoupled Korteweg-de Vries equations in the delaminated region. Read More

We study a heretofore ignored class of spiral patterns for oscillatory media as characterized by the complex Landau-Ginzburg model. These spirals emerge from modulating the growth rate as a function of $r$, thereby turning off the instability. These spirals are uniquely determined by matching to those outer conditions, lifting a degeneracy in the set of steady-state solutions of the original equations. Read More

We study propagation of traveling waves in a blood filled elastic artery with an axially symmetric dilatation (an idealized aneurysm) in long-wave approximation.The processes in the injured artery are modelled by equations for the motion of the wall of the artery and by equation for the motion of the fluid (the blood). For the case when balance of nonlinearity, dispersion and dissipation in such a medium holds the model equations are reduced to a version of the Korteweg-deVries-Burgers equation with variable coefficients. Read More

We present theoretical and experimental studies on pattern formation with bistable dynamical units coupled in a star network configuration. By applying a localized perturbation to the central or the peripheral elements, we demonstrate the subsequent spreading, pinning, or retraction of the activations; such analysis enables the characterization of the formation of stationary patterns of localized activity. The results are interpreted with a theoretical analysis of a simplified bistable reaction-diffusion model. Read More

We study rogue wave excitation pattern in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with pair-transition effects. The results indicate that rogue wave excitation can exist on a stripe phase background for which there are cosine and sine wave background in the two components respectively. The rogue wave peak can be much lower than the ones of scalar matter wave rogue waves, and varies with the wave period changing. Read More

Motivated by the recent theoretical study of (bright) soliton diode effects in systems with multiple scatterers, as well as by experimental investigations of soliton-impurity interactions, we consider some prototypical case examples of interactions of dark solitons with a pair of scatterers. In a way fundamentally opposite to the case of bright solitons (but consonant to their "anti-particle character"), we find that dark solitons accelerate as they pass the first barrier and hence cannot be trapped by a second equal-height barrier. A pair of unequal barriers may lead to reflection from the second one, however trapping in the inter-barrier region cannot occur. Read More

The particular type of four-kink multi-solitons (or quadrons) adiabatic dynamics of the sine-Gordon equation in a model with two identical point attracting impurities has been studied. This model can be used for describing magnetization localized waves in multilayer ferromagnet. The quadrons structure and properties has been numerically investigated. Read More

We introduce a novel numerical method to integrate partial differential equations representing the Hamiltonian dynamics of field theories. It is a multi-symplectic integrator that locally conserves the stress-energy tensor with an excellent precision over very long periods. Its major advantage is that it is extremely simple (it is basically a centered box scheme) while remaining locally well defined. Read More

We present a novel approximation method which can predict the number of solitons asymptotically appearing under arbitrary rapidly decreasing initial conditions. The number of solitons can be estimated without integration of original soliton equations. As an example, we take the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation and estimate the behaviors of scattering amplitude in detail. Read More

The spectral renormalization method was introduced by Ablowitz and Musslimani in 2005, [Opt. Lett. {\bf 30}, pp. Read More

We have investigated mixed-gap vector solitons involving incoherently coupled fundamental and dipole components in a parity-time (PT) symmetric lattice with saturable nonlinearity. For the focusing case, vector solitons emerge from the semi-infinite and the first finite gaps, while for the defocusing case, vector solitons emerge from the first finite and the second finite gaps. For both cases, we find that stronger saturable nonlinearity is relative to sharper increase/decrease of soliton power with propagation constant and to narrower existence domain of vector solitons. Read More

This paper investigates cells proliferation dynamics in small tumor cell aggregates using an individual based model (IBM). The simulation model is designed to study the morphology of the cell population and of the cell lineages as well as the impact of the orientation of the division plane on this morphology. Our IBM model is based on the hypothesis that cells are incompressible objects that grow in size and divide once a threshold size is reached, and that newly born cell adhere to the existing cell cluster. Read More

**Authors:**Shin-itiro Goto

It is shown that Maxwell's equations in media without source can be written as a contact Hamiltonian vector field restricted to a Legendre submanifold, where this submanifold is in a fiber space of a bundle and is generated by either electromagnetic energy functional or co-energy functional. Then, it turns out that Legendre duality for this system gives the induction oriented formulation of Maxwell's equations and field intensity oriented one. Also, information geometry of the Maxwell fields is introduced and discussed. Read More

We demonstrate that pulses of linear physical systems, weakly perturbed by nonlinear dissipation, exhibit soliton-like behavior in fast collisions. The behavior is demonstrated for linear waveguides with weak cubic loss and for systems described by linear diffusion-advection models with weak quadratic loss. We show that in both systems, the expressions for the collision-induced amplitude shifts due to the nonlinear loss have the same form as the expression for the amplitude shift in a fast collision between two optical solitons in the presence of weak cubic loss. Read More

We consider a cubic nonlinear wave equation on a network and show that inspecting the normal modes of the graph, we can immediately identify which ones extend into nonlinear periodic orbits. Two main classes of nonlinear periodic orbits exist: modes without soft nodes and others. For the former which are the Goldstone and the bivalent modes, the linearized equations decouple. Read More