# Mathematics - Numerical Analysis Publications (50)

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## Mathematics - Numerical Analysis Publications

Considered here is an efficient technique to compute approximate profiles of solitary wave solutions of fractional Korteweg-de Vries equations. The numerical method is based on a fixed-point iterative algorithm along with extrapolation techniques of acceleration. This combination improves the performance in both the velocity of convergence and the computation of profiles for limiting values of the fractional parameter. Read More

Efficient methods are proposed, for computing integrals appeaing in electronic structure calculations. The methods consist of two parts: the first part is to represent the integrals as contour integrals and the second one is to evaluate the contour integrals by the Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature. The efficiency of the proposed methods is demonstrated through numerical experiments. Read More

A computation-oriented representation of uncertain kinetic systems is introduced and analysed in this paper. It is assumed that the monomial coefficients of the ODEs belong to a polytopic set, which defines a set of dynamical systems for an uncertain model. An optimization-based computation model is proposed for the structural analysis of uncertain models. Read More

In this note we study the asymptotic mean-square stability for two-step schemes applied to a scalar stochastic differential equation (sde) and applied to systems of sdes. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic MS-stability of the methods in terms of the parameters of the schemes. The stochastic Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF2) scheme is asymptotically mean-square stable for any step-size whereas the two-step Adams-Bashforth (AB2) and Adams-Moulton (AM2) methods are unconditionally stable. Read More

We introduce an adaptive scattered data fitting scheme as extension of local least squares approximations to hierarchical spline spaces. To efficiently deal with non-trivial data configurations, the local solutions are described in terms of (variable degree) polynomial approximations according not only to the number of data points locally available, but also to the smallest singular value of the local collocation matrices. These local approximations are subsequently combined without the need of additional computations with the construction of hierarchical quasi-interpolants described in terms of truncated hierarchical B-splines. Read More

This paper presents second-order accurate genuine BGK (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) schemes in the framework of finite volume method for the ultra-relativistic flows. Different from the existing kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) or BGK-type schemes for the ultra-relativistic Euler equations, the present genuine BGK schemes are derived from the analytical solution of the Anderson-Witting model, which is given for the first time and includes the "genuine" particle collisions in the gas transport process. The BGK schemes for the ultra-relativistic viscous flows are also developed and two examples of ultra-relativistic viscous flow are designed. Read More

We introduce a coupled finite and boundary element formulation for acoustic scattering analysis over thin shell structures. A triangular Loop subdivision surface discretisation is used for both geometry and analysis fields. The Kirchhoff-Love shell equation is discretised with the finite element method and the Helmholtz equation for the acoustic field with the boundary element method. Read More

In this paper we continue to study a non-local free boundary problem arising in financial bubbles. We focus on the parabolic counterpart of the bubble problem and suggest an iterative algorithm which consists of a sequence of parabolic obstacle problems at each step to be solved, that in turn gives the next obstacle function in the iteration. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is proved. Read More

We provide a robust and general algorithm for computing distribution functions associated to induced orthogonal polynomial measures. We leverage several tools for orthogonal polynomials to provide a spectrally-accurate method for a broad class of measures, which is stable for polynomial degrees up to at least degree 1000. Paired with other standard tools such as a numerical root-finding algorithm and inverse transform sampling, this provides a methodology for generating random samples from an induced orthogonal polynomial measure. Read More

We consider an inverse problem for the acoustic wave equation, where an array of sensors probes an unknown medium with pulses and measures the scattered waves. The goal is to determine from these measurements the structure of the scattering medium, modeled by a spatially varying acoustic impedance function. Many inversion algorithms assume that the mapping from the unknown impedance to the scattered waves is approximately linear. Read More

In this dissertation we study the tractability of the information-based complexity $n(\varepsilon,d)$ for $d$-variate function approximation problems. In the deterministic setting for many unweighted problems the curse of dimensionality holds, that means, for some fixed error tolerance $\varepsilon>0$ the complexity $n(\varepsilon,d)$ grows exponentially in $d$. For integration problems one can usually break the curse with the standard Monte Carlo method. Read More

Optimal transportation provides a means of lifting distances between points on a geometric domain to distances between signals over the domain, expressed as probability distributions. On a graph, transportation problems can be used to express challenging tasks involving matching supply to demand with minimal shipment expense; in discrete language, these become minimum-cost network flow problems. Regularization typically is needed to ensure uniqueness for the linear ground distance case and to improve optimization convergence; state-of-the-art techniques employ entropic regularization on the transportation matrix. Read More

