# Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics Publications (50)

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## Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics Publications

The escape mechanism of orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit is investigated. A three degrees of freedom model is used for describing the dynamical properties of the Hamiltonian system. The gravitational field of the star cluster is represented by a smooth and spherically symmetric Plummer potential. Read More

The planar equilateral restricted four-body problem where two of the primaries have equal masses is used in order to determine the Newton-Raphson basins of convergence associated with the equilibrium points. The parametric variation of the position of the libration points is monitored when the value of the mass parameter $m_3$ varies in predefined intervals. The regions on the configuration $(x,y)$ plane occupied by the basins of attraction are revealed using the multivariate version of the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Read More

We examine spectral operator-theoretic properties of linear and nonlinear dynamical systems with equilibrium and quasi-periodic attractors and use such properties to characterize a class of datasets and introduce a new notion of the principal dimension of the data. Read More

We propose the existence of a new universality in classical chaotic systems when the number of degrees of freedom is large: the statistical property of the Lyapunov spectrum is described by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate it by studying the finite-time Lyapunov exponents of the matrix model of a stringy black hole and the mass deformed models. The massless limit, which has a dual string theory interpretation, is special in that the universal behavior can be seen already at t=0, while in other cases it sets in at late time. Read More

Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis methods are powerful tools for engineers who use flow simulations for design. However, the conventional adjoint method breaks down for scale-resolving simulations like large-eddy simulation (LES) or direct numerical simulation (DNS), which exhibit the chaotic dynamics inherent in turbulent flows. Sensitivity analysis based on least-squares shadowing (LSS) avoids the issues encountered by conventional methods, but has a high computational cost. Read More

What is chaos ? Despite several decades of research on this ubiquitous and fundamental phenomenon there is yet no agreed-upon answer to this question. Recently, it was realized that all stochastic and deterministic differential equations, describing all natural and engineered dynamical systems, possess a topological supersymmetry. It was then suggested that its spontaneous breakdown could be interpreted as the stochastic generalization of deterministic chaos. Read More

We present numerical simulations of magnetic billiards inside a convex domain in the plane. Read More

The polar vortices play a crucial role in the formation of the ozone hole and can cause severe weather anomalies. Their boundaries, known as the vortex `edges', are typically identified via methods that are either frame-dependent or return non-material structures, and hence are unsuitable for assessing material transport barriers. Using two-dimensional velocity data on isentropic surfaces in the northern hemisphere, we show that elliptic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) identify the correct outermost material surface dividing the coherent vortex core from the surrounding incoherent surf zone. Read More

The escape dynamics around the triangular Lagrangian point L5 in the real Sun-Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system is investigated. Appearance of the finite time chaotic behaviour suggests that widely used methods and concepts of dynamical system theory can be useful in constructing a desired mission design. Existing chaos control methods are modified in such a way that we are able to protect a test particle from escape. Read More

This paper analyses an SIRS-type model for infectious diseases with account for behavioural changes associated with the simultaneous spread of awareness in the population. Two types of awareness are included into the model: private awareness associated with direct contacts between unaware and aware populations, and public information campaign. Stability analysis of different steady states in the model provides information about potential spread of disease in a population, and well as about how the disease dynamics is affected by the two types of awareness. Read More

It has been observed through experiments and SPICE simulations that logical circuits based upon Chua's circuit exhibit complex dynamical behavior. This behavior can be used to design analogs of more complex logic families and some properties can be exploited for electronics applications. Some of these circuits have been modeled as systems of ordinary differential equations. Read More

We remark on the justification of the basis, and relevant issues, of the topological hydrodynamics (in the sense of the knot-theory interpretation of helicity) of the Galerkin-truncated Euler equations with an `inverse' Helmholtz-Kelvin theorem involving the truncated vorticity `frozen in' the \textit{virtual} velocity $\bm{V}$. The (statistical) topology of the time-reversible systems with the viscous terms of the Navier-Stokes equations modified to balance the external forcing, in such a way that the helicity and energy are dynamically invariant (thus also the virtual frozen-in formulation), are discussed as well with an explicit calculation example in the standard Fourier space. The non-unique $\bm{V}$ for both of these two problems can in principle be incompressible. Read More

