# Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics Publications (50)

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## Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics Publications

In the well known logistic map, the parameter of interest is weighted by a coefficient that decreases linearly when this parameter increases. Since such a linear decrease forms a specific case, we consider the more general case where this coefficient decreases nonlinearly as in a hyperbolic tangent relaxation of a system toward equilibrium. We show that, in this latter case, the asymptotic values obtained via iteration of the logistic map are considerably modified. Read More

Modeling and parameter estimation for neuronal dynamics are often challenging because many parameters can range over orders of magnitude and are difficult to measure experimentally. Moreover, selecting a suitable model complexity requires a sufficient understanding of the model's potential use, such as highlighting essential mechanisms underlying qualitative behavior or precisely quantifying realistic dynamics. We present a novel approach that can guide model development and tuning to achieve desired qualitative and quantitative solution properties. Read More

Chimera states have been studied in 1D arrays, and a variety of different chimera states have been found using different models. Research has recently been extended to 2D arrays but only to phase models of them. Here, we extend it to a nonphase model of 2D arrays of neurons and focus on the influence of nonlocal coupling. Read More

Mixing of a passive scalar in a fluid flow results from a two part process in which large gradients are first created by advection and then smoothed by diffusion. We investigate methods of designing efficient stirrers to optimize mixing of a passive scalar in a two-dimensional nonautonomous, incompressible flow over a finite time interval. The flow is modeled by a sequence of area-preserving maps whose parameters change in time, defining a mixing protocol. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}I2M,

^{2}I2M,

^{3}I2M

We consider electron impact-driven single and double ionization of magnesium in the 10-100 eV energy range. Our classical Hamiltonian model of these (e, 2e) and (e, 3e) processes sheds light on their total cross sections and reveals the underlying ionization mechanisms. Two pathways are at play in single ionization: Delayed and direct. Read More

In the present paper we investigate the influence of the retarded access by a time-varying delay on the dynamics of delay systems. We show that there are two universality classes of delay which lead to fundamental differences in dynamical quantities such as the Lyapunov spectrum. Therefore we introduce an operator theoretic framework, where the solution operator of the delay system is decomposed into the Koopman operator describing the delay access and an operator similar to the solution operator known from systems with constant delay. Read More

Energy or quasienergy (QE) band spectra depending on two parameters may have a nontrivial topological characterization by Chern integers. Band spectra of 1D systems that are spanned by just one parameter, a Bloch number, are topologically trivial. Recently, an ensemble of 1D Floquet systems, double kicked rotors (DKRs) depending on an external parameter, has been studied. Read More

Gas-solid multiphase flows are prone to develop an instability known as clustering. Two-fluid models, which treat the particulate phase as a continuum, are known to reproduce the qualitative features of this instability, producing highly-dynamic, spatiotemporal patterns. However, it is unknown whether such simulations are truly aperiodic or a type of complex periodic behavior. Read More

The chaotic phenomenon of intermittency is modeled by a simple map of the unit interval, the Farey map. The long term dynamical behaviour of a point under iteration of the map is translated into a spin system via symbolic dynamics. Methods from dynamical systems theory and statistical mechanics may then be used to analyse the map, respectively the zeta function and the transfer operator. Read More

The study of synchronization in populations of coupled biological oscillators is fundamental to many areas of biology to include neuroscience, cardiac dynamics and circadian rhythms. Studying these systems may involve tracking the concentration of hundreds of variables in thousands of individual cells resulting in an extremely high-dimensional description of the system. However, for many of these systems the behaviors of interest occur on a collective or macroscopic scale. Read More

We introduce diffusively coupled networks where the dynamical system at each vertex is planar Hamiltonian. The problems we address are synchronisation and an analogue of diffusion-driven Turing instability for time-dependent homogeneous states. As a consequence of the underlying Hamiltonian structure there exist unusual behaviours compared with networks of coupled limit cycle oscillators or activator-inhibitor systems. Read More

We demonstrate a way to generate a two-dimensional rogue waves in two types of broad area nonlinear optical systems subject to time-delayed feedback: in the generic Lugiato-Lefever model and in model of a broad-area surface-emitting laser with saturable absorber. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous formation of rogue waves. In the absence of delayed feedback, spatial pulses are stationary. Read More

