Mathematics - Number Theory Publications (50)

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Mathematics - Number Theory Publications

The purpose of this paper is to collect and make explicit the results of Gel'fand, Graev and Piatetski-Shapiro and Miyazaki for the $GL(3)$ cusp forms which are non-trivial on $SO(3,\mathbb{R})$. We give new descriptions of the spaces of cusp forms of minimal $K$-type and from the Fourier-Whittaker expansions of such forms give a complete and completely explicit spectral expansion for $L^2(SL(3,\mathbb{Z})\backslash PSL(3,\mathbb{R}))$, accounting for multiplicities, in the style of Duke, Friedlander and Iwaniec's paper on Artin $L$-functions. We directly compute the Jacquet integral for the Whittaker functions at the minimal $K$-type, improving Miyazaki's computation. Read More


For a dominant rational self-map on a smooth projective variety defined over a number field, Kawaguchi and Silverman conjectured that the (first) dynamical degree is equal to the arithmetic degree at a rational point whose forward orbit is well-defined and Zariski dense. We prove this conjecture for surjective endomorphisms on smooth projective surfaces. For surjective endomorphisms on any smooth projective varieties, we show the existence of rational points whose arithmetic degrees are equal to the dynamical degree. Read More


We prove a supercongruence modulo $p^3$ between the $p$th Fourier coefficient of a weight 6 modular form and a truncated ${}_6F_5$-hypergeometric series. Novel ingredients in the proof are the comparison of two rational approximations to $\zeta (3)$ to produce non-trivial harmonic sum identities and the reduction of the resulting congruences between harmonic sums via a congruence between the Ap\'ery numbers and another Ap\'ery-like sequence. Read More


We investigate a function field analogue of a recent conjecture on autocorrelations of sums of two squares by Freiberg, Kurlberg and Rosenzweig, which generalizes an older conjecture by Connors and Keating. In particular, we provide extensive numerical evidence and prove it in the large finite field limit. Our method can also handle correlations of other arithmetic functions and we give applications to (function field analogues of) the average of sums of two squares on shifted primes, and to autocorrelations of higher divisor functions twisted by a quadratic character. Read More


Let $F(s)$ be the normalized Hecke $L$-function associated with a cusp form of half-integral weight $\kappa$ and level $N$. We show that the standard twist $F(s,\alpha)$ of $F(s)$ satisfies a functional equation reflecting $s$ to $1-s$. The shape of the functional equation is not far from a standard Riemann type functional equation of degree 2; actually, it may be regarded as a degree 2 analog of the Hurwitz-Lerch functional equation. Read More


We consider a system of $R$ cubic forms in $n$ variables, with integer coefficients, which define a smooth complete intersection in projective space. Provided $n\geq 25R$, we prove an asymptotic formula for the number of integer points in an expanding box at which these forms simultaneously vanish. In particular we can handle systems of forms in $O(R)$ variables, previous work having required that $n \gg R^2$. Read More


We study the relation between the size of $L(1,\chi)$ and the width of the zero-free interval to the left of that point. Read More


We compute the Grothendieck group of the category of abelian varieties over an algebraically closed field $k$. We also compute the Grothendieck group of the category of $A$-isotypic abelian varieties, for any simple abelian variety $A$, assuming $k$ has characteristic 0, and for any elliptic curve $A$ in any characteristic. Read More


In this expository paper we present a proof of the equivalence of the standard definition of descent data on schemes with another one mentioned in the literature that involves certain cartesian diagrams. The case of Galois descent is discussed in detail. Read More


We study special values of regularized theta lifts at complex multiplication (CM) points. In particular, we show that CM values of Borcherds products can be expressed in terms of finitely many Fourier coefficients of certain harmonic weak Maa{\ss} forms of weight one. As it turns out, these coefficients are logarithms of algebraic integers whose prime ideal factorization is determined by special cycles on an arithmetic curve. Read More


We prove that up to scaling there are only finitely many integral lattices L of signature (2,n) with n>20 or n=17 such that the modular variety defined by the orthogonal group of L is not of general type. In particular, when n>107, every modular variety defined by an arithmetic group for a rational quadratic form of signature (2,n) is of general type. We also obtain similar finiteness in n>8 for the stable orthogonal groups. Read More


