# Mathematics - Numerical Analysis Publications (50)

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## Mathematics - Numerical Analysis Publications

Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a procedure for studying how sensitive are the output results of large-scale mathematical models to some uncertainties of the input data. The models are described as a system of partial differential equations. Often such systems contain a large number of input parameters. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}DALEMBERT,

^{2}JAD,

^{3}DALEMBERT,

^{4}DALEMBERT

The purpose of this work is to construct a simple, efficient and accurate well-balanced numerical scheme for one-dimensional (1D) blood flow in large arteries with varying geometrical and mechanical properties. As the steady states at rest are not relevant for blood flow, we construct two well-balanced hydrostatic reconstruction techniques designed to preserve low-Shapiro number steady states that may occur in large network simulations. The Shapiro number S h = u/c is the equivalent of the Froude number for shallow water equations and the Mach number for compressible Euler equations. Read More

**Authors:**Mohamed Essadki

^{1}, Jonathan Jung

^{2}, Adam Larat

^{3}, Milan Pelletier

^{4}, Vincent Perrier

^{5}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IFPEN, FR3487, EM2C,

^{2}LMAP,

^{3}FR3487, EM2C,

^{4}EM2C,

^{5}LMAP

This article describes the implementation of an all-in-one numerical procedure within the runtime StarPU. In order to limit the complexity of the method, for the sake of clarity of the presentation of the non-classical task-driven programming environnement, we have limited the numerics to first order in space and time. Results show that the task distribution is efficient if the tasks are numerous and individually large enough so that the task heap can be saturated by tasks which computational time covers the task management overhead. Read More

In this work, we derive particle schemes, based on micro-macro decomposition, for linear kinetic equations in the diffusion limit. Due to the particle approximation of the micro part, a splitting between the transport and the collision part has to be performed, and the stiffness of both these two parts prevent from uniform stability. To overcome this difficulty, the micro-macro system is reformulated into a continuous PDE whose coefficients are no longer stiff, and depend on the time step $\Delta t$ in a consistent way. Read More

The main focus of the present work is the inclusion of spatial adaptivity for snapshot computation in the offline phase of model order reduction utilizing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD-MOR). For each time level, the snapshots live in different finite element spaces, which means in a fully discrete setting that the snapshots are vectors of different length. In order to overcome this obstacle, we present a discretization independent POD reduced order model, which is motivated from a continuous perspective and is set up explicitely without interpolation of the snapshots. Read More

This paper discusses the properties of certain risk estimators recently proposed to choose regularization parameters in ill-posed problems. A simple approach is Stein's unbiased risk estimator (SURE), which estimates the risk in the data space, while a recent modification (GSURE) estimates the risk in the space of the unknown variable. It seems intuitive that the latter is more appropriate for ill-posed problems, since the properties in the data space do not tell much about the quality of the reconstruction. Read More

We consider implementations of high-order finite difference Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) schemes for the Euler equations in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems with radial dependence only. The main concern of this work lies in ensuring both high-order accuracy and conservation. Three different spatial discretizations are assessed: one that is shown to be high-order accurate but not conservative, one conservative but not high-order accurate, and a new approach that is both high-order accurate and conservative. Read More

This paper investigates oscillation-free stability conditions of numerical methods for linear parabolic partial differential equations with some example extrapolations to nonlinear equations. Not clearly understood, numerical oscillations can create infeasible results. Since oscillation-free behavior is not ensured by stability conditions, a more precise condition would be useful for accurate solutions. Read More

Problems of stabilization of the unstable cycle of one-dimensional complex dynamical system are briefly discussed. These questions reduced to the problem of description of the ranges of polynomials $q(z) = q_1z + q_2z^2 +\dots + q_nz^n$ defined in the unit disk and normalized by the conditions $q(1) = 1 $ and this is the main subject of the present paper. Read More