Noise-enhanced chaos in a doped, weakly coupled GaAs/Al_{0.45}Ga_{0.55}As superlattice has been observed at room temperature in experiments as well as in the results of the simulation of nonlinear transport based on a discrete tunneling model. Read More

We employ the Random Matrix Theory framework to calculate the density of zeroes of an $M$-channel scattering matrix describing a chaotic cavity with a single localized absorber embedded in it. Our approach extends beyond the weak-coupling limit of the cavity with the channels and applies for any absorption strength. Importantly it provides an insight for the optimal amount of loss needed to realize a chaotic coherent perfect absorbing (CPA) trap. Read More

The conditional Lyapunov exponent is defined in terms of chaotic synchronization, in particular complete synchronization and generalized synchronization. We find that the conditional Lyapunov exponent is expressed as a formula in terms of ergodic theory. Dealing with this formula, we find what factors characterize the conditional Lyapunov exponent in chaotic systems. Read More

We develop an algorithm for model selection which allows for the consideration of a combinatorially large number of candidate models governing a dynamical system. The innovation circumvents a disadvantage of standard model selection which typically limits the number candidate models considered due to the intractability of computing information criteria. Using a recently developed sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics algorithm, the sub-selection of candidate models near the Pareto frontier allows for a tractable computation of AIC (Akaike information criteria) or BIC (Bayes information criteria) scores for the remaining candidate models. Read More

Low-Reynolds-number polymer solutions exhibit a chaotic behaviour known as 'elastic turbulence' when the Weissenberg number exceeds a critical value. The two-dimensional Oldroyd-B model is the simplest constitutive model that reproduces this phenomenon. To make a practical estimate of the resolution scale of the dynamics requires an assumption that an attractor of the Oldroyd-B model exists : numerical simulations show that the quantities on which this assumption is based are bounded. Read More

We present a study of diffusion enhancement of underdamped Brownian particles in 1D symmetric space-periodic potential due to external symmetric time-periodic forcing with zero mean. We show that the diffusivity can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude at appropriate choice of the forcing amplitude and frequency. The diffusivity demonstrates TAD, abnormal (decreasing) temperature dependence at forcing amplitudes exceeding certain value. Read More

We investigate the level spacing distribution for the quantum spectrum of the square billiard. Extending work of Connors--Keating, and Smilansky, we formulate an analog of the Hardy--Littlewood prime $k$-tuple conjecture for sums of two squares, and show that it implies that the spectral gaps, after removing degeneracies and rescaling, are Poisson distributed. Consequently, by work of Rudnick and Uebersch\"ar, the level spacings of arithmetic toral point scatterers, in the weak coupling limit, are also Poisson distributed. Read More

Numerical and experimental turbulence simulations are nowadays reaching the size of the so-called big data, thus requiring refined investigative tools for appropriate statistical analyses and data mining. We present a new approach based on the complex network theory, offering a powerful framework to explore complex systems with a huge number of interacting elements. Although interest on complex networks has been increasing in the last years, few recent studies have been applied to turbulence. Read More

We employ Random Matrix Theory in order to investigate coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in lossy systems with complex internal dynamics. The loss strength $\gamma_{\rm CPA}$ and energy $E_{\rm CPA}$, for which a CPA occurs are expressed in terms of the eigenmodes of the isolated cavity -- thus carrying over the information about the chaotic nature of the target -- and their coupling to a finite number of scattering channels. Our results are tested against numerical calculations using complex networks of resonators and chaotic graphs as CPA cavities. Read More

We study small-scale and high-frequency turbulent fluctuations in three-dimensional flows under Fourier-mode reduction. The Navier-Stokes equations are evolved on a restricted set of modes, obtained as a projection on a fractal or homogeneous Fourier set. We find a strong sensitivity (reduction) of the high-frequency variability of the Lagrangian velocity fluctuations on the degree of mode decimation, similarly to what is already reported for Eulerian statistics. Read More

We discuss synchronization patterns in networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo and Leaky Integrate-and-Fire oscillators coupled in a two-dimensional toroidal geometry. Common feature between the two models is the presence of fast and slow dynamics, a typical characteristic of neurons. Earlier studies have demonstrated that both models when coupled nonlocally in one-dimensional ring networks produce chimera states for a large range of parameter values. Read More