Suppose we count the positive integer lattice points beneath a convex decreasing curve in the first quadrant having equal intercepts. Then stretch in the coordinate directions so as to preserve the area under the curve, and again count lattice points. Which choice of stretch factor will maximize the lattice point count? We show the optimal stretch factor approaches $1$ as the area approaches infinity. Read More


In this paper, we study solutions to $h=af^2+bfg+g^2$, where $f,g,h$ are Hecke newforms with respect to $\Gamma_1(N)$ of weight $k>2$ and $a,b\neq 0$. We show that the number of solutions is finite for all $N$. Assuming Maeda's conjecture, we prove that the Petersson inner product $\langle f^2,g\rangle$ is nonzero, where $f$ and $g$ are any nonzero cusp eigenforms for $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ of weight $k$ and $2k$, respectively. Read More


Let $C_n$ be the $n$th Catalan number. We show that the asymptotic density of the set $\{n: C_n \equiv 0 \mod p \}$ is $1$ for all primes $p$, We also show that if $n = p^k -1$ then $C_n \equiv -1 \mod p$. Finally we show that if $n \equiv \{ \frac{p+1}{2}, \frac{p+3}{2}, . Read More


A quadratic polynomial $\Phi_{a,b,c}(x,y,z)=x(ax+1)+y(by+1)+z(cz+1)$ is called universal if the diophantine equation $\Phi_{a,b,c}(x,y,z)=n$ has an integer solution $x,y,z$ for any non negative integer $n$. In this article, we show that if $(a,b,c)=(2,2,6), (2,3,5)$ or $(2,3,7)$, then $\Phi_{a,b,c}( x,y,z)$ is universal. These were conjectured by Sun in \cite {Sun}. Read More


Ramanujan made many beautiful and elegant discoveries in his short life of 32 years, and one of them that has attracted the attention of several mathematicians over the years is his intriguing formula for $\zeta(2n+1)$. To be sure, Ramanujan's formula does not possess the elegance of Euler's formula for $\zeta(2n)$, nor does it provide direct arithmetical information. But, one of the goals of this survey is to convince readers that it is indeed a remarkable formula. Read More


Let $K$ be a $p$-adic field and let $X$ be a K3 surface over $K$. Assuming potential semi-stable reduction, we show that the ${\rm Gal}(\overline{K}/K)$-representation on $H^2_{\rm et}(X_{\overline{K}},{\mathbb Q}_p)$ is crystalline if and only if $X$ has good reduction after a finite and unramified extension of $K$. However, $X$ usually does not have good reduction over $K$ in this case, but it admits a model over ${\mathcal O}_K$, whose special fiber ${\cal X}_0$ has canonical singularities. Read More


Recently, the singular support and the characteristic cycle of a constructible sheaf on a smooth variety over an arbitrary perfect field are constructed by Beilinson and Saito, respectively. Saito also defines the characteristic class of a constructible sheaf as the intersection of the characteristic cycle and the zero section of the cotangent bundle. In this paper, based on their theory, we prove a twist formula for the $\varepsilon$-factor of a constructible sheaf on a projective smooth variety over a finite field in terms of characteristic class of the sheaf, This formula was conjectured by Kato and Saito in \cite[Conjecture 4. Read More


We prove a generalization of a result of Bhargava regarding the average size $\mathrm{Cl}(K)[2]$ as $K$ varies among cubic fields. For a fixed set of rational primes $S$, we obtain a formula for the average size of $\mathrm{Cl}(K)/\langle S \rangle[2]$ as $K$ varies among cubic fields with a fixed signature, where $\langle S \rangle$ is the subgroup of $\mathrm{Cl}(K)$ generated by the classes of primes of $K$ above prime in $S$. We additionally obtain average sizes for the relaxed Selmer group $\mathrm{Sel}_2^S(K)$ and for $\mathcal{O}_{K,S}^\times/(\mathcal{O}_{K,S}^\times)^2$ as $K$ varies in the same families. Read More


We prove a generalization of the Davenport-Heilbronn theorem to quotients of ideal class groups of quadratic fields by the primes lying above a fixed set of rational primes $S$. Additionally, we obtain average sizes for the relaxed Selmer group $\mathrm{Sel}_3^S(K)$ and for $\mathcal{O}_{K,S}^\times/(\mathcal{O}_{K,S}^\times)^3$ as $K$ varies among quadratic fields with a fixed signature ordered by discriminant. Read More


