# Nonlinear Sciences - Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems Publications (50)

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## Nonlinear Sciences - Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems Publications

The Eisenhart geometric formalism, which transforms an Euclidean natural Hamiltonian $H=T+V$ into a geodesic Hamiltonian ${\cal T}$ with one additional degree of freedom, is applied to the four families of quadratically superintegrable systems with multiple separability in the Euclidean plane. Firstly, the separability and superintegrability of such four geodesic Hamiltonians ${\cal T}_r$ ($r=a,b,c,d$) in a three-dimensional curved space are studied and then these four systems are modified with the addition of a potential ${\cal U}_r$ leading to ${\cal H}_r={\cal T}_r +{\cal U}_r$. Secondly, we study the superintegrability of the four Hamiltonians $\widetilde{{\cal H}}_r= {\cal H}_r/ \mu_r$, where $\mu_r$ is a certain position-dependent mass, that enjoys the same separability as the original system ${\cal H}_r$. Read More

We discuss several new bi-Hamiltonian integrable systems on the plane with integrals of motion of third, fourth and sixth order in momenta. The corresponding variables of separation, separated relations, compatible Poisson brackets and recursion operators are also presented in the framework of the Jacobi method. Read More

We derive integrable equations starting from autonomous mappings with a general form inspired by the additive systems associated to the affine Weyl group E$_8^{(1)}$. By deautonomisation we obtain two hitherto unknown systems, one of which turns out to be a linearisable one, and we show that both these systems arise from the deautonomisation of a non-QRT mapping. In order to unambiguously prove the integrability of these nonautonomous systems, we introduce a series of Miura transformations which allows us to prove that one of these systems is indeed a discrete Painlev\'e equation, related to the affine Weyl group E$_7^{(1)}$, and to cast it in canonical form. Read More

In this article we present a new method for construction of exact solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG) for ferromagnetic nanowires. The method is based on the established relationship between the LLG and the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (NLS), and is aimed at resolving an old problem: how to produce multiple-rogue wave solutions of NLS using just the Darboux-type transformations. The solutions of this type - known as P-breathers - have been proven to exist by Dubard and Matveev, but their technique heavily relied on using the solutions of yet another nonlinear equation, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili I equation (KP-I), and its relationship with NLS. Read More

A variable-coefficient forced Korteweg-de Vries equation with spacial inhomogeneity is investigated in this paper. Under constraints, this equation is transformed into its bilinear form, and multi-soliton solutions are derived. Effects of spacial inhomogeneity for soliton velocity, width and background are discussed. Read More

In exactly solvable quantum mechanical systems, ladder and intertwining operators play a central role because, if they are found, the energy spectrums can be obtained algebraically. In this paper, we study such features of ladder and intertwining operators in a unified way, in which we make the operators to depend on parameters. It is shown that, when ladder operators depend on a parameter, the ordinary commutation relation for ladder operators is modified in a natural way. Read More

We propose a method to solve the initial value problem for the ultradiscrete Somos-4 and Somos-5 equations by expressing terms in the equations as convex polygons and regarding max-plus algebras as those on polygons. Read More

After a short review of the classical Lie theorem, a finite dimensional Lie algebra of vector fields is considered and the most general conditions under which the integral curves of one of the fields can be obtained by quadratures in a prescribed way will be discussed, determining also the number of quadratures needed to integrate the system. The theory will be illustrated with examples andbn an extension of the theorem where the Lie algebras are replaced by some distributions will also be presented. Read More

We study the symmetry reduction of nonlinear partial differential equations which are used for describing diffusion processes in nonhomogeneous medium. We find ansatzes reducing partial differential equations to systems of ordinary differential equations. The ansatzes are constructed by using operators of Lie-B\"acklund symmetry of third order ordinary differential equation. Read More

A bosonization of the quantum affine superalgebra $U_q(\widehat{sl}(M|N))$ is presented for an arbitrary level $k \in {\bf C}$. Screening operators that commute with $U_q(\widehat{sl}(M|N))$ are presented for the level $k \neq -M+N$. Read More

A class of nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equations involving a triad of power law terms together with a de Broglie-Bohm potential is shown to admit symmetry reduction to a hybrid Ermakov-Painlev\'{e} II equation which is linked, in turn, to the integrable Painlev\'{e} XXXIV equation. A nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger encapsulation of a Korteweg-type capillary system is thereby used in the isolation of such a Ermakov-Painlev\'{e} II reduction valid for a multi-parameter class of free energy functions. Iterated application of a B\"{a}cklund transformation then allows the construction of novel classes of exact solutions of the nonlinear capillarity system in terms of Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials or classical Airy functions. Read More