The main goal of this paper is to investigate the order reduction phenomenon that appears in the integral deferred correction (InDC) methods based on implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (R-K) schemes when applied to a class of stiff problems characterized by a small positive parameter $\varepsilon$, called singular perturbation problems (SPPs). In particular, an error analysis is presented for these implicit-explicit InDC (InDC-IMEX) methods when applied to SPPs. In our error estimate, we expand the global error in powers of $\varepsilon$ and show that its coefficients are global errors of the corresponding method applied to a sequence of differential algebraic systems. Read More

We develop a cut finite element method for the Darcy problem on surfaces. The cut finite element method is based on embedding the surface in a three dimensional finite element mesh and using finite element spaces defined on the three dimensional mesh as trial and test functions. Since we consider a partial differential equation on a surface, the resulting discrete weak problem might be severely ill conditioned. Read More

In this paper we derive a discretisation of the equation of quasi-static elasticity in homogenization in form of a variational formulation and the so-called Lippmann-Schwinger equation, in anisotropic spaces of translates of periodic functions. We unify and extend the truncated Fourier series approach, the constant finite element ansatz and the anisotropic lattice derivation. The resulting formulation of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in anisotropic translation invariant spaces unifies and analyses for the first time both the Fourier methods and finite element approaches in a common mathematical framework. Read More

It is often claimed that error cancellation plays an essential role in quantum chemistry and first-principle simulation for condensed matter physics and materials science. Indeed, while the energy of a large, or even medium-size, molecular system cannot be estimated numerically within chemical accuracy (typically 1 kcal/mol or 1 mHa), it is considered that the energy difference between two configurations of the same system can be computed in practice within the desired accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative study of discretization error cancellation. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}MATHERIALS

Saint-Venant equations can be generalized to account for a viscoelastic rheology in shallow flows. A Finite-Volume discretization for the 1D Saint-Venant system generalized to Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluids was proposed in [Bouchut \& Boyaval, 2013], which preserved a physically-natural stability property (i.e. Read More

In the setting of continuum elasticity, phase transformations involving martensitic variants are modeled by a free energy density function that is non-convex in strain space. Here, we adopt an existing mathematical model in which we regularize the non-convex free energy density function by higher-order gradient terms at finite strain and derive boundary value problems via the standard variational argument applied to the corresponding total free energy, inspired by Toupin's theory of gradient elasticity. These gradient terms are to preclude existence of arbitrarily fine microstructures, while still allowing for existence of multiple solution branches corresponding to local minima of the total free energy; these are classified as metastable solution branches. Read More

In this study, the numerical solutions of reaction-diffusion systems are investigated via the trigonometric quintic B-spline nite element collocation method. These equations appear in various disciplines in order to describe certain physical facts, such as pattern formation, autocatalytic chemical reactions and population dynamics. The Schnakenberg, Gray-Scott and Brusselator models are special cases of reaction-diffusion systems considered as numerical examples in this paper. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}I2M,

^{2}I2M,

^{3}IRSN,

^{4}I2M

**Category:**Mathematics - Numerical Analysis

We prove in this paper the convergence of the Marker and cell (MAC) scheme for the dis-cretization of the steady-state and unsteady-state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables on non-uniform Cartesian grids, without any regularity assumption on the solution. A priori estimates on solutions to the scheme are proven ; they yield the existence of discrete solutions and the compactness of sequences of solutions obtained with family of meshes the space step of which tends to zero. We then establish that the limit is a weak solution to the continuous problem. Read More

We consider the numerical approximations of a two-phase hydrodynamics coupled phase-field model that incorporates the variable densities, viscosities and moving contact line boundary conditions. The model is a nonlinear, coupled system that consists of incompressible Navier--Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition, and the Cahn--Hilliard equations with moving contact line boundary conditions. By some subtle explicit--implicit treatments to nonlinear terms, we develop two efficient, unconditionally energy stable numerical schemes, in particular, a linear decoupled energy stable scheme for the system with static contact line condition, and a nonlinear energy stable scheme for the system with dynamic contact line condition. Read More