In this paper we extend the application of Hamiltonian Boundary Value Methods (HBVMs), a class of energy-conserving Runge-Kutta methods for Hamiltonian problems, to the numerical solution of Hamiltonian systems with holonomic constraints. The extension is obtained through a straightforward use of the so called line integral approach on which the methods rely, which is here used also for dealing with the constraints. As a result, the modified methods conserve both the Hamiltonian and the constraints, as is shown in their analysis. Read More

We consider the multilinear pagerank problem studied in [Gleich, Lim and Yu, Multilinear Pagerank, 2015], which is a system of quadratic equations with stochasticity and nonnegativity constraints. We use the theory of quadratic vector equations to prove several properties of its solutions and suggest new numerical algorithms. In particular, we prove the existence of a certain minimal solution, which does not always coincide with the stochastic one that is required by the problem. Read More

We study the exponent of the exponential rate of convergence in terms of the number of degrees of freedom for various non-standard $hp$-finite element spaces employing reduced cardinality basis. More specifically, we show that serendipity finite element methods and discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods with total degree $\mathcal{P}_p$ basis have a faster exponential convergence with respect to the number of degrees of freedom than their counterparts employing the tensor product $\mathcal{Q}_p$ basis for quadrilateral/hexahedral elements, for piecewise analytic problems under $p$-refinement. The above results are proven by using a new $p$-optimal error bound for the $L^2$-orthogonal projection onto the total degree $\mathcal{P}_p$ basis, and for the $H^1$-projection onto the serendipity finite element space over tensor product elements with dimension $d\geq2$. Read More

In this article, we consider discrete schemes for a fractional diffusion equation involving a tempered fractional derivative in time. We present a semi-discrete scheme by using the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) discretization in the spatial variables. We prove that the semi-discrete scheme is unconditionally stable in $L^2$ norm and convergence with optimal convergence rate $\mathcal{O}(h^{k+1})$. Read More

This paper introduces a new generalized polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) comprising multivariate Hermite orthogonal polynomials in dependent Gaussian random variables. The second-moment properties of Hermite polynomials reveal a weakly orthogonal system when obtained for a general Gaussian probability measure. Still, the exponential integrability of norm allows the Hermite polynomials to constitute a complete set and hence a basis in a Hilbert space. Read More

In this article we explore an algorithm for diffeomorphic random sampling of nonuniform probability distributions on Riemannian manifolds. The algorithm is based on optimal information transport (OIT)---an analogue of optimal mass transport (OMT). Our framework uses the deep geometric connections between the Fisher-Rao metric on the space of probability densities and the right-invariant information metric on the group of diffeomorphisms. Read More

This paper considers the problem of decentralized optimization with a composite objective containing smooth and non-smooth terms. To solve the problem, a proximal-gradient scheme is studied. Specifically, the smooth and nonsmooth terms are dealt with by gradient update and proximal update, respectively. Read More

We propose an optimal transportation approach to price European options under the Stein-Stein stochastic volatility model by using the flow that transports the set of particles from a prior to a posterior distribution. We also propose to direct the flow to a rarely visited areas of the state space by using a mutation and a reweighing algorithm. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach on a simple example for which the closed form formula is available. Read More

A balancing domain decomposition by constraints (BDDC) algorithm with adaptive primal constraints in variational form is introduced and analyzed for high-order mortar discretization of two-dimensional elliptic problems with high varying and random coefficients. Some vector-valued auxiliary spaces and operators with essential properties are defined to describe the variational algorithm, and the coarse space is formed by using a transformation operator on each interface. Compared with the adaptive BDDC algorithms for conforming Galerkin approximations, our algorithm is more simple, because there is not any continuity constraints at subdomain vertices in the mortar method involved in this paper. Read More

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a fundamental dimension reduction tool in statistics and machine learning. For large and high-dimensional data, computing the PCA (i.e. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LAMA, PUCPR,

^{2}LOCIE,

^{3}LAMA,

^{4}PUCPR

This paper proposes the use of the Spectral method to simulate diffusive moisture transfer through porous materials, which can be strongly nonlinear and can significantly affect sensible and latent heat transfer. An alternative way for computing solutions by considering a separated representation is presented, which can be applied to both linear and nonlinear diffusive problems, considering highly moisture-dependent properties. The Spectral method is compared with the classical implicit Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes. Read More

We introduce a hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations for which the approximate velocity field is pointwise divergence-free. The method proposed here builds on the method presented by Labeur and Wells [SIAM J. Sci. Read More

In this paper, we present a family of new mixed finite element methods for
linear elasticity for both spatial dimensions $n=2,3$, which yields a
conforming and strongly symmetric approximation for stress. Applying
$\mathcal{P}_{k+1}-\mathcal{P}_k$ as the local approximation for the stress and
displacement, the mixed methods achieve the optimal order of convergence for
both the stress and displacement when $k \ge n$. For the lower order case
$(n-2\le k