Starting from a so-called flat exact semisimple bihamiltonian structures of hydrodynamic type, we arrive at a Frobenius manifold structure and a tau structure for the associated principal hierarchy. We then classify the deformations of the principal hierarchy which possess tau structures. Read More

We apply the method of nonlinear steepest descent to compute the long-time asymptotics of the Toda lattice with steplike initial data corresponding to a rarefaction wave. Read More

We find the $\ell$-weights and the $\ell$-weight vectors for the highest $\ell$-weight $q$-oscillator representations of the positive Borel subalgebra of the quantum loop algebra $U_q(\mathcal L(\mathfrak{sl}_{l+1}))$ for arbitrary values of $l$. Having this, we establish the explicit relationship between the $q$-oscillator and prefundamental representations. Our consideration allows us to conclude that the prefundamental representations can be obtained by tensoring $q$-oscillator representations. Read More

We investigate a class of multi-dimensional two-component systems of Monge-Amp\`ere type that can be viewed as generalisations of heavenly-type equations appearing in self-dual Ricci-flat geometry. Based on the Jordan-Kronecker theory of skew-symmetric matrix pencils, a classification of normal forms of such systems is obtained. All two-component systems of Monge-Amp\`ere type turn out to be integrable, and can be represented as the commutativity conditions of parameter-dependent vector fields. Read More

In this paper we study a non-linear partial differential equation (PDE), proposed by N. Kudryashov [arXiv:1611.06813v1[nlin. Read More

Recently, integrability conditions (ICs) in mutistate Landau-Zener (MLZ) theory were proposed [1]. They describe common properties of all known solved systems with linearly time-dependent Hamiltonians. Here we show that ICs enable efficient computer assisted search for new solvable MLZ models that span complexity range from several interacting states to mesoscopic systems with many-body dynamics and combinatorially large phase space. Read More

We formulate the $N$ soliton solution of the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa equation that is determined by purely algebraic equations. Derivation is based on the matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem. We give examples of one soliton solution that include smooth soliton, bursting soliton, and loop type soliton. Read More

Two integrable $U(1)$-invariant peakon equations are derived from the NLS hierarchy through the tri-Hamiltonian splitting method. A Lax pair, a recursion operator, a bi-Hamiltonian formulation, and a hierarchy of symmetries and conservation laws are obtained for both peakon equations. These equations are also shown to arise as potential flows in the NLS hierarchy by applying the NLS recursion operator to flows generated by space translations and $U(1)$-phase rotations on a potential variable. Read More

The B\"acklund transformation (BT) for the "good" Boussinesq equation and its superposition principles are presented and applied. Unlike many other standard integrable equations, the Boussinesq equation does not have a strictly algebraic superposition principle for 2 BTs, but it does for 3. We present associated lattice systems. Read More

**Authors:**Tamara Grava

We review the theory of modulation equations or Whitham equations for the travelling wave solution of KdV. We then apply the Whitham modulation equations to describe the long-time asymptotics and small dispersion asymptotics of the KdV solution Read More

We study a q-generalization of the classical Laguerre/Hermite orthogonal polynomials. Explicit results include: the recursive coefficients, matrix elements of generators for the Heisenberg algebra, and the Hankel determinants. The power of quadratic relation is illustrated by comparing two ways of calculating recursive coefficients. Read More

We study the asymptotics of recurrence coefficients for monic orthogonal polynomials $\pi_n(z)$ with the quartic exponential weight $\exp[-N(\frac 12 z^2+\frac 14 tz^4)]$, where $t\in {\mathbb C}$ and $N\in{\mathbb N}$, $N\to\infty$. Our goal is to describe these asymptotic behaviors globally for $t\in {\mathbb C}$ in different regions. We also describe the "breaking" curves separating these regions, and discuss their special (critical) points. Read More

An integrable generalization of the continuous classical O$(2,1)$ pseudospin Heisenberg model to the case of the ospu$(1,1/1)$ superalgebra is constructed. The gauge equivalence of the constructed model and the related NLSE is established. We indicate a method of generating classical solutions using the global ospu$(1,1/1)$ supersymmetry. Read More

**Authors:**C. -L. Ho

We consider the solvability of the Fokker-Planck equation with both time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients by means of the similarity method. By the introduction of the similarity variable, the Fokker-Planck equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Adopting the natural requirement that the probability current density vanishes at the boundary, the resulting ordinary differential equation turns out to be integrable, and the probability density function can be given in closed form. Read More

We study the dependence of the tau function of Painlev\'e I equation on the generalized monodromy of the associated linear problem. In particular, we compute connection constants relating the tau function asymptotics on five canonical rays at infinity. The result is expressed in terms of dilogarithms of cluster type coordinates on the space of Stokes data. Read More

