# Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons Publications (50)

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## Nonlinear Sciences - Pattern Formation and Solitons Publications

We study invasion fronts and spreading speeds in two component reaction-diffusion systems. Using Lin's method, we construct traveling front solutions and show the existence of a bifurcation to locked fronts where both components invade at the same speed. Expansions of the wave speed as a function of the diffusion constant of one species are obtained. Read More

We consider a continuous version of the Hegselmann-Krause model of opinion dynamics. Interaction between agents either leads to a state of consensus, where agents converge to a single opinion as time evolves, or to a fragmented state with multiple opinions. In this work, we linearize the system about a uniform density solution and predict consensus or fragmentation based on properties of the resulting dispersion relation. Read More

Traveling periodic waves of the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are considered in the focusing case. By using one-fold and two-fold Darboux transformations, we construct explicitly the rogue periodic waves of the mKdV equation expressed by the Jacobian elliptic functions dn and cn respectively. The rogue dn-periodic wave describes propagation of an algebraically decaying soliton over the dn-periodic wave, the latter wave is modulationally stable with respect to long-wave perturbations. Read More

This paper is motivated by the recent demonstration of three-wave mixing based phononic frequency comb. While the previous experiments have shown the existence of three-wave mixing pathway in a system of two-coupled phonon modes, this work demonstrates a similar pathway in a system of three-coupled phonon modes. The paper also presents a number of interesting experimental facts concomitant to the three-mode three-wave mixing based frequency comb observed in a specific micromechanical device. Read More

We report a new effect of a cascade replication of dissipative solitons from a single one. It is discussed in the framework of a common model based on the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in which an additional linear term is introduced to account the perturbation from a particular potential of externally applied force. The effect manifestation is demonstrated on the light beams propagating through a planar waveguide. Read More

**Authors:**M. Zajnulina, M. Böhm, D. Bodenmüller, K. Blow, J. M. Chavez Boggio, A. A. Rieznik, M. M. Roth

We study the properties of a soliton crystal, an bound state of several optical pulses that propagate with a fixed temporal separation through the optical fibres of the proposed approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFC) for astronomical spectrograph calibration. This approach - also being suitable for subpicosecond pulse generation for other applications - consists of a conventional single-mode fibre and a suitably pumped Erbium-doped fibre. Two continuous-wave lasers are used as light source. Read More

The effect of spatial localization of states in distributed parameter systems under frozen parametric disorder is well known as the Anderson localization and thoroughly studied for the Schr\"odinger equation and linear dissipation-free wave equations. Some similar (or mimicking) phenomena can occur in dissipative systems such as the thermal convection ones. Specifically, many of these dissipative systems are governed by a modified Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, where the frozen spatial disorder of parameters has been reported to lead to excitation of localized patterns. Read More

Our research is related to the employment of photoplethysmography (PPG) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) techniques (measuring the blood volume and flux, respectively) for the peripheral vascular system. We derive the governing equations of the wave dynamics for the case of extremely inhomogeneous parameters. We argue for the conjecture that the blood-vascular system as a wave-conducting medium should be nearly reflection-free. Read More

We propose a fibre-based approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) with the aim of calibration of astronomical spectrographs in the low and medium-resolution range. This approach includes two steps: in the first step, an appropriate state of optical pulses is generated and subsequently moulded in the second step delivering the desired OFC. More precisely, the first step is realised by injection of two continuous-wave (CW) lasers into a conventional single-mode fibre, whereas the second step generates a broad OFC by using the optical solitons generated in step one as initial condition. Read More

We investigate the focusing coupled PT-symmetric nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation employing Darboux transformation approach. We find a family of exact solutions including pairs of Bright-Bright, Dark-Dark and Bright-Dark solitons in addition to solitary waves. We show that one can convert bright bound state onto a dark bound state in a two-soliton solution by selectively fine tuning the amplitude dependent parameter. Read More