We demonstrate the presence of chaos in stochastic simulations that are widely used to study biodiversity in nature. The investigation deals with a set of three distinct species that evolve according to the standard rules of mobility, reproduction and predation, with predation following the cyclic rules of the popular rock, paper and scissors game. The study uncovers the possibility to distinguish between time evolutions that start from slightly different initial states, guided by the Hamming distance which heuristically unveils the chaotic behavior. Read More

The Lorenz attractor was introduced in 1963 by E. N. Lorenz as one of the first examples of \emph{strange attractors}. Read More

This work aimed, to determine the characteristics of activity series from fractal geometry concepts application, in addition to evaluate the possibility of identifying individuals with fibromyalgia. Activity level data were collected from 27 healthy subjects and 27 fibromyalgia patients, with the use of clock-like devices equipped with accelerometers, for about four weeks, all day long. The activity series were evaluated through fractal and multifractal methods. Read More

We investigate vortex excitations in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of complex $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potentials. These complex potentials are used to describe a balanced gain and loss of particles and allow for an easier calculation of stationary states in open systems than in a full dynamical calculation including the whole environment. We examine the conditions under which stationary vortex states can exist and consider transitions from vortex to non-vortex states. Read More

We show a fractal uncertainty principle with exponent $1/2-\delta+\epsilon$, $\epsilon>0$, for Ahflors-David regular subsets of $\mathbb R$ of dimension $\delta\in (0,1)$. This improves over the volume bound $1/2-\delta$, and $\epsilon$ is estimated explicitly in terms of the regularity constant of the set. The proof uses a version of techniques originating in the works of Dolgopyat, Naud, and Stoyanov on spectral radii of transfer operators. Read More

The uniformly hyperbolic Anosov C-systems defined on a torus have exponential instability of their trajectories, and as such C-systems have mixing of all orders and nonzero Kolmogorov entropy. The mixing property of all orders means that all its correlation functions tend to zero and the question of a fundamental interest is a speed at which they tend to zero. It was proven that the speed of decay in the C-systems is exponential, that is, the observables on the phase space become independent and uncorrelated exponentially fast. Read More

Perpetual points (PPs) are special critical points for which the magnitude of acceleration describing dynamics drops to zero, while the motion is still possible (stationary points are excluded), e.g. considering the motion of the particle in the potential field, at perpetual point it has zero acceleration and non-zero velocity. Read More

**Affiliations:**

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We study the formation of the RbCs molecule by an intense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the system is modeled by a two degree of freedom rovibrational Hamiltonian, which includes the ground electronic potential energy curve of the diatomic molecule and the interaction of the molecular polarizability with the electric field of the laser. As the laser intensity increases, we observe that the formation probability first increases and then decreases after reaching a maximum. Read More

Short term unpredictability is discovered numerically for high Reynolds number fluid flows under periodic boundary conditions. Furthermore, the abundance of the short term unpredictability is also discovered. These discoveries support our theory that fully developed turbulence is constantly driven by such short term unpredictability. Read More

We study a new nonlinear partial differential equation of the fifth order for the description of perturbations in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam mass chain. This fifth-order equation is an expansion of the Gardner equation for the description of the Fermi--Pasta--Ulam model. We use the potential of interaction between neighbouring masses with both quadratic and cubic terms. Read More

Time delays may cause dramatic changes to the dynamics of interacting oscillators. Coupled networks of interacting dynamical systems can behave unexpectedly when the signal between the vertices are time delayed. It has been shown for a very general class of systems that the time delays can be rearranged as long as the total time delay over the constitutive loops of the network is conserved. Read More

Experimental records of active bundle motility are used to demonstrate the presence of a low-dimensional chaotic attractor in hair cell dynamics. Dimensionality tests from dynamic systems theory are applied to estimate the number of independent variables sufficient for modeling the hair cell response. Poincare maps are constructed to observe a quasiperiodic transition from chaos to order with increasing amplitudes of mechanical forcing. Read More

Predicting the response of a system to perturbations is a key challenge in mathematical and natural sciences. Under suitable conditions on the nature of the system, of the perturbation, and of the observables of interest, response theories allow to construct operators describing the smooth change of the invariant measure of the system of interest as a function of the small parameter controlling the intensity of the perturbation. In particular, response theories can be developed both for stochastic and chaotic deterministic dynamical systems, where in the latter case stricter conditions imposing some degree of structural stability are required. Read More