Recently, Dil and Boyadzhiev \cite{AD2015} proved an explicit formula for the sum of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\left( {{{\left\{ 0 \right\}}_r},1} \right)$. In this paper we show that the sums of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\left( {{{\left\{ 0 \right\}}_r,1};{{\left\{ 1 \right\}}_{k-1}}} \right)$ can be expressed in terms of (multiple) zeta values, multiple harmonic numbers and Stirling numbers of the first kind, and give an explicit formula. Read More


Let $\Gamma\backslash G$ be a $\mathbb{Z}^d$-cover of a compact rank one homogeneous space, and $\{a_t\}$ a one-parameter diagonalizable subgroup of $G$. We prove the following $\it{local\, mixing\, theorem}$: for any compactly supported measure $\mu$ on $\Gamma\backslash G$ with a continuous density: $$\lim_{t\to \infty} t^{d/2} \int \psi \, d\mu_t=c \int \psi \,dg$$ where $c>0$ is a constant depending only on $\Gamma$. More generally, we establish the local mixing theorem for any $\mathbb{Z}^d$-cover of a homogeneous space $\Gamma_0\backslash G$ with $\Gamma_0$ a convex cocompact Zariski dense subgroup of $G$. Read More


For a finite field of odd cardinality $q$, we show that the sequence of iterates of $aX^2+c$, starting at $0$, always recurs after $O(q/\log\log q)$ steps. For $X^2+1$ the same is true for any starting value. We suggest that the traditional "Birthday Paradox" model is inappropriate for iterates of $X^3+c$, when $q$ is 2 mod 3. Read More


Let K/Q be Galois and let eta in K* be such that the multiplicative Z[G]-module generated by eta is of Z-rank n.We define the local theta-regulators Delta\_p^theta(eta) in F\_p for the Q\_p-irreducible characters theta of G=Gal(K/Q). Let V\_theta be the theta-irreducible representation. Read More


Given a characteristic, we define a character of Siegel modular group of level 2, the computations of their values are also obtained. By using our theorems, some key theorems of Igusa [1] can be recovered. Read More


We prove a highly uniform stability or "almost-near" theorem for dual lattices of lattices $L \subseteq \Bbb R^n$. More precisely, we show that, for a vector $x$ from the linear span of a lattice $L \subseteq \Bbb R^n$, subject to $\lambda_1(L) \ge \lambda > 0$, to be $\varepsilon$-close to some vector from the dual lattice $L^\star$ of $L$, it is enough that the inner products $u\,x$ are $\delta$-close (with $\delta < 1/3$) to some integers for all vectors $u \in L$ satisfying $\| u \| \le r$, where $r > 0$ depends on $n$, $\lambda$, $\delta$ and $\varepsilon$, only. This generalizes an analogous result proved for integral vector lattices in \cite{MZ}. Read More


We derive bounds on the extremal singular values and the condition number of NxK, with N>=K, Vandermonde matrices with nodes in the unit disk. The mathematical techniques we develop to prove our main results are inspired by the link---first established by Selberg [1] and later extended by Moitra [2]---between the extremal singular values of Vandermonde matrices with nodes on the unit circle and large sieve inequalities. Our main conceptual contribution lies in establishing a connection between the extremal singular values of Vandermonde matrices with nodes in the unit disk and a novel large sieve inequality involving polynomials in z \in C with |z|<=1. Read More


The weighted star discrepancy is a quantitative measure for the performance of point sets in quasi-Monte Carlo algorithms for numerical integration. We consider polynomial lattice point sets, whose generating vectors can be obtained by a component-by-component construction to ensure a small weighted star discre-pancy. Our aim is to significantly reduce the construction cost of such generating vectors by restricting the size of the set of polynomials from which we select the components of the vectors. Read More


Let $F$ be a non-Archimedean local field. We study the restriction of an irreducible admissible genuine representations of the two fold metaplectic cover $\widetilde{GL}_{2}(F)$ of $GL_{2}(F)$ to the inverse image in $\widetilde{GL}_{2}(F)$ of a maximal torus in $GL_{2}(F)$. Read More


Let $k,l\geq2$ be fixed integers. In this paper, firstly, we prove that all solutions of the equation $(x+1)^{k}+(x+2)^{k}+.. Read More