A special homotopy continuation method, as a combination of the polyhedral homotopy and the linear product homotopy, is proposed for computing all the isolated solutions to a special class of polynomial systems. The root number bound of this method is between the total degree bound and the mixed volume bound and can be easily computed. The new algorithm has been implemented as a program called LPH using C++. Read More

We propose and analyze a discretization scheme that combines the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin and finite element methods. The underlying model problem is of general diffusion-advection-reaction type on bounded domains, with decomposition into two sub-domains. We propose a heterogeneous variational formulation that is of the ultra-weak (Petrov-Galerkin) form with broken test space in one part, and of Bubnov-Galerkin form in the other. Read More

Locally Optimal Block Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (LOBPCG) is widely used to compute eigenvalues of large sparse symmetric matrices. The algorithm can suffer from numerical instability if it is not implemented with care. This is especially problematic when the number of eigenpairs to be computed is relatively large. Read More

High spatial resolution is a central aspect of tomographic imaging. In photoacoustic tomography, this requires accurate models for acoustic wave propagation and corresponding efficient image reconstruction methods. In this article we consider such models accounting for frequency dependent attenuation according to a wide class of attenuation laws that may include memory. Read More

When modeling global satellite data to recover a planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field and evaluate it elsewhere, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e. Read More

It is well known that the equation $x'(t)=Ax(t)+f(t)$, where $A$ is a square matrix, has a unique bounded solution $x$ for any bounded continuous free term $f$, provided the coefficient $A$ has no eigenvalues on the imaginary axis. This solution can be represented in the form \begin{equation*} x(t)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\mathcal G(t-s)x(s)\,ds. \end{equation*} The kernel $\mathcal G$ is called Green's function. Read More

We present a novel hybrid numerical-asymptotic boundary element method for transmission problems describing high frequency acoustic and electromagnetic scattering by penetrable (dielectric) convex polygons. We demonstrate by means of a range of numerical experiments that our boundary element method can achieve a fixed accuracy of approximation using only a relatively small, frequency-independent number of degrees of freedom. Our numerical approximation space, which can be applied in the context of any direct boundary integral equation formulation, approximates the unknown boundary solution as a sum of the classical geometrical optics approximation, computed by a beam tracing algorithm, plus a contribution due to diffraction, computed by a boundary element method using oscillatory basis functions chosen to efficiently capture the high frequency behaviour. Read More

This article reviews the application of advanced Monte Carlo techniques in the context of Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). MLMC is a strategy employed to compute expectations which can be biased in some sense, for instance, by using the discretization of a associated probability law. The MLMC approach works with a hierarchy of biased approximations which become progressively more accurate and more expensive. Read More

We outline the construction of compatible B-splines on 3D surfaces that satisfy the continuity requirements for electromagnetic scattering analysis with the boundary element method (method of moments). Our approach makes use of Non-Uniform Rational B-splines to represent model geometry and compatible B-splines to approximate the surface current, and adopts the isogeometric concept in which the basis for analysis is taken directly from CAD (geometry) data. The approach allows for high-order approximations and crucially provides a direct link with CAD data structures that allows for efficient design workflows. Read More

The goal of this paper is to achieve a computational model and corresponding efficient algorithm for obtaining a sparse representation of the fitting surface to the given scattered data. The basic idea of the model is to utilize the principal shift invariant (PSI) space and the l1 norm minimization. In order to obtain different sparsity of the approximation solution, the problem is represented as a multilevel LASSO (MLASSO) model with different regularization parameters. Read More

We propose a spectral method that discretizes the Boltzmann collision operator and satisfies a discrete version of the H-theorem. The method is obtained by modifying the existing Fourier spectral method to match a classical form of the discrete velocity method. It preserves the positivity of the solution on the Fourier collocation points and as a result satisfies the H-theorem. Read More

This analysis proposes an analytical-numerical approach for providing solutions of a class of nonlinear fractional Klein-Gordon equation subjected to appropriate initial conditions in Caputo sense by using the Fractional Reduced Differential Transform Method (FRDTM). This technique provides the solutions very accurately and efficiently in convergent series formula with easily computable coefficients. The behavior of the approximate series solution for different values of fractional-order "a" is shown graphically. Read More

We introduce a novel nonlinear imaging method for the acoustic wave equation based on model order reduction. The objective is to image the discontinuities of the acoustic velocity, a coefficient of the scalar wave equation from the discretely sampled time domain data measured at an array of transducers that can act as both sources and receivers. We treat the wave equation along with transducer functionals as a dynamical system. Read More

