# Mathematics - Mathematical Physics Publications (50)

## Search

## Mathematics - Mathematical Physics Publications

We provide a self-contained formulation of the BPHZ theorem in the Euclidean context, which yields a systematic procedure to "renormalise" otherwise divergent integrals appearing in generalised convolutions of functions with a singularity of prescribed order at their origin. We hope that the formulation given in this article will appeal to an analytically minded audience and that it will help to clarify to what extent such renormalisations are arbitrary (or not). In particular, we do not assume any background whatsoever in quantum field theory and we stay away from any discussion of the physical context in which such problems typically arise. Read More

We construct a new family of flat connections generalising the KZ connection, the Casimir connection and the dynamical connection. These new connections are attached to simply-laced graphs, and are obtained via quantisation of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems controlling the isomonodromic deformations of meromorphic connections on the sphere. Read More

Traveling periodic waves of the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are considered in the focusing case. By using one-fold and two-fold Darboux transformations, we construct explicitly the rogue periodic waves of the mKdV equation expressed by the Jacobian elliptic functions dn and cn respectively. The rogue dn-periodic wave describes propagation of an algebraically decaying soliton over the dn-periodic wave, the latter wave is modulationally stable with respect to long-wave perturbations. Read More

Let $V=\bigotimes_{k=1}^{N} V_{k}$ be the $N$ spin-$j$ Hilbert space with $d=2j+1$-dimensional single particle space. We fix an orthonormal basis $\{|m_i\rangle\}$ for each $V_{k}$, with weight $m_i\in \{-j,\ldots j\}$. Let $V_{(w)}$ be the subspace of $V$ with a constant weight $w$, with an orthonormal basis $\{|m_1,\ldots,m_N\rangle\}$ subject to $\sum_k m_k=w$. Read More

**Authors:**Zhenya Yan

We investigate the initial-boundary value problem for the general three-component nonlinear Schrodinger (gtc-NLS) equation with a 4x4 Lax pair on a finite interval by extending the Fokas unified approach. The solutions of the gtc-NLS equation can be expressed in terms of the solutions of a 4x4 matrix Riemann-Hilbert (RH) problem formulated in the complex k-plane. Moreover, the relevant jump matrices of the RH problem can be explicitly found via the three spectral functions arising from the initial data, the Dirichlet-Neumann boundary data. Read More

A nice differential-geometric framework for (non-abelian) higher gauge theory is provided by principal 2-bundles, i.e. categorified principal bundles. Read More

**Authors:**Zhenya Yan

We investigate the initial-boundary value problem for the integrable spin-1 Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations with a 4x4 Lax pair on the half-line. The solution of this system can be obtained in terms of the solution of a 4x4 matrix Riemann-Hilbert (RH) problem formulated in the complex k-plane. The relevant jump matrices of the RH problem can be explicitly found using the two spectral functions s(k) and S(k), which can be defined by the initial data, the Dirichlet-Neumann boundary data at x=0. Read More

We present an argument which purports to show that the use of the standard Legendre transform in non-additive Statistical Mechanics is not appropriate. For concreteness, we use as paradigm, the case of systems which are conjecturally described by the (non-additive) Tsallis entropy. We point out the form of the modified Legendre transform that should be used, instead, in the non-additive thermodynamics induced by the Tsallis entropy. Read More

The dynamics along the particle trajectories for the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations are considered. It is shown that if the inflow is rapidly increasing (pushy) in time, the corresponding laminar profile of the incompressible Euler flow is not (in some sense) stable provided that the swirling component is not zero. It is also shown that if the vorticity on the axis is not zero (with some extra assumptions), then there is no steady flow. Read More

We give a survey of elliptic hypergeometric functions associated with root systems, comprised of three main parts. The first two form in essence an annotated table of the main evaluation and transformation formulas for elliptic hypergeometric integeral and series on root systems. The third and final part gives an introduction to Rains' elliptic Macdonald-Koornwinder theory (in part also developed by Coskun and Gustafson). Read More

It has been argued in [EPL {\bf 90} (2010) 50004], entitled {\it Essential discreteness in generalized thermostatistics with non-logarithmic entropy}, that "continuous Hamiltonian systems with long-range interactions and the so-called q-Gaussian momentum distributions are seen to be outside the scope of non-extensive statistical mechanics". The arguments are clever and appealing. We show here that, however, some mathematical subtleties render them unconvincing Read More

The objective of this note is to provide an interpretation of the discrete version of Morse inequalities, following Witten's approach via supersymmetric quantum mechanics, adapted to finite graphs, as a particular instance of Morse-Witten theory for cell complexes. We describe the general framework of graph quantum mechanics and we produce discrete versions of the Hodge theorems and energy cut-offs within this formulation. Read More