We study the bi-Hamiltonian structures for the hierarchy of a 3-component generalization of the Degasperis-Procesi (3-DP) equation. We show that all Hamiltonian functionals in the hierarchy are homogenous, and Hamiltonian functionals of the hierarchy in the negative direction are local. We construct two different Liouville transformations by construct a reciprocal transformation. Read More

There are investigated the Lie algebraic structure and integrability properties of a very interesting class of nonlinear dynamical systems called the heavenly equations, which were initiated by Pleba\'nski and later analyzed in a series of articles. Based on the AKS-algebraic and related R-structure schemes there are studied orbits of the corresponding co-adjoint actions, deeply related with the classical Lie-Poisson type structures on them. There is successively demonstrated that their compatibility condition proves to coincide exactly with the corresponding heavenly equation under regard. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}U of Auckland,

^{2}U of Auckland

Oscillons are spatially stationary, quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear field theories seen in settings ranging from granular systems, low temperature condensates and early universe cosmology. We describe a new class of oscillon in which the spatial envelope can have "off centre" maxima and pulsate on timescales much longer than the fundamental frequency. These are exact solutions of the 1-D sine-Gordon equation and we demonstrate numerically that similar solutions exist in up to three dimensions for a range of potentials. Read More

By using Lie symmetry methods, we identify a class of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations invariant under at least one dimensional subgroup of the symmetry group of the Ermakov-Pinney equation. In this context, nonlinear superposition rule for second order Kummer-Schwarz equation is rediscovered. Invariance under one-dimensional symmetry group is also used to obtain first integrals (Ermakov-Lewis invariants). Read More

Traveling wave solutions to Kawahara equation (KE), transmission line (TL), and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation are found by using a modified elliptic function method which is a generalization of the $\mathrm{tanh}$-method. This works by assuming that a polynomial ansatz satisfies a Weierstrass equation, and has two advantages: first, it reduces the number of terms in the ansatz by an order of two, and second, it uses Weierstrass functions which satisfy the elliptic equation for the dependent variable instead of the hyperbolic tangent functions which only satisfy the Riccati equation with constant coefficients. When the polynomial ansatz in the traveling wave variable is of first order, the equation reduces to KdV equation with only a cubic dispersion term, while for the KE equation which includes a fifth order dispersion term the polynomial ansatz must necessary be of quadratic type. Read More

In this paper, we prove that the nonlocal complex modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation introduced by Ablowitz and Musslimani [Nonlinearity, 29, 915-946 (2016)] is gauge equivalent to a spin-like model. From the gauge equivalence, one can see that there exists significant difference between the nonlocal complex mKdV equation and the classical complex mKdV equation. Through constructing the Darboux transformation(DT) for nonlocal complex mKdV equation, a variety of exact solutions including dark soliton, W-type soliton, M-type soliton and periodic solutions are derived. Read More

We consider optical systems where propagation of light can be described by a Dirac-like equation with $PT$-symmetric Hamiltonian. In order to construct exactly solvable configurations, we extend the confluent Crum-Darboux transformation for the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The properties of the associated intertwining operators are discussed and the explicit form for higher-order transformations is presented. Read More

For the nonlocal Davey-Stewartson I equation, the Darboux transformation is considered and explicit expressions of the solutions are obtained. Like the nonlocal equations in 1+1 dimensions, many solutions may have singularities. However, by suitable choice of parameters in the solutions of the Lax pair, it is proved that the solutions obtained from seed solutions which are zero and an exponential function of $t$ respectively, by a Darboux transformation of degree $n$ are global solutions of the nonlocal Davey-Stewartson I equation. Read More

We introduce a large class of Sobolev bi-orthogonal polynomial sequences arising from a $LU$-factorizable moment matrix and associated with a suitable measure matrix that characterizes the Sobolev bilinear form. A theory of deformations of Sobolev bilinear forms is also proposed. We consider both polynomial deformations and a class of transformations related to the action of linear operators on the entries of a given bilinear form. Read More

We consider the discrete and continuous vector non-linear Schrodinger (NLS) model. We focus on the case where space-like local discontinuities are present, and we are primarily interested in the time evolution on the defect point. This in turn yields the time part of a typical Darboux-Backlund transformation. Read More

A nonlocal derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation is introduced. By constructing its basic Darboux transformations of degrees one and two, the explicit expressions of new solutions are derived from seed solutions by Darboux transformation of degree 2n. Usually the derived solutions of this nonlocal equation may have singularities. Read More