In engineering, it is a common desire to couple existing simulation tools together into one big system by passing information from subsystems as parameters into the subsystems under influence. As executed at fixed time points, this data exchange gives the global method a strong explicit component. Globally, such an explicit cosimulation schemes exchange time step can be seen as a step of an one-step method which is explicit in some solution components. Read More

The interval subset sum problem (ISSP) is a generalization of the well-known subset sum problem. Given a set of intervals $\left\{[a_{i,1},a_{i,2}]\right\}_{i=1}^n$ and a target integer $T,$ the ISSP is to find a set of integers, at most one from each interval, such that their sum best approximates the target $T$ but cannot exceed it. In this paper, we first study the computational complexity of the ISSP. Read More

The numerical approximation of high-frequency wave propagation in inhomogeneous media is a challenging problem. In particular, computing high-frequency solutions by direct simulations requires several points per wavelength for stability and usually requires many points per wavelength for a satisfactory accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new method for the acoustic wave equation in inhomogeneous media in the time domain to achieve superior accuracy and stability without using a large number of unknowns. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - Numerical Analysis

A weighted version of the parareal method for parallel-in-time computation of time dependent problems is presented. Linear stability analysis for a scalar weighing strategy shows that the new scheme may enjoy favorable stability properties with marginal reduction in accuracy at worse. More complicated matrix-valued weights are applied in numerical examples. Read More

Motivated by problems arising in magnetic drug targeting, we propose to generate an almost constant Kelvin (magnetic) force in a target subdomain, moving along a prescribed trajectory. This is carried out by solving a minimization problem with a tracking type cost functional. The magnetic sources are assumed to be dipoles and the control variables are the magnetic field intensity, the source location and the magnetic field direction. Read More

The aim of this study is to present a good modernistic strategy for solving some well-known classes of Lane-Emden type singular differential equations. The proposed approach is based on the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) and introducing the reproducing kernel properties in which the initial conditions of the problem are satisfied. The analytical solution that obtained involves in the form of a convergent series with easily computable terms in its reproducing kernel space. Read More

In this paper we study the existence and uniqueness of a solution and propose an iterative method for solving a beam problem which is described by the fully fourth order equation $$u^{(4)}(x)=f(x,u(x),u'(x),u'''(x),u'''(x)), \quad 0 < x < 1$$ associated with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. This problem was studied by several authors. Here we propose a novel approach by the reduction of the problem to an operator equation for the triplet of the nonlinear term $\varphi (x)=f(x,u(x),u'(x),u''(x),u'''(x))$ and the unknown values $u''(0), u''(1). Read More

In this paper, we consider a fast and second-order implicit difference method for approximation of a class of time-space fractional variable coefficients advection-diffusion equation. To begin with, we construct an implicit difference scheme, based on $L2-1_{\sigma}$ formula [A. A. Read More

The paper deals with the accuracy of guaranteed error bounds on outputs of interest computed from approximate methods such as the finite element method. A considerable improvement is introduced for linear problems thanks to new bounding techniques based on Saint-Venant's principle. The main breakthrough of these optimized bounding techniques is the use of properties of homothetic domains which enables to cleverly derive guaranteed and accurate boundings of contributions to the global error estimate over a local region of the domain. Read More

Robust global/goal-oriented error estimation is used nowadays to control the approximate finite element solutions obtained from simulation. In the context of Computational Mechanics, the construction of admissible stress fields (\ie stress tensors which verify the equilibrium equations) is required to set up strict and guaranteed error bounds (using residual based error estimators) and plays an important role in the quality of the error estimates. This work focuses on the different procedures used in the calculation of admissible stress fields, which is a crucial and technically complicated point. Read More

This paper introduces a cost-effective strategy to simulate the behavior of laminated plates by means of isogeometric 3D solid elements. Exploiting the high continuity of spline functions and their properties, a proper out-of-plane stress state is recovered from a coarse displacement solution using a post-processing step based on the enforcement of equilibrium in strong form. Appealing results are obtained and the method is shown to be particularly Peffective on slender composite stacks with a large number of layers. Read More

New contributions are offered to the theory and practice of the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM). These include a detailed characterization of the canonical structure; a substantial tightening of the error bound for the DEIM oblique projection, based on index selection via a strong rank revealing QR factorization; and an extension of the DEIM approximation to weighted inner products defined by a real symmetric positive-definite matrix $W$. The weighted DEIM ($W$-DEIM) can be deployed in the more general framework where the POD Galerkin projection is formulated in a discretization of a suitable energy inner product such that the Galerkin projection preserves important physical properties such as e. Read More