By viewing the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NUDFT) as a perturbed version of a uniform discrete Fourier transform, we propose a fast, stable, and simple algorithm for computing the NUDFT that costs $\mathcal{O}(N\log N\log(1/\epsilon)/\log\!\log(1/\epsilon))$ operations based on the fast Fourier transform, where $N$ is the size of the transform and $0<\epsilon <1$ is a working precision. Our key observation is that a NUDFT and DFT matrix divided entry-by-entry is often well-approximated by a low rank matrix, allowing us to express a NUDFT matrix as a sum of diagonally-scaled DFT matrices. Our algorithm is simple to implement, automatically adapts to any working precision, and is competitive with state-of-the-art algorithms. Read More

In this paper, we propose a novel approach for coupling 2D/1D shallow water flow models. Efficiently coupling these models is vital for simulating the flow and flooding of open channels. Currently, existing methods couple the models either at the channel lateral boundaries (lateral methods) or at the location, along the channel flow direction, where the two sub-domains intersect (frontal methods). Read More

In this paper we consider the development of Implicit-Explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta schemes for hyperbolic systems with multiscale relaxation. In such systems the scaling depends on an additional parameter which modifies the nature of the asymptotic behavior which can be either hyperbolic or parabolic. Because of the multiple scalings, standard IMEX Runge-Kutta methods for hyperbolic systems with relaxation loose their efficiency and a different approach should be adopted to guarantee asymptotic preservation in stiff regimes. Read More

It is shown how piecewise differentiable functions $F: \mathbb R^n \mapsto \mathbb R^m $ that are defined by evaluation programs can be approximated locally by a piecewise linear model based on a pair of sample points $\check x$ and $\hat x$. We show that the discrepancy between function and model at any point $x$ is of the bilinear order $O(\|x-\check x\| \|x-\hat x\|)$. This is a little surprising since $x \in \mathbb R^n$ may vary over the whole Euclidean space, and we utilize only two function samples $\check F=F(\check x)$ and $\hat F=F(\hat x)$, as well as the intermediates computed during their evaluation. Read More

Although for a number of semilinear stochastic wave equations existence and uniqueness results for corresponding solution processes are known from the literature, these solution processes are typically not explicitly known and numerical approximation methods are needed in order for mathematical modelling with stochastic wave equations to become relevant for real world applications. This, in turn, requires the numerical analysis of convergence rates for such numerical approximation processes. A recent article by the authors proves upper bounds for weak errors for spatial spectral Galerkin approximations of a class of semilinear stochastic wave equations. Read More

For the nonsymmetric saddle point problems with nonsymmetric positive definite (1,1) parts, the modified generalized shift-splitting (MGSSP) preconditioner as well as the MGSSP iteration method are derived in this paper, which generalize the MSSP preconditioner and the MSSP iteration method newly developed by Huang and Su (J. Comput. Appl. Read More

Differentiable systems in this paper means systems of equations that are described by differentiable real functions in real matrix variables. This paper proposes algorithms for finding minimal rank solutions to such systems over (arbitrary and/or several structured) matrices by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method (LM-method) for solving least squares problems. We then apply these algorithms to solve several engineering problems such as the low-rank matrix completion problem and the low-dimensional Euclidean embedding one. Read More

We consider a parameter dependent family of damped hyperbolic equations with interesting limit behavior: the system approaches steady states exponentially fast and for parameter to zero the solutions converge to that of a parabolic limit problem. We establish sharp estimates and elaborate the dependence on the model parameters. For the numerical approximation we then consider a mixed finite element method in space together with a Runge-Kutta method in time. Read More

This paper develops meshless methods for probabilistically describing discretisation error in the numerical solution of partial differential equations. This construction enables the solution of Bayesian inverse problems while accounting for the impact of the discretisation of the forward problem. In particular, this drives statistical inferences to be more conservative in the presence of significant solver error. Read More