Hysteresis operators appear in many applications such as elasto-plasticity and micromagnetics, and can be used for a wider class of systems, where rate-independent memory plays a role. A natural approximation for hysteresis operators are fast-slow dynamical systems, which - in their used approximation form - do not involve any memory effects. Hence, viewing hysteresis operators as a limit of approximating fast-slow dynamics involves subtle limit procedures. Read More

We derive a mean-field approximation for the macroscopic dynamics of large networks of pulse-coupled theta neurons in order to study the effects of different network degree distributions, as well as degree correlations (assortativity). Using the ansatz of Ott and Antonsen (Chaos, 19 (2008) 037113), we obtain a reduced system of ordinary differential equations describing the mean-field dynamics, with significantly lower dimensionality compared with the complete set of dynamical equations for the system. We find that, for sufficiently large networks and degrees, the dynamical behavior of the reduced system agrees well with that of the full network. Read More

In this work we investigate the dynamics of the nonlinear DDE (delay-differential equation) x''(t)+x(t-T)+x(t)^3=0 where T is the delay. For T=0 this system is conservative and exhibits no limit cycles. For T>0, no matter how small, an infinite number of limit cycles exist, their amplitudes going to infinity in the limit as T approaches zero. Read More

Controlling Chaos could be a big factor in getting great stable amounts of energy out of small amounts of not necessarily stable resources. By definition, Chaos is getting huge changes in the system's output due to unpredictable small changes in initial conditions, and that means we could take advantage of this fact and select the proper control system to manipulate system's initial conditions and inputs in general and get a desirable output out of otherwise a Chaotic system. That was accomplished by first building some known chaotic circuit (Chua circuit) and the NI's MultiSim was used to simulate the ANN control system. Read More

In this paper we show that in the semicassical regime of periodic potential large enough, the Stark-Wannier ladders become a dense energy spectrum because of a cascade of bifurcations while increasing the ratio between the effective nonlinearity strength and the tilt of the external field; this fact is associated to a transition from regular to quantum chaotic dynamics. The sequence of bifurcation points is explicitly given. Read More

For all convex co-compact hyperbolic surfaces, we prove the existence of an essential spectral gap, that is a strip beyond the unitarity axis in which the Selberg zeta function has only finitely many zeroes. We make no assumption on the dimension $\delta$ of the limit set, in particular we do not require the pressure condition $\delta\leq {1\over 2}$. This is the first result of this kind for quantum Hamiltonians. Read More

An array of excitable Josephson junctions under global mean-field interaction and a common periodic forcing shows emergence of two important classes of coherent dynamics, librational and rotational motion in the weaker and stronger coupling limits, respectively, with transitions to chimeralike states and clustered states in the intermediate coupling range. In this numerical study, we use the Kuramoto complex order parameter and introduce two measures, a libration index and a clustering index to characterize the dynamical regimes and their transition and locate them in a parameter plane. Read More

We analyze the thermodynamic costs of the three main approaches to generating random numbers via the recently introduced Information Processing Second Law. Given access to a specified source of randomness, a random number generator (RNG) produces samples from a desired target probability distribution. This differs from pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) that use wholly deterministic algorithms and from true random number generators (TRNG) in which the randomness source is a physical system. Read More

We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied. Read More

We investigate spatio-temporal dynamics of a 2D ensemble of nonlocally coupled chaotic cubic maps in a bistability regime. In particular, we perform a detailed study on the transition "coherence -- incoherence" for varying coupling strength for a fixed interaction radius. For the 2D ensemble we show the appearance of amplitude and phase chimera states previously reported for 1D ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic systems. Read More

We study adaptive learning in a typical p-player game. The payoffs of the games are randomly generated and then held fixed. The strategies of the players evolve through time as the players learn. Read More

Geopolitics focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. Interactions among world countries have been widely studied at various scales, observing economic exchanges, world history or international politics among others. This work exhibits the potential of Wikipedia mining for such studies. Read More

A long-standing quantum-mechanical puzzle is whether the collapse of the wave function is a real physical process or simply an epiphenomenon. This puzzle lies at the heart of the measurement problem. One way to choose between the alternatives is to assume that one or the other is correct and attempt to draw physical, observable consequences which then could be empirically verified or ruled out. Read More

In this chapter we review stochastic modelling methods in climate science. First we provide a conceptual framework for stochastic modelling of deterministic dynamical systems based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The Mori-Zwanzig equations contain a Markov term, a memory term and a term suggestive of stochastic noise. Read More