Designing a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) is a difficult and complex task. Many recent works have considered chaotic functions as the basis of built PRNGs: the quality of the output would indeed be an obvious consequence of some chaos properties. However, there is no direct reasoning that goes from chaotic functions to uniform distribution of the output. Read More

Concepts and tools from network theory, the so-called Lagrangian Flow Network framework, have been successfully used to obtain a coarse-grained description of transport by closed fluid flows. Here we explore the application of this methodology to open chaotic flows, and check it with numerical results for a model open flow, namely a jet with a localized wave perturbation. We find that network nodes with high values of out-degree and of finite-time entropy in the forward-in-time direction identify the location of the chaotic saddle and its stable manifold, whereas nodes with high in-degree and backwards finite-time entropy highlight the location of the saddle and its unstable manifold. Read More

We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing-antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton-proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron-hadron colliders. Read More

One of the most fundamental questions one can ask about a pair of random variables X and Y is the value of their mutual information. Unfortunately, this task is often stymied by the extremely large dimension of the variables. We might hope to replace each variable by a lower-dimensional representation that preserves the relationship with the other variable. Read More

Spatially distributed limited-cycle oscillators are seen in various physical and biological systems. In internal organs, mechanical motions are induced by the stimuli of spatially distributed limit-cycle oscillators. We study several mechanical motions by limit-cycle oscillators using simple model equations. Read More

We study nonlinear resonance of coupled modes in nano-mechanical systems. To reveal the qualitative features of the dynamics, we consider the limiting cases, where the results can be obtained analytically. For 1:3 resonance, we find the anomalously strong and nonmonotonic dependence of the decay rate of the low frequency mode on its amplitude, if the decay rate of the high-frequency mode is comparatively large. Read More

We present a simple method to efficiently compute a lower limit of the topological entropy for two-dimensional mappings. These mappings could represent either two-dimensional time-periodic fluid flows or three-dimensional magnetic fields, which are periodic in one direction. This method is based on measuring the length of a material line in the flow. Read More

Bristle bots are vibration-driven robots actuated by the motion of an internal oscillating mass. Vibrations are translated into directed locomotion due to the alternating friction resistance between robots' bristles and the substrate during oscillations. Bristle bots are, in general, unidirectional locomotion systems. Read More

**Authors:**Tomislav Stankovski

Interactions in nature can be described by their coupling strength, direction of coupling and coupling function. The coupling strength and directionality are relatively well understood and studied, at least for two interacting systems, however there can be a complexity in the interactions uniquely dependent on the coupling functions. Such a special case is studied here { synchronization transition occurs only due to the time-variability of the coupling functions, while the net coupling strength is constant throughout the observation time. Read More

We use tools from nonlinear dynamics to the detailed analysis of cold atom experiments. A powerful example is provided by the recent concept of basin entropy which allows to quantify the final state unpredictability that results from the complexity of the phase space geometry. We show here that this enables one to reliably infer the presence of fractal structures in phase space from direct measurements. Read More

Out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOC's) are presently being extensively debated as quantifiers of dynamical chaos in interacting quantum many-body systems. We argue that in quantum spin and fermionic systems, where all local operators are bounded, an OTOC of local observables is bounded as well and thus its exponential growth is merely transient. As a better measure of quantum chaos in such systems, we propose, and study, the density of the OTOC of extensive sums of local observables, which can exhibit indefinite growth in the thermodynamic limit. Read More

Learning would be a convincing method to achieve coordination on an equilibrium. But does learning converge, and to what? We answer this question in generic 2-player, 2-strategy games, using Experience-Weighted Attraction (EWA), which encompasses many extensively studied learning algorithms. We exhaustively characterize the parameter space of EWA learning, for any payoff matrix, and we understand the generic properties that imply convergent or non-convergent behaviour in 2 x 2 games. Read More

Smart active particles can acquire some limited knowledge of the fluid environment from simple mechanical cues and exert a control on their preferred steering direction. Their goal is to learn the best way to navigate by exploiting the underlying flow whenever possible. As an example, we focus our attention on smart gravitactic swimmers. Read More