A model of the optical media with a spatially structured Kerr nonlinearity is introduced. The nonlinearity strength is modulated by a set of singular peaks on top of a self-focusing or defocusing uniform background. The peaks may include a repulsive or attractive linear potential too. Read More

Coupled modified nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger(CMNLS) equations describe the pulse propagation in the picosecond or femtosecond regime of the birefringent optical fibers. In this paper, we use the Fokas method to analyze the initial-boundary value problem for the CMNLS equations on the half-line. Assume that the solution u(x,t) and v(x,t) of CMNLS equations are exists, and we show that it can be expressed in terms of the unique solution of a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem formulated in the plane of the complex spectral parameter {\lambda}. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Universidad Sergio Arboleda,

^{2}School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology

The mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrillation have been investigated for over a century, but we are still finding surprising results that change our view of this phenomenon. The present study focuses on the transition from normal rhythm to atrial fibrillation associated with a gradual increase in the pacing rate. While some of our findings are consistent with existing experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies of this problem, one result appears to contradict the accepted picture. Read More

We study the presence of exact localized solutions in a quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation with inhomogeneous nonlinearities. Using a specific ansatz, we transform the nonautonomous nonlinear equation into an autonomous one, which engenders composed states corresponding to solutions localized in space, with an oscillating behavior in time. Direct numerical simulations are employed to verify the stability of the modulated solutions against small random perturbations. Read More

We study effects of tight harmonic-oscillator confinement on the electromagnetic field in a laser cavity by solving the two-dimensional Lugiato-Lefever (2D LL) equation, taking into account self- focusing or defocusing nonlinearity, losses, pump, and the trapping potential. Tightly confined (quasi-zero-dimensional) optical modes (pixels), produced by this model, are analyzed by means of the variational approximation, which provides a qualitative picture of the ensuing phenomena. This is followed by systematic simulations of the time-dependent 2D LL equation, which reveal the shape, stability, and dynamical behavior of the resulting localized patterns. Read More

In this paper, we use the Fokas method to analyze the complex Sharma-Tasso-Olver(cSTO) equation on the half line. We show that it can be represented in terms of the solution of a matrix RHP formulated in the plane of the complex spectral parameter {\lambda}. Read More

Localized Structures often behave as quasi-particles and they may form molecules characterized by well-defined bond distances. In this paper we show that pointwise nonlocality may lead to a new kind of molecule where bonds are not rigid. The elements of this molecule can shift mutually one with respect to the others while remaining linked together, in a way similar to interlaced rings in a chain. Read More

We report the bright solitons of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with some types of physically relevant parity-time-(PT-) and non-PT-symmetric potentials. We find that the constant momentum coefficient can modulate the linear stability and complicated transverse power-flows (not always from the gain toward loss) of nonlinear modes. However, the varying momentum coefficient Gamma(x) can modulate both unbroken linear PT-symmetric phases and stability of nonlinear modes. Read More

Solitary waves (SWs) are generated in monoatomic (homogeneous) lightly contacting spherical granules by an applied input force of any time-variation and intensity. We consider finite duration shock loads and focus on the transition regime that leads to the formation of SWs. Based on geometrical and material properties of the granules and the properties of the input shock, we provide explicit analytic expressions to calculate the peak value of the compressive contact force at each contact point in the transition regime that precedes the formation of a primary solitary wave. Read More

The effect of derivative nonlinearity and parity-time- (PT-) symmetric potentials on the wave propagation dynamics is investigated in the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation, where the physically interesting Scarff-II and hamonic-Hermite-Gaussian potentials are chosen. We study numerically the regions of unbroken/broken linear PT-symmetric phases and find some stable bright solitons of this model in a wide range of potential parameters even though the corresponding linear PT-symmetric phases are broken. The semi-elastic interactions between exact bright solitons and exotic incident waves are illustrated such that we find that exact nonlinear modes almost keep their shapes after interactions even if the exotic incident waves have evidently been changed. Read More

