# Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics Publications (50)

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## Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics Publications

We study two identical FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators which are coupled with one or two different time delays. If only a single delay coupling is used, the length of the delay determines whether the synchronization manifold is transversally stable or unstable, exhibiting mixed mode or chaotic oscillations in which the small amplitude oscillations are always in-phase but the large amplitude oscillations are in-phase or out-of-phase respectively. For two delays we find an intricate dynamics which comprises an irregular alteration of small amplitude oscillations, in-phase and out-of-phase large amplitude oscillations, also called events. Read More

Dynamical networks are important models for the behaviour of complex systems, modelling physical, biological and societal systems, including the brain, food webs, epidemic disease in populations, power grids and many other. Such dynamical networks can exhibit behaviour in which deterministic chaos, exhibiting unpredictability and disorder, coexists with synchronization, a classical paradigm of order. We survey the main theory behind complete, generalized and phase synchronization phenomena in simple as well as complex networks and discuss applications to secure communications, parameter estimation and the anticipation of chaos. Read More

Coupled metronomes serve as a paradigmatic model for exploring the collective behaviors of complex dynamical systems, as well as a classical setup for classroom demonstrations of synchronization phenomena. Whereas previous studies of metronome synchronization have been concentrating on symmetric coupling schemes, here we consider the asymmetric case by adopting the scheme of layered metronomes. Specifically, we place two metronomes on each layer, and couple two layers by placing one on top of the other. Read More

The study of fluctuation-induced transport is concerned with the directed motion of particles on a substrate when subjected to a fluctuating external field. Work over the last two decades provides now precise clues on how the average transport depends on three fundamental aspects: the shape of the substrate, the correlations of the fluctuations and the mass, geometry, interaction and density of the particles. These three aspects, reviewed here, acquire additional relevance because the same notions apply to a bewildering variety of problems at very different scales, from the small nano or micro-scale, where thermal fluctuations effects dominate, up to very large scales including ubiquitous cooperative phenomena in granular materials. Read More

We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a Sinai-oscillator trap under a monochromatic driving force. Such a trap is formed by a harmonic potential and a repulsive disk located in the center vicinity corresponding to the first experiments of condensate formation by Ketterle group in 1995. We argue that the external driving allows to model the regime of weak wave turbulence with the Kolmogorov energy flow from low to high energies. Read More

Semiclassical sum rules, such as the Gutzwiller trace formula, depend on the properties of periodic, closed, or homoclinic (heteroclinic) orbits. The interferences embedded in such orbit sums are governed by classical action functions and Maslov indices. For chaotic systems, the relative actions of such orbits can be expressed in terms of phase space areas bounded by segments of stable and unstable manifolds, and Moser invariant curves. Read More

We demonstrate that solitary states can be widely observed for networks of coupled oscillators with local, non-local and global couplings, and they preserve in both thermodynamic and Hamiltonian limits. We show that depending on units' and network's parameters, different types of solitary states occur, characterized by the number of isolated oscillators and the disposition in space. The creation of solitary states through the homoclinic bifurcation is described and the regions of co-existence of obtained states and typical examples of dynamics have been identified. Read More

Inspired by spatiotemporal observations from satellites of the trajectories of objects drifting near the surface of the ocean in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's "Global Drifter Program", this paper develops data-driven stochastic models of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) with non-stationary spatial correlations representing the dynamical behaviour of oceanic currents. Three models are considered. Model 1 from \cite{Ho2015} is reviewed, in which the spatial correlations are time independent. Read More

Two versions of the semi-classical Jaynes--Cummings model without the rotating wave approximation are investigated. It is shown that for a non-zero value of the coupling constant the version introduced by Belobrov, Zaslavsky, and Tartakovsky is Hamiltonian with respect to a certain degenerated Poisson bracket. Moreover, it is shown that both models are not integrable. Read More

In this paper we consider Huang--Li nonlinear financial system recently studied in the literature. It has the form of three first order differential equations \[ \dot x=z+(y-a)x,\quad \dot y=1-b y-x^2,\quad \dot z=-x-c z, \] where $(a,b,c)$ are real positive parameters. We show that this system is not integrable in the class of functions meromorphic in variables $(x,y,z)$. Read More

We present a non-perturbative analysis of the power-spectrum of energy level fluctuations in fully chaotic quantum structures. Focussing on systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, we employ a finite-$N$ random matrix theory to derive an exact multidimensional integral representation of the power-spectrum. The $N\rightarrow \infty$ limit of the exact solution furnishes the main result of this study -- a universal, parameter-free prediction for the power-spectrum expressed in terms of a fifth Painlev\'e transcendent. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}UPMC,