This paper is a physicist's review of the major conceptual issues concerning the problem of spectral universality in quantum systems. Here we present a unified, graph-based view of all archetypical models of such universality (billiards, particles in random media, interacting spin or fermion systems). We find phenomenological relations between the onset of ergodicity (Gaussian-random delocalization of eigenstates) and the structure of the appropriate graphs, and we construct a heuristic picture of summing trajectories on graphs that describes why a generic interacting system should be ergodic. Read More

This paper deals with the energy transport properties of charged particles with time-dependent damping force. Based on the proposed nonlinear dimensionless mapping,the stability and dynamical evolution of the particle system is analyzed with the help of manifold-based analysis approach.It has been found that the particle system possesses two types of energy asymptotic behaviors. Read More

Dependence of dimensionality in forced homogeneous rotating turbulence on system's rotation rate is numerically investigated. It is well known that columnar vortices are formed and the flow is quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) when the system's rotation rate is large. On the other hand, the columnar vortices are disorganized, and the flow is three-dimensional (3D), when the rotation rate is small. Read More

It is rigorously proved that the chaotic dynamics of the non-smooth system with relay function is persistent even if a chaotic perturbation is applied. We consider chaos in a modified Li-Yorke sense such that infinitely many almost periodic motions take place in its basis. It is demonstrated that the system under investigation possesses countable infinity of chaotic sets of solutions. Read More

Chaos is widely understood as being a consequence of sensitive dependence upon initial conditions. This is the result of an instability in phase space, which separates trajectories exponentially. Here, we demonstrate that this criterion should be refined. Read More

Mathematical models of interacting populations are often constructed as systems of differential equations, which describe how populations change with time. Below we study one such model connected to the nonlinear dynamics of a system of populations in presence of time delay. The consequence of the presence of the time delay is that the nonlinear dynamics of the studied system become more rich, e. Read More

We consider capillary wave turbulence at scales larger than the forcing one. At such scales, our measurements show that the surface waves dynamics is the one of a thermal equilibrium state in which the effective temperature is related to the injected power. We characterize this evolution with a scaling law and report the statistical properties of the large-scale surface elevation depending on this effective temperature. Read More

Dissipation using a finite environment coupled to a single harmonic oscillator have been studied quite extensively. We extend the study by looking at the dynamics of the dissipation when we introduce a second bath of N identical quartic systems different from the 1st bath. We look at the energy flow into the environment as a function of the chaotic parameters of the bath and also try to develop a linear response theory to describe the system. Read More

We investigate the local electronic structure of a Sinai-like, quadrilateral graphene quantum billiard with zigzag and armchair edges using scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature. It is revealed that besides the $(\sqrt{3}\times\sqrt{3})R30${\deg} superstructure, which is caused by the intervalley scattering, its overtones also appear in the STM measurements, which are attributed to the Umklapp processes. We point out that these results can be well understood by taking into account the Coulomb interaction in the quantum billiard, accounting for both the measured density of state values and the experimentally observed topography patterns. Read More

Inviscid invariants of flow equations are crucial in determining the direction of the turbulent energy cascade. In this work we investigate a variant of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations that shares exactly the same ideal invariants (energy and helicity) and the same symmetries (under rotations, reflexions and scale transforms) as the original equations. It is demonstrated that the examined system displays a change in the direction of the energy cascade when varying the value of a free parameter which controls the relative weights of the triadic interactions between different helical Fourier modes. Read More

We consider a curved Sitnikov problem, in which an infinitesimal particle moves on a circle under the gravitational influence of two equal masses in Keplerian motion within a plane perpendicular to that circle. There are two equilibrium points, whose stability we are studying. We show that one of the equilibrium points undergoes stability interchanges as the semi-major axis of the Keplerian ellipses approaches the diameter of that circle. Read More

We explore the dynamical consequences of switching the coupling form in a system of coupled oscillators. We consider two types of switching, one where the coupling function changes periodically and one where it changes probabilistically. We find, through bifurcation diagrams and Basin Stability analysis, that there exists a window in coupling strength where the oscillations get suppressed. Read More