We prove the first known nontrivial bounds on the sizes of the 2-torsion subgroups of the class groups of cubic and higher degree number fields $K$ (the trivial bound being $O_{\epsilon}(|{\rm Disc}(K)|^{1/2+\epsilon})$ by Brauer--Siegel). This yields corresponding improvements to: 1) bounds of Brumer and Kramer on the sizes of 2-Selmer groups and ranks of elliptic curves; 2) bounds of Helfgott and Venkatesh on the number of integral points on elliptic curves; 3) bounds on the sizes of 2-Selmer groups and ranks of Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves; and 4) bounds of Baily and Wong on the number of $A_4$-quartic fields of bounded discriminant. Read More


Let $q > 2$ be a prime number and define $\lambda_q := \left( \frac{\tau}{q} \right)$ where $\tau(n)$ is the number of divisors of $n$ and $\left( \frac{\cdot}{q} \right)$ is the Legendre symbol. When $\tau(n)$ is a quadratic residue modulo $q$, then $\left( \lambda_q \star \mathbf{1} \right) (n)$ could be close to the number of divisors of $n$. This is the aim of this work to compare the mean value of the function $\lambda_q \star \mathbf{1}$ to the well known average order of $\tau$. Read More


Let $\mathcal K$ be a field of formal Laurent series with coefficients in a finite field of chracteristic $p$, $\mathcal G_{Read More


Nikolai Durov introduced the theory of generalized rings and schemes to study Arakelov geometry in an alternative algebraic framework, and introduced the residue field at the infinite place. We show an elementary algebraic approach to modules and algebras over this object, define prime congruences, show that the polynomial ring of n variables is of Krull dimension n, and derive a prime decomposition theorem for these primes. Read More


The \emph{Orbit Problem} consists of determining, given a linear transformation $A$ on $\mathbb{Q}^d$, together with vectors $x$ and $y$, whether the orbit of $x$ under repeated applications of $A$ can ever reach $y$. This problem was famously shown to be decidable by Kannan and Lipton in the 1980s. In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of synthesising suitable \emph{invariants} $\mathcal{P} \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$, \emph{i. Read More


Let $V$ be a vector space over a finite field $k=\mathbb{F} _q$ of dimension $n$. For a polynomial $P:V\to k$ we define the bias of $P$ to be $$b_1(P)=\frac {|\sum _{v\in V}\psi (P(V))|}{q^n}$$ where $\psi :k\to \mathbb{C} ^\star$ is a non-trivial additive character. A. Read More


We reduce the exponent in the error term of the prime geodesic theorem for compact Riemann surfaces from $\frac{3}{4}$ to $\frac{7}{10}$ outside a set of finite logarithmic measure. Read More


The beautiful quartic Diophantine equation $A^4+hB^4=C^4+hD^4$, where $h$ is a fixed arbitrary positive integer, has been studied by some mathematicians for many years. Although Choudhry, Gerardin and Piezas presented solutions of this equation for many values of $h$, the solutions were not known for arbitrary positive integer values of $h$. In a separate paper (see the arxiv), the authors completely solved the equation for arbitrary values of $h$, and worked out many examples for different values of $h$, in particular for the values which has not already been given a solution. Read More


Let $A_f(1,n)$ be the normalized Fourier coefficients of a $GL(3)$ Maass cusp form $f$ and let $a_g(n)$ be the normalized Fourier coefficients of a $GL(2)$ cusp form $g$. Let $\lambda(n)$ be either $A_f(1,n)$ or the triple divisor function $d_3(n)$. It is proved that for any $\epsilon>0$, any integer $r\geq 1$ and $r^{5/2}X^{1/4+7\delta/2}\leq H\leq X$ with $\delta>0$, $$ \frac{1}{H}\sum_{h\geq 1}W\left(\frac{h}{H}\right) \sum_{n\geq 1}\lambda(n)a_g(rn+h)V\left(\frac{n}{X}\right)\ll X^{1-\delta+\epsilon}, $$ where $V$ and $W$ are smooth compactly supported functions, and the implied constants depend only on the associated forms and $\epsilon$. Read More


In this paper, $p$ and $q$ are two different odd primes. First, We construct the congruent elliptic curves corresponding to $p$, $2p$, $pq$, and $2pq,$ then, in the cases of congruent numbers, we determine the rank of the corresponding congruent elliptic curves. Read More