The extended finite element method (XFEM) was introduced in 1999 to treat problems involving discontinuities with no or minimal remeshing through appropriate enrichment functions. This enables elements to be split by a discontinuity, strong or weak and hence requires the integration of discontinuous functions or functions with discontinuous derivatives over elementary volumes. Moreover, in the case of open surfaces and singularities, special, usually non-polynomial functions must also be integrated. Read More

We derive, from a given matrix polynomial, a lower order matrix polynomial with the same eigenvalues, which we call a companion matrix polynomial in analogy to the Frobenius companion matrix, which is a special case of our result. We derive a few nonstandard bounds on the zeros and eigenvalues of scalar and matrix polynomials, respectively, as an illustration of the usefulness of companion matrix polynomials. Read More

We present direct logarithmically optimal in theory and fast in practice algorithms to implement the tensor product high order finite element method on multi-dimensional rectangular parallelepipeds for solving PDEs of the Poisson kind. They are based on the well-known Fourier approaches. The key new points are the fast direct and inverse FFT-based algorithms for expansion in eigenvectors of the 1D eigenvalue problems for the high order FEM. Read More

We express a certain complex-valued solution of Legendre's differential equation as the product of an oscillatory exponential function and an integral involving only nonoscillatory elementary functions. By calculating the logarithmic derivative of this solution, we show that Legendre's differential equation admits a nonoscillatory phase function. Moreover, we derive from our expression an asymptotic expansion useful for evaluating Legendre functions of the first and second kinds of large orders, as well as the derivative of the nonoscillatory phase function. Read More

We introduce a new numerical algorithm for solving the stochastic neural field equation (NFE) with delays. Using this algorithm we have obtained some numerical results which illustrate the effect of noise in the dynamical behaviour of stationary solutions of the NFE, in the presence of spatially heterogeneous external inputs. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University,

^{2}School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University

**Category:**Mathematics - Numerical Analysis

We extend to three-dimensional space the approximate M_2 model for the slab geometry studied in our previous paper. The B_2 model therein, as a special case of the second order extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM), is proved to be globally hyperbolic. The model we proposed here extends EQMOM to multiple dimensions following the idea to approximate the maximum entropy closure for the slab geometry case. Read More

Recent work by Nesterov and Stich showed that momentum can be used to accelerate the rate of convergence for block Gauss-Seidel in the setting where a fixed partitioning of the coordinates is chosen ahead of time. We show that this setting is too restrictive, constructing instances where breaking locality by running non-accelerated Gauss-Seidel with randomly sampled coordinates substantially outperforms accelerated Gauss-Seidel with any fixed partitioning. Motivated by this finding, we analyze the accelerated block Gauss-Seidel algorithm in the random coordinate sampling setting. Read More

This paper presents smoothed combined field integral equations for the solution of Dirichlet and Neumann exterior Helmholtz problems. The integral equations introduced in this paper are smooth in the sense that they only involve continuously differentiable integrands in both Dirichlet and Neumann cases. These integral equations coincide with the well-known combined field equations and are therefore uniquely solvable for all frequencies. Read More

A fully (pseudo-)spectral solver for direct numerical simulations of large-scale turbulent channel flows is described. The solver utilizes the Chebyshev base functions suggested by J. Shen [SIAM J. Read More

Lie-Butcher (LB) series are formal power series expressed in terms of trees and forests. On the geometric side LB-series generalizes classical B-series from Euclidean spaces to Lie groups and homogeneous manifolds. On the algebraic side, B-series are based on pre-Lie algebras and the Butcher-Connes-Kreimer Hopf algebra. Read More

This paper contains an error analysis of two randomized explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with time-irregular coefficient functions. In particular, the methods are applicable to ODEs of Carath\'eodory type, whose coefficient functions are only integrable with respect to the time variable but are not assumed to be continuous. A further field of application are ODEs with coefficient functions that contain weak singularities with respect to the time variable. Read More