^{2}UPMC,

^{3}UPMC

The propagation of waves in the nonlinear acoustic metamaterials (NAMs) is fundamentally different from that in the conventional linear ones. In this article we consider two one-dimensional NAM systems featuring respectively a diatomic and a tetratomic meta unit-cell. We investigate the attenuation of the wave, the band structure and the bifurcations to demonstrate novel nonlinear effects, which can significantly expand the bandwidth for elastic wave suppression and cause nonlinear wave phenomena. Read More

In chaotic deterministic systems, seemingly stochastic behavior is generated by relatively simple, though hidden, organizing rules and structures. Prominent among the tools used to characterize this complexity in 1D and 2D systems are techniques which exploit the topology of dynamically invariant structures. However, the path to extending many such topological techniques to three dimensions is filled with roadblocks that prevent their application to a wider variety of physical systems. Read More

The evident robustness of neural computation is hypothesized to arise from some degree of local stability around dynamically-generated sequences of local-circuit activity states involving many neurons. Recently, it was discovered that even randomly-connected cortical circuit models exhibit dynamics in which their phase-space partitions into a multitude of attractor basins enclosing complex network state trajectories. We provide the first theory of the random geometry of this disordered phase space. Read More

Phase response curve (PRC) is an extremely useful tool for studying the response of oscillatory systems, e.g. neurons, to sparse or weak stimulation. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}TUM,

^{2}IPP,

^{3}I2M,

^{4}TUM

The reduced-particle model is the central element for the systematic derivation of the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations from first principles. Coupled to the fields inside the gyrokinetic field-particle Lagrangian, the reduced-particle model defines polarization and magnetization effects appearing in the gyrokinetic Maxwell equations. It is also used for the reconstruction of the gyrokinetic Vlasov equation from the particle characteristics. Read More

Among the many controversial aspects of the quantum / classical boundary, the emergence of chaos remains amongst the least experimentally verified. In particular, the time-resolved observation of quantum chaotic dynamics, and its interplay with quantum measurement, is largely unexplored outside experiments in atomic ensembles. We present here a realistic proposal to construct a chaotic driven top from the nuclear spin of a single donor atom in silicon, in the presence of nuclear quadrupole interaction. Read More

The deterministic equations describing the dynamics of the atmosphere (and of the climate system) are known to display the property of sensitivity to initial conditions. In the ergodic theory of chaos this property is usually quantified by computing the Lyapunov exponents. In this review, these quantifiers computed in a hierarchy of atmospheric models (coupled or not to an ocean) are analyzed, together with their local counterparts known as the local or finite-time Lyapunov exponents. Read More

Spontaneous, synchronous bursting of neural population is a widely observed phenomenon in nervous networks, which is considered important for functions and dysfunctions of the brain. However, how the global synchrony across a large number of neurons emerges from an initially non-bursting network state is not fully understood. In this study, we develop a new state-space reconstruction method combined with high-resolution recordings of cultured neurons. Read More

General relativity and quantum mechanism are two separate rules of modern physics explaining how nature works. Both theories are accurate, but the direct connection between two theories was not yet clarified. Recently, researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. Read More

We apply two recently formulated mathematical techniques, Slow-Fast Decomposition (SFD) and Spectral Submanifold (SSM) reduction, to a von Karman beam with geometric nonlinearities and viscoelastic damping. SFD identifies a global slow manifold in the full system which attracts solutions at rates faster than typical rates within the manifold. An SSM, the smoothest nonlinear continuation of a linear modal subspace, is then used to further reduce the beam equations within the slow manifold. Read More

Templates can be used to describe the topological properties of chaotic attractors. For attractors bounded by genus one torus, these templates are described by a linking matrix. For a given attractor, it has been shown that the template depends on the Poincar\'e section chosen to performed the analysis. Read More

Digital memcomputing machines (DMMs) are non-linear dynamical systems designed so that their equilibrium points are solutions of the Boolean problem they solve. In a previous work [Chaos 27, 023107 (2017)] it was argued that when DMMs support solutions of the associated Boolean problem then strange attractors cannot coexist with such equilibria. In this work, we demonstrate such conjecture. Read More

In the fluid transport of particles, it is generally expected that heavy particles carried by a laminar fluid flow moving downward will also move downward. We establish a theory to show, however, that particles can be dynamically levitated and lifted by interacting vortices in such flows, thereby moving against gravity and the asymptotic direction of the flow, even when they are orders of magnitude denser than the fluid. The particle levitation is rigorously demonstrated for potential flows and supported by simulations for viscous flows. Read More