We study the conductor of Picard curves over $\mathbb{Q}$, which is a product of local factors. Our results are based on previous results on stable reduction of superelliptic curves that allow to compute the conductor exponent $f_p$ at the primes $p$ of bad reduction. A careful analysis of the possibilities of the stable reduction at $p$ yields restrictions on the conductor exponent $f_p$. Read More


Let $K$ be a local field whose residue field has characteristic $p$ and let $L/K$ be a finite separable totally ramified extension. Let $\pi_L$ be a uniformizer for $L$ and let $f(X)$ be the minimum polynomial for $\pi_L$ over $K$. Suppose $\tilde{\pi}_L$ is another uniformizer for $L$ such that $\tilde{\pi}_L\equiv\pi_L+r\pi_L^{\ell+1} \pmod{\pi_L^{\ell+2}}$ for some $\ell\ge1$ and $r\in O_K$. Read More


We consider the local discrepancy of a symmetrized version of Hammersley type point sets in the unit square. As a measure for the irregularity of distribution we study the norm of the local discrepancy in Besov spaces with dominating mixed smoothness. It is known that for Hammersley type points this norm has the best possible rate provided that the smoothness parameter of the Besov space is nonnegative. Read More


This paper proves the existence of infinitely many distinct Galois realizations of the alternating group $A_5$ over $\dQ$ which are "optimally intersective", i.e. Galois realizations each of which is the splitting field of a polynomial which has a root in $\dQ_p$ for all primes $p$ and is the product of exactly two nonlinear factors. Read More


Schoof's classic algorithm allows point-counting for elliptic curves over finite fields in polynomial time. This algorithm was subsequently improved by Atkin, using factorizations of modular polynomials, and by Elkies, using a theory of explicit isogenies. Moving to Jacobians of genus-2 curves, the current state of the art for point counting is a generalization of Schoof's algorithm. Read More


Let \tau(.) be the Ramanujan \tau-function, and let k be a positive integer such that \tau(n) is not 0 for n=1,.. Read More


We study the geometry and the singularities of the principal direction of the Drinfeld-Lafforgue-Vinberg degeneration of the moduli space of G-bundles Bun_G for an arbitrary reductive group G, and their relationship to the Langlands dual group of G. The article consists of two parts. In the first and main part, we study the monodromy action on the nearby cycles sheaf along the principal degeneration of Bun_G and relate it to the Langlands dual group of G. Read More


Motivated by our arithmetic applications, we required some tools that might be of independent interest. Let $\mathcal E$ be an absolutely irreducible group scheme of rank $p^4$ over $\mathbb Z_p$. We provide a complete description of the Honda systems of $p$-divisible groups $\mathcal G$ such that $\mathcal G[p^{n+1}]/\mathcal G[p^n] \simeq \mathcal E$ for all $n$. Read More


Let $\Lambda\left(n\right)$ be the von Mangoldt function and $r_{SP}\left(n\right)=\sum_{m_{1}+m_{2}^{2}+m_{3}^{2}=n}\Lambda\left(m_{1}\right)\Lambda\left(m_{2}\right)\Lambda\left(m_{3}\right)$ be the counting function for the numbers that can be written as sum of a prime and two squares of primes. Let $N$ a sufficiently large integer, let $k>3/2$ and let $M_{i}\left(N,k\right),\, i=1,\dots,4$ suitable parameters depending on $\Gamma(s)$. We prove that $$\sum_{n\leq N}r_{SP}\left(n\right)\frac{\left(N-n\right)^{k}}{\Gamma\left(k+1\right)}=M_{1}\left(N,k\right)+M_{2}\left(N,k\right)+M_{3}\left(N,k\right)+M_{4}\left(N,k\right)+O\left(N^{k+1}\right). Read More


In this paper, the elliptic curves theory is used for solving the Diophantine equations $\sum_{i=1}^n a_ix_{i} ^6+\sum_{i=1}^m b_iy_{i} ^3= \sum_{i=1}^na_iX_{i}^6\pm\sum_{i=1}^m b_iY_{i} ^3$, where $n$, $m$ $\geq 1$ and $a_i$, $b_i$, are fixed arbitrary nonzero integers. By our method, we may find infinitely many nontrivial positive solutions and also obtain infinitely many nontrivial parametric solutions for the Diophantine equations for every arbitrary integers $n$, $m$, $a_i$ and $b_i$. Read More