Meshfree solution schemes for the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations are usually based on algorithms commonly used in finite volume methods, such as projection methods, SIMPLE and PISO algorithms. However, drawbacks of these algorithms that are specific to meshfree methods have often been overlooked. In this paper, we study the drawbacks of conventionally used meshfree Generalized Finite Difference Method~(GFDM) schemes for Lagrangian incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, both operator splitting schemes and monolithic schemes. Read More

Vortex shedding around circular cylinders is a well known and studied phenomenon that appears in many engineering fields. In this work a Reduced Order Model (ROM) of the incompressible flow around a circular cylinder, built performing a Galerkin projection of the governing equations onto a lower dimensional space is presented. The reduced basis space is generated using a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) approach. Read More

We show that the convergence rate of $\ell^1$-regularization for linear ill-posed equations is always $O(\delta)$ if the exact solution is sparse and if the considered operator is injective and weak*-to-weak continuous. Under the same assumptions convergence rates in case of non-sparse solutions are proven. The results base on the fact that certain source-type conditions used in the literature for proving convergence rates are automatically satisfied. Read More

This work proposes a machine-learning-based framework for estimating the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems. The framework applies high-dimensional regression techniques (e.g. Read More

In this paper, we consider unilateral contact problem without friction between a rigid body and deformable one in the framework of isogeometric analysis. We present the theoretical analysis of the mixed problem using an active set strategy and for a primal space of NURBS of degree $p$ and $p-2$ for a dual space of B-Spline. A inf-sup stability is proved to ensure a good property of the method. Read More

We present Nystr\"om discretizations of multitrace formulations and non-overlapping Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM) for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for bounded composite scatterers with piecewise constant material properties. We investigate the performance of DDM with both classical Robin and generalized Robin boundary conditions. The generalized Robin boundary conditions incorporate square root Fourier multiplier approximations of Dirichlet to Neumann operators. Read More

In the paper, we show that the transformations between modified Jacobi and Bernstein bases of the constrained space of polynomials of degree at most $n$ can be performed with the complexity $O(n^2)$. As a result, the algorithm of degree reduction of B\'ezier curves that was first presented in (Bhrawy et al., J. Read More

We present two approaches for enhancing the accuracy of second order finite difference approximations of two-dimensional semilinear parabolic systems. These are the fourth order compact difference scheme and the fourth order scheme based on Richardson extrapolation. Our interest is concentrated on a system of ten parabolic partial differential equations in air pollution modeling. Read More

In this paper we consider a parabolic optimal control problem with a Dirac type control with moving point source in two space dimensions. We discretize the problem with piecewise constant functions in time and continuous piecewise linear finite elements in space. For this discretization we show optimal order of convergence with respect to the time and the space discretization parameters modulo some logarithmic terms. Read More

In this paper, a new shift strategy for the implicitly restarted generalized second-order Arnoldi (GSOAR) method is proposed. In implicitly restarted processes, we can get a $k$-step GSOAR decomposition from a $m$-step GSOAR decomposition by performing $p = m-k$ implicit shifted QR iterations. The problem of the implicitly restarted GSOAR is the mismatch between the number of shifts and the dimension of the subspace. Read More

For time integration of transient eddy current problems commonly implicit time integration methods are used, where in every time step one or several nonlinear systems of equations have to be linearized with the Newton-Raphson method due to ferromagnetic materials involved. In this paper, a generalized Schur-complement is applied to the magnetic vector potential formulation, which converts a differential-algebraic equation system of index 1 into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) with reduced stiffness. For the time integration of this ODE system of equations, the explicit Euler method is applied. Read More

We consider multivariate $\mathbb{L}_2$-approximation in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces which are tensor products of weighted Walsh spaces and weighted Korobov spaces. We study the minimal worst-case error $e^{\mathbb{L}_2-\mathrm{app},\Lambda}(N,d)$ of all algorithms that use $N$ information evaluations from the class $\Lambda$ in the $d$-dimensional case. The two classes $\Lambda$ considered in this paper are the class $\Lambda^{{\rm all}}$ consisting of all linear functionals and the class $\Lambda^{{\rm std}}$ consisting only of function evaluations. Read More