We describe a novel approach for computing wave correlation functions inside finite spatial domains driven by complex and statistical sources. By exploiting semiclassical approximations, we provide explicit algorithms to calculate the local mean of these correlation functions in terms of the underlying classical dynamics. By defining appropriate ensemble averages, we show that fluctuations about the mean can be characterised in terms of classical correlations. Read More

In the context of dissipative systems, we show that for any quantum chaotic attractor a corre- sponding classical chaotic attractor can always be found. We provide with a general way to locate them, rooted in the structure of the parameter space (which is typically bidimensional, accounting for the forcing strength and dissipation parameters). In the cases where an approximate point like quantum distribution is found, it can be associated to exceptionally large regular structures. Read More

The complexity of arbitrary dynamical systems and chemical reactions, in particular, can often be resolved if only the appropriate periodic orbit - in the form of a limit cycle, dividing surface, instanton trajectories or some other related structure - can be uncovered. Determining such a periodic orbit, no matter how beguilingly simple it appears, is often very challenging. We present a method for the direct construction of unstable periodic orbits and instanton trajectories at saddle points by means of Lagrangian descriptors. Read More

Synchronization of neurons forming a network with a hierarchical structure is essential for the brain to be able to function optimally. In this paper we study synchronization of phase oscillators on the most basic example of such a network, namely, the hierarchical lattice. Each oscillator has a natural frequency, drawn independently from a common probability distribution. Read More

We analyze the emergent regimes and the stimulus-response relationship of a population of noisy map neurons by means of a mean-field model, derived within the framework of cumulant approach complemented by the Gaussian closure hypothesis. It is demonstrated that the mean-field model can qualitatively account for stability and bifurcations of the exact system, capturing all the generic forms of collective behavior, including macroscopic excitability, subthreshold oscillations, periodic or chaotic spiking and chaotic bursting dynamics. Apart from qualitative analogies, we find a substantial quantitative agreement between the exact and the approximate system, as reflected in matching of the parameter domains admitting the different dynamical regimes, as well as the characteristic properties of the associated time series. Read More

We consider extended starlike networks where the hub node is coupled with several chains of nodes representing star rays. Assuming that nodes of the network are occupied by nonidentical self-oscillators we study various forms of their cluster synchronization. Radial cluster emerges when the nodes are synchronized along a ray, while circular cluster is formed by nodes without immediate connections but located on identical distances to the hub. Read More

This paper investigates the different behaviors of the process equation and parameters of their occurrences. The process equation is a multistable one dimensional map with nonlinear feedback and can show various behaviors such as period doubling route to chaos, bios, unstable windows and periodic windows. In this note, we focus on different behaviors of the process equation by a deep look at phase portraits and cobweb plots. Read More

In this work, we have characterized changes in the dynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic standard map in the presence of dissipation and specially when it is submitted to thermal effects modeled by a Gaussian noise reservoir. By the addition of thermal noise in the dissipative relativistic standard map (DRSM) it is possible to suppress typical stable periodic structures (SPSs) embedded in the chaotic domains of parameter space for large enough temperature strengths. Smaller SPSs are first affected by thermal effects, starting from their borders, as a function of temperature. Read More

Complex optical networks containing one or more gain sections are investigated and the evidence of lasing action is reported; the emission spectrum reflects the topological disorder induced by the connections. A theoretical description well compares with the measurements, mapping the networks to directed graphs and showing the analogies with the problem of quantum chaos on graphs. We show that the interplay of chaotic diffusion and amplification leads to an emission statistics with characteristic heavy-tails: for different topologies, an unprecedented experimental demonstration of Levy statistics expected for random lasers is here provided for a continuous-wave pumped system. Read More

Recently, the explosive phase transitions, such as explosive percolation and explosive synchronization, have attracted extensive research interest. So far, most existing works investigate Kuramoto-type models, where only phase variables are involved. Here, we report the occurrence of explosive oscillation quenching in a system of coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators that incorporates both phase and amplitude dynamics. Read More

We analyze quasiperiodic partially synchronous states in an ensemble of Stuart-Landau oscillators with global nonlinear coupling. We reveal two types of such dynamics: in the first case the time-averaged frequencies of oscillators and of the mean field differ, while in the second case they are equal, but the motion of oscillators is additionally modulated. We describe transitions from the synchronous state to both types of quasiperiodic dynamics, and a transition between two different quasiperiodic states. Read More

A quantum particle transport induced in a spatially-periodic potential by a propagating plane wave has a number important implications in a range of topical physical systems. Examples include acoustically driven semiconductor superlattices and cold atoms in optical crystal. Here we apply kinetic description of the directed transport in a superlattice beyond standard linear approximation, and utilize exact path-integral solutions of the semiclassical transport equation. Read More