The novel nonlinear dispersive Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) mean-field model with the space-modulated nonlinearity and potential (called GP(m, n) equation) is investigated in this paper. By using self-similar transformations and some powerful methods, we obtain some families of novel envelope compacton-like solutions spikon-like solutions to the GP(n, n) (n>1) equation. These solutions possess abundant localized structures because of infinite choices of the self-similar function X(x). Read More

In this paper, a simple and constructive method is presented to find the generalized perturbation (n,M)-fold Darboux transformations (DTs) of the modified nonlinear Schrodinger (MNLS) equation in terms of fractional forms of determinants. In particular, we apply the generalized perturbation (1,N-1)-fold DTs to find its explicit multi-rogue-wave solutions. The wave structures of these rogue-wave solutions of the MNLS equation are discussed in detail for different parameters, which display abundant interesting wave structures, including the triangle and pentagon, etc. Read More

The integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger (NNLS) equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential [Phys. Rev. Lett. Read More

Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc.. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time (PT)-symmetry was introduced in 1998. Read More

We study exact solutions of the quasi-one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with the (space, time)-modulated potential and nonlinearity and the time-dependent gain or loss term in Bose-Einstein condensates. In particular, based on the similarity transformation, we report several families of exact solutions of the GP equation in the combination of the harmonic and Gaussian potentials, in which some physically relevant solutions are described. The stability of the obtained matter-wave solutions is addressed numerically such that some stable solutions are found. Read More

It is shown that using the similarity transformations, a set of three-dimensional p-q nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equations with inhomogeneous coefficients can be reduced to one-dimensional stationary NLS equation with constant or varying coefficients, thus allowing for obtaining exact localized and periodic wave solutions. In the suggested reduction the original coordinates in the (1+3)-space are mapped into a set of one-parametric coordinate surfaces, whose parameter plays the role of the coordinate of the one-dimensional equation. We describe the algorithm of finding solutions and concentrate on power (linear and nonlinear) potentials presenting a number of case examples. Read More

We introduce a practical and computationally not demanding technique for inferring interactions at various microscopic levels between the units of a network from the measurements and the processing of macroscopic signals. Starting from a network model of Kuramoto phase oscillators which evolve adaptively according to homophilic and homeostatic adaptive principles, we give evidence that the increase of synchronization within groups of nodes (and the corresponding formation of synchronous clusters) causes also the defragmentation of the wavelet energy spectrum of the macroscopic signal. Our methodology is then applied for getting a glance to the microscopic interactions occurring in a neurophysiological system, namely, in the thalamo-cortical neural network of an epileptic brain of a rat, where the group electrical activity is registered by means of multichannel EEG. Read More

This work builds upon the recent demonstration of a phononic four-wave mixing (FWM) pathway mediated by parametric resonance. In such a process, drive tones f_d1 and f_d2 associated with a specific phonon mode interact such that one of the drive tones also parametrically excites a second mode at a sub-harmonic frequency and such interactions result in a frequency comb f_d1/2 +/- n(f_d1-f_d2 ). However, the specific behaviour associated with the case where both drive tones can independently excite the sub-harmonic phonon mode has not been studied or previously described. Read More

In this paper, we construct a special kind of breather solution of the nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger (NLS) equation, the so-called breather-positon ({\it b-positon} for short), which can be obtained by taking the limit $\lambda_{j}$ $\rightarrow$ $\lambda_{1}$ of the Lax pair eigenvalues in the order-$n$ periodic solution which is generated by the $n$-fold Darboux transformation from a special "seed" solution--plane wave. Further, an order-$n$ {\it b-positon} gives an order-$n$ rogue wave under a limit $\lambda_1\rightarrow \lambda_0$. Here $\lambda_0$ is a special eigenvalue in a breather of the NLS equation such that its period goes to infinity. Read More