We investigate the Lyapunov spectrum of separated flows and their dependence on the numerical discretization. The chaotic flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil at low Reynolds number and large angle of attack is considered to that end, and t-, h- and p-refinement studies are performed to examine each effect separately. Numerical results show that the time discretization has a small impact on the dynamics of the system, whereas the spatial discretization can dramatically change them. Read More

Constructing efficient and accurate parameterizations of sub-gridscale processes is a central area of interest in the numerical modelling of geophysical fluids. Using a modified version of the two-level Lorenz '96 model, we present here a proof of concept of a scale-adaptive parameterisation constructed using statistical mechanical arguments. By a suitable use of the Ruelle response theory, it is possible to derive explicitly a parameterization for the fast variables that translates into deterministic, stochastic and non-markovian contributions to the equations on motion of the variables of interest. Read More

The paper deals with using chaos to direct trajectories to targets and analyzes ruggedness and fractality of the resulting fitness landscapes. The targeting problem is formulated as a dynamic fitness landscape and four different chaotic maps generating such a landscape are studied. By using a computational approach, we analyze properties of the landscapes and quantify their fractal and rugged characteristics. Read More

In this paper we consider ignition-temperature, first-order reaction model of thermo-diffusive combustion that describes dynamics of thick flames arising in a theory of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen mixtures. These flames often assume the shape of propagating curved interfaces that correspond to level sets of constant temperature. We derive a fully nonlinear equation that governs dynamics of these level sets under a single assumption of small curvature. Read More

Dynamical entities interacting with each other on complex networks often exhibit multistability. The stability of a desired steady regime (e.g. Read More

Many biological and chemical systems could be modeled by a population of oscillators coupled indirectly via a dynamical environment. Essentially, the environment by which the individual elements communicate is heterogeneous. Nevertheless, most of previous works considered the homogeneous case only. Read More

This work explores a structure of the Deprit perturbation series and its connection to a Kato resolvent expansion. It extends the formalism previously developed for the Hamiltonians linearly dependent on perturbation parameter to a nonlinear case. We construct a canonical intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging operators. Read More

In a causal world the direction of the time arrow dictates how past causal events in a variable $X$ produce future effects in $Y$. $X$ is said to cause an effect in $Y$, if the predictability (uncertainty) about the future states of $Y$ increases (decreases) as its own past and the past of $X$ are taken into consideration. Causality is thus intrinsic dependent on the observation of the past events of both variables involved, to the prediction (or uncertainty reduction) of future event of the other variable. Read More

Non-parametric detrending or noise reduction methods are often employed to separate trends from noisy time series when no satisfactory models exist to fit the data. However, conventional detrending methods depend on subjective choices of detrending parameters. Here, we present a simple multivariate detrending method based on available nonlinear forecasting techniques. Read More

It has been shown that the formation of large scale structures (LSS) in the universe can be described in terms of a Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger-Poisson system. This procedure, known as Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger method, has no theoretical basis, but it is intended as a mere tool to model the N-body dynamics of dark matter halos which form LSS. Furthermore, in this approach the "Planck constant" $\hbar$ in the Schr$\ddot{o}$dinger equation is just a free parameter. Read More

Designing chaotic maps with complex dynamics is a challenging topic. This paper introduces the nonlinear chaotic processing (NCP) model, which contains six basic nonlinear operations. Each operation is a general framework that can use existing chaotic maps as seed maps to generate a huge number of new chaotic maps. Read More

A crucial result in quantum chaos, which has been established for a long time, is that the spectral properties of classically integrable systems generically are described by Poisson statistics whereas those of time-reversal symmetric, classically chaotic systems coincide with those of random matrices from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). Does this result hold for two-dimensional Dirac material systems? To address this fundamen- tal question, we investigate the spectral properties in a representative class of graphene billiards with shapes of classically integrable circular-sector billiards. Naively one may expect to observe Poisson statistics, which is indeed true for energies close to the band edges where the quasiparticle obeys the Schr\"odinger equation. Read More

Optical entropy sources show great promise for the task of random number generation, but commonly used evaluation practices are ill-suited to quantify their performance. In this Commentary we propose a new approach to quantifying entropy generation which provides greater insights and understanding of the optical sources of randomness. Read More