We study pseudo-simple heteroclinic cycles for a $\Gamma$-equivariant system in $R^4$ with finite $\Gamma\subset O(4)$, and their nearby dynamics. In particular, in a first step towards a full classification - analogous to that which exists already for the class of simple cycles - we identify all finite subgroups of $O(4)$ admitting pseudo-simple cycles. To this end we introduce a constructive method to build equivariant dynamical systems possessing a robust heteroclinic cycle. Read More

Scientific explanation often requires inferring maximally predictive features from a given data set. Unfortunately, the collection of minimal maximally predictive features for most stochastic processes is uncountably infinite. In such cases, one compromises and instead seeks nearly maximally predictive features. Read More

The time-averaged Lyapunov exponents support a mechanistic description of the chaos generated in and by nonlinear dynamical systems. The exponents are ordered from largest to smallest with the largest one describing the exponential growth rate of the (small) distance between two neighboring phase-space trajectories. Two exponents describe the rate for areas defined by three nearby trajectories. Read More

Most of the time series in nature are a mixture of signals with deterministic and random dynamics. Thus the distinction between these two characteristics becomes important. Distinguishing between chaotic and aleatory signals is difficult because they have a common wide-band power spectrum, a delta-like autocorrelation function, and share other features as well. Read More

The escape mechanism of orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit is investigated. A three degrees of freedom model is used for describing the dynamical properties of the Hamiltonian system. The gravitational field of the star cluster is represented by a smooth and spherically symmetric Plummer potential. Read More

The planar equilateral restricted four-body problem where two of the primaries have equal masses is used in order to determine the Newton-Raphson basins of convergence associated with the equilibrium points. The parametric variation of the position of the libration points is monitored when the value of the mass parameter $m_3$ varies in predefined intervals. The regions on the configuration $(x,y)$ plane occupied by the basins of attraction are revealed using the multivariate version of the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Read More

We examine spectral operator-theoretic properties of linear and nonlinear dynamical systems with equilibrium and quasi-periodic attractors and use such properties to characterize a class of datasets and introduce a new notion of the principal dimension of the data. Read More

We propose the existence of a new universality in classical chaotic systems when the number of degrees of freedom is large: the statistical property of the Lyapunov spectrum is described by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate it by studying the finite-time Lyapunov exponents of the matrix model of a stringy black hole and the mass deformed models. The massless limit, which has a dual string theory interpretation, is special in that the universal behavior can be seen already at t=0, while in other cases it sets in at late time. Read More

Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis methods are powerful tools for engineers who use flow simulations for design. However, the conventional adjoint method breaks down for scale-resolving simulations like large-eddy simulation (LES) or direct numerical simulation (DNS), which exhibit the chaotic dynamics inherent in turbulent flows. Sensitivity analysis based on least-squares shadowing (LSS) avoids the issues encountered by conventional methods, but has a high computational cost. Read More

What is chaos? Despite several decades of research on this ubiquitous and fundamental phenomenon there is yet no agreed-upon answer to this question. Recently, it was realized that all stochastic and deterministic differential equations, describing all natural and engineered dynamical systems, possess a topological supersymmetry. It was then suggested that its spontaneous breakdown could be interpreted as the stochastic generalization of deterministic chaos. Read More

We present numerical simulations of magnetic billiards inside a convex domain in the plane. Read More

The polar vortices play a crucial role in the formation of the ozone hole and can cause severe weather anomalies. Their boundaries, known as the vortex `edges', are typically identified via methods that are either frame-dependent or return non-material structures, and hence are unsuitable for assessing material transport barriers. Using two-dimensional velocity data on isentropic surfaces in the northern hemisphere, we show that elliptic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) identify the correct outermost material surface dividing the coherent vortex core from the surrounding incoherent surf zone. Read More

The escape dynamics around the triangular Lagrangian point L5 in the real Sun-Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system is investigated. Appearance of the finite time chaotic behaviour suggests that widely used methods and concepts of dynamical system theory can be useful in constructing a desired mission design. Existing chaos control methods are modified in such a way that we are able to protect a test particle from escape. Read More

This paper analyses an SIRS-type model for infectious diseases with account for behavioural changes associated with the simultaneous spread of awareness in the population. Two types of awareness are included into the model: private awareness associated with direct contacts between unaware and aware populations, and public information campaign. Stability analysis of different steady states in the model provides information about potential spread of disease in a population, and well as about how the disease dynamics is affected by the two types of awareness. Read More