The evolution of cooperation in situations where selfish behavior would lead to defection is at the root of the formation of human societies and has attracted a lot of attention as a result. In structured populations, both spatial clustering of cooperators in lattice-like topologies, as well as heterogeneous contact networks, have been shown to favor cooperation in social dilemmas. Here, we present a unified framework that can describe and quantify the formation of spatial clusters of cooperators in a metric space, and also represent heterogeneous contact networks, in particular scale-free topologies as observed in most real networks. Read More

We demonstrate autoparametric excitation of two distinct sub-harmonic mechanical modes by the same driven mechanical mode corresponding to different drive frequencies within its resonance dispersion band. This experimental observation is used to motivate a more general physical picture wherein multiple mechanical modes could be excited by the same driven primary mode within the same device as long as the frequency spacing between the sub-harmonic modes is less than half the dispersion bandwidth of the driven primary mode. The excitation of both modes is seen to be threshold-dependent and a parametric back-action is observed impacting on the response of the driven primary mode. Read More

The statics and dynamics of a stable, mobile three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal vortex light bullet in a cubic-quintic nonlinear medium with a focusing cubic nonlinearity above a critical value and any defocusing quintic nonlinearity is considered. The present study is based on an analytic variational approximation and a full numerical solution of the 3D nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation. The 3D vortex bullet can propagate with a constant velocity. Read More

In the aerospace industry the trend for light-weight structures and the resulting complex dynamic behaviours currently challenge vibration engineers. In many cases, these light-weight structures deviate from linear behaviour, and complex nonlinear phenomena can be expected. We consider a cyclically symmetric system of coupled weakly nonlinear undamped oscillators that could be considered a minimal model for different cyclic and symmetric aerospace structures experiencing large deformations. Read More

The evolution of a solitary wave with very weak nonlinearity which was originally investigated by Miles [4] is revisited. The solution for a one-dimensional gravity wave in a water of uniform depth is considered. This leads to finding the solution to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in which the nonlinear term is small. Read More

We show theoretically and numerically that dichromatic pumping of a nonlinear microresonator by two continuous wave coherent optical pumps creates an optical lattice trap that results in the localization of intra-cavity Kerr solitons with soliton positions defined by the beat frequency of the pumps. This phenomenon corresponds to the stabilization of the Kerr frequency comb repetition rate. The locking of the second pump, through adiabatic tuning of its frequency, to the comb generated by the first pump allows transitioning to single-soliton states, manipulating the position of Kerr solitons in the cavity, and tuning the frequency comb repetition rate within the locking range. Read More

The domain-area distribution in the phase transition dynamics of $Z_2$ symmetry breaking is studied for quasi-two-dimensional multi-component superfluids. The distribution is divided into microscopic and macroscopic regimes with distinct power-law exponents. The macroscopic regime universally exhibits Fischer's law in percolation theory, while the microscopic regime depends on the microscopic dynamics of the system. Read More

The results of the probabilistic analysis of the direct numerical simulations of irregular unidirectional deep-water waves are discussed. It is shown that an occurrence of large-amplitude soliton-like groups represents an extraordinary case, which is able to increase noticeably the probability of high waves even in moderately rough sea conditions. The ensemble of wave realizations should be large enough to take these rare events into account. Read More

In shear flows at transitional Reynolds numbers, localized patches of turbulence, known as puffs, coexist with the laminar flow. Recently, Avila et al., Phys. Read More

Since the parity-time-(PT-) symmetric quantum mechanics was put forward, fundamental properties of some linear and nonlinear models with PT-symmetric potentials have been investigated. However, previous studies of PT-symmetric waves were limited to constant diffraction coefficients in the ambient medium. Here we address effects of variable diffraction coefficient on the beam dynamics in nonlinear media with generalized $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric Scarf-II potentials. Read More

We study analytically and numerically envelope solitons (bright and gap solitons) in a one-dimensional, nonlinear acoustic metamaterial, composed of an air-filled waveguide periodically loaded by clamped elastic plates. Based on the transmission line approach, we derive a nonlinear dynamical lattice model which, in the continuum approximation, leads to a nonlinear, dispersive and dissipative wave equation. Applying the multiple scales perturbation method, we derive an effective lossy nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation and obtain analytical expressions for bright and gap solitons. Read More