A unified framework is presented for the solution structure of 3D discrete integrable systems, including the lattice AKP, BKP and CKP equations. This is done through the so-called direct linearising transform which establishes a general class of integral transforms between solutions. As a particular application, novel soliton-type solutions for the lattice CKP equation are obtained. Read More

We introduce the technique combining the features of integration schemes for SDYM equations and multidimensional dispersionless integrable equations to get SDYM equations on the conformally self-dual background. Generating differential form is defined, the dressing scheme is developed. Some special cases and reductions are considered. Read More

We give a construction of completely integrable ($2n$)-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with symplectic brackets of the Lie-Poisson type (linear in coordinates) and with quadratic Hamilton functions. Applying to any such system the so called Kahan-Hirota-Kimura discretization scheme, we arrive at a birational ($2n$)-dimensional map. We show that this map is symplectic with respect to a symplectic structure that is a perturbation of the original symplectic structure on $\mathbb R^{2n}$, and possesses $n$ independent integrals of motion, which are perturbations of the original Hamilton functions and are in involution with respect to the invariant symplectic structure. Read More

We establish the algebraic origin of the following observations made previously by the authors and coworkers: (i) A given integrable PDE in $1+1$ dimensions within the Zakharov-Shabat scheme related to a Lax pair can be cast in two distinct, dual Hamiltonian formulations; (ii) Associated to each formulation is a Poisson bracket and a phase space (which are not compatible in the sense of Magri); (iii) Each matrix in the Lax pair satisfies a linear Poisson algebra a la Sklyanin characterized by the {\it same} classical $r$ matrix. We develop the general concept of dual Lax pairs and dual Hamiltonian formulation of an integrable field theory. We elucidate the origin of the common $r$-matrix structure by tracing it back to a single Lie-Poisson bracket on a suitable coadjoint orbit of the loop algebra ${\rm sl}(2,\CC) \otimes \CC (\lambda, \lambda^{-1})$. Read More

Rational solutions of the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde (or WDVV) equations of associativity are given in terms a configurations of vectors which satisfy certain algebraic conditions known as $\bigvee$-conditions. The simplest examples of such configuration are the root systems of finite Coxeter groups. In this paper conditions are derived which ensure that an extended configuration - a configuration in a space one-dimension higher -satisfy these $\bigvee$-conditions. Read More

We study a new example of equation obtained as a result of a recent generalized symmetry classification of differential-difference equations defined on five points of one-dimensional lattice. We have established that in the continuous limit this new equation goes into the well-known Kaup-Kupershmidt equation. We have also proved its integrability by constructing an $L-A$ pair and conservation laws. Read More

In this note we discuss the global dynamics of an integrable nonlocal NLS on $\mathbb{R}$, which has been the object of recent investigation by integrable systems methods. We prove two results which are in striking contrast with the case of the local cubic focusing NLS on $\mathbb{R}$. First, finite time blow-up solutions exist with arbitrarily small initial data in $H^s(\mathbb{R})$, for any $s\geqslant0$. Read More

We further generalize the generalized short pulse equation studied recently in [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Read More

We prove that the existence of a dispersionless Lax pair with spectral parameter for a nondegenerate hyperbolic second order partial differential equation (PDE) is equivalent to the canonical conformal structure defined by the symbol being Einstein-Weyl on any solution in 3D, and self-dual on any solution in 4D. The main ingredient in the proof is a characteristic property for dispersionless Lax pairs, which we establish for determined systems of PDEs of any order. Thus our main result applies more generally to any such PDE system whose characteristic variety is a quadric hypersurface. Read More

In 2013 a new nonlocal symmetry reduction of the well-known AKNS scattering problem was found; it was shown to give rise to a new nonlocal $PT$ symmetric and integrable Hamiltonian nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger (NLS) equation. Subsequently, the inverse scattering transform was constructed for the case of rapidly decaying initial data and a family of spatially localized, time periodic one soliton solution were found. In this paper, the inverse scattering transform for the nonlocal NLS equation with nonzero boundary conditions at infinity is presented in the four cases when the data at infinity have constant amplitudes. Read More

We classify integrable scalar polynomial partial differential equations of second order generalizing the short pulse equation. Read More

In this issue we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism and its numerous modifications thanks to their flexibility and various applications as well its promising perspectives in different fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given, however, still far from completeness. Read More

We propose a modified version of the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional admitting static solitons and determine all the Painlev\'e-integrable cases of its Bogomolny equations of a given class of models. Explicit solutions are determined in terms of the third Painlev\'e transcendents, allowing us to calculate physical quantities such as the vortex number and the vortex strength. These solutions can be interpreted as the usual Abelian-Higgs vortices on surfaces of non-constant curvature with conical singularity. Read More