We consider a quantum analogue of black holes and white holes using Bose-Einstein condensates. The model is described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a 'stream flow' potential, that induces a spatial translation to standing waves. We then mainly consider the dynamics of dark solitons in a black hole or white hole flow analogue and their interactions with the event horizon. Read More

In the present work, we examine a prototypical model for the formation of bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices. Utilizing the paradigm of nonlinear transmission lines, we build a relevant lattice and develop a quasi-continuum multiscale approximation that enables us to appreciate both the underlying linear dispersion relation and the potential for bifurcation of nonlinear states. We focus here, more specifically, on bright discrete breathers which bifurcate from the lower edge of the linear dispersion relation at wavenumber $k=\pi$. Read More

We treat the stationary nonlinear Schroodinger equation on two-dimensional branched domains, so-called fat graphs. The shrinking limit when the domain becomes one-dimensional metric graph is studied by using analytical estimate of the convergence of fat graph boundary conditions into those for metric graph. Detailed analysis of such convergence on the basis of numerical solution of stationary nonlinear Schrodinger equation on a fat graph is provided. Read More

We study a three-wave truncation of the high-order nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation for deepwater waves (HONLS, also named Dysthe equation). We validate our approach by comparing it to numerical simulation, distinguish the impact of the different fourth-order terms and classify the solutions according to their topology. This allows us to properly define the temporary spectral upshift occurring in the nonlinear stage of Benjamin-Feir instability and provides a tool for studying further generalizations of this model. Read More

In classical shallow water wave (SWW) theory, there exist two integrable one-dimensional SWW equation [Hirota-Satsuma (HS) type and Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) type] in the Boussinesq approximation. In this paper, we mainly focus on the integrable SWW equation of AKNS type. The nonlocal symmetry in form of square spectral function is derived starting from its Lax pair. Read More

We explore the feasibility of using fast-slow asymptotic to eliminate the computational stiffness of the discrete-state, continuous-time deterministic Markov chain models of ionic channels underlying cardiac excitability. We focus on a Markov chain model of the fast sodium current, and investigate its asymptotic behaviour with respect to small parameters identified in different ways. Read More

We study topological defects in anisotropic ferromagnets with competing interactions near the Lifshitz point. We show that skyrmions and bi-merons are stable in a large part of the phase diagram. We calculate skyrmion-skyrmion and meron-meron interactions and show that skyrmions attract each other and form ring-shaped bound states in a zero magnetic field. Read More

We analyze theoretically the Schrodinger-Poisson equation in two transverse dimensions in the presence of a Kerr term. The model describes the nonlinear propagation of optical beams in thermooptical media and can be regarded as an analogue system for a self-gravitating self-interacting wave. We compute numerically the family of radially symmetric ground state bright stationary solutions for focusing and defocusing local nonlinearity, keeping in both cases a focusing nonlocal nonlinearity. Read More

A discrete analogue of the extended Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) Skyrme model that admits time-dependent solutions is presented. Using the spacing h of adjacent lattice nodes as a parameter, we identify the spatial profile of the solution and the continuation of the relevant branch of solutions over the lattice spacing for different values of the potential (free) parameter {\alpha}. In particular, we explore the dynamics and stability of the obtained solutions, finding that, while they generally seem to be prone to instabilities, for suitable values of the lattice spacing and for sufficiently large value of {\alpha}, they may be long-lived in direct numerical simulations. Read More

We investigate the temporal photonic analogue of the dam-break phenomenon for shallow water by exploiting a fiber optics setup. We clearly observe the decay of the step-like input (photonic dam) into a pair of oppositely propagating rarefaction wave and dispersive shock wave. Our results show evidence for a critical transition of the dispersive shock into a self-cavitating state. Read More