We study scalar products of Bethe vectors in the models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and described by $\mathfrak{gl}(m|n)$ superalgebra. Using coproduct properties of the Bethe vectors we obtain a sum formula for their scalar products. This formula describes the scalar product in terms of a sum over partitions of Bethe parameters. Read More

The Tsallis entropy given for a positive parameter $\alpha$ can be considered as a modification of the classical Shannon entropy. For the latter, corresponding to $\alpha=1$, there exist many axiomatic characterizations. One of them based on the well-known Khinchin-Shannon axioms has been simplified several times and adapted to Tsallis entropy, where the axiom of (generalized) Shannon additivity is playing a central role. Read More

This paper is concerned with the theoretical study of plasmonic resonances for linear elasticity governed by the Lam\'e system in $\mathbb{R}^3$, and their application for cloaking due to anomalous localized resonances. We derive a very general and novel class of elastic structures that can induce plasmonic resonances. It is shown that if either one of the two convexity conditions on the Lam\'e parameters is broken, then we can construct certain plasmon structures that induce resonances. Read More

This study investigated the unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks. We determined the unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks, two-phase quantum walks with one defect, complete two-phase quantum walks, one-dimensional quantum walks with one defect and translation-invariant one-dimensional quantum walks. The unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks with initial states were also considered. Read More

In a spacetime divided into two regions $U_1$ and $U_2$ by a hypersurface $\Sigma$, a perturbation of the field in $U_1$ is coupled to perturbations in $U_2$ by means of the first-order holographic imprint that it leaves on $\Sigma$. The linearized glueing field equation constrains perturbations on the two sides of a dividing hypersurface. This linear operator may have a nontrivial null space; a nontrivial perturbation of the field leaving a holographic imprint on a dividing hypersurface which does not affect perturbations on the other side should be considered physically irrelevant. Read More

Observable currents are conserved gauge invariant currents, physical observables may be calculated integrating them on appropriate hypersurfaces. Due to the conservation law the hypersurfaces become irrelevant up to homology, and the main objects of interest become the observable currents them selves. Hamiltonian observable currents are those satisfying ${\sf d_v} F = - \iota_V \Omega_L + {\sf d_h}\sigma^F$. Read More

We interpret, in the realm of relativistic quantum field theory, the tangential operator given by Coleman, Mandula as an appropriate coordinate operator. The investigation shows that the operator generates a Snyder-like noncommutative spacetime with a minimal length that is given by the mass. By using this operator to define a noncommutative spacetime, we obtain a Poincar\'e invariant noncommutative spacetime and in addition solve the soccer-ball problem. Read More

We study the Neumann Laplacian operator $-\Delta_\Omega^N$ restricted to a twisted waveguide $\Omega$. The goal is to find the effective operator when the diameter of $\Omega$ tends to zero. However, when $\Omega$ is "squeezed" there are divergent eigenvalues due to the transverse oscillations. Read More

We prove that the doubly lambda-deformed sigma-models, which include integrable cases, are canonically equivalent to the sum of two single lambda-deformed models. This explains the equality of the exact beta-functions and current anomalous dimensions of the doubly lambda-deformed sigma-models to those of two single lambda-deformed models. Our proof is based upon agreement of their Hamiltonian densities and of their canonical structure. Read More

Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process (TASEP) on $\mathbb{Z}$ is one of the classical exactly solvable models in the KPZ universality class. We study the "slow bond" model, where TASEP on $\mathbb{Z}$ is imputed with a slow bond at the origin. The slow bond increases the particle density immediately to its left and decreases the particle density immediately to its right. Read More

The Kundu-Eckhaus equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation which seems in the quantum field theory, weakly nonlinear dispersive water waves and nonlinear optics. In spite of its importance, exact solution to this nonlinear equation are rarely found in literature. In this work, we solve this equation and present a new approach to obtain the solution by means of the combined use of the Adomian Decomposition Method and the Laplace Transform (LADM). Read More

Using diagrammatic techniques, we provide an explicit proof of the single ring theorem, including the recent extension for the correlation function built out of left and right eigenvectors of a non-Hermitian matrix. We present the operational formalism allowing to map mutually the two distinct areas of free random variables: Hermitian positive definite operators and non-normal R-diagonal operators, realized as the large size limit of biunitarily invariant random matrices. Read More

A generalisation of the Lie symmetry method is applied to classify a coupled system of reaction-diffusion equations wherein the nonlinearities involve arbitrary functions in the limit case in which one equation of the pair is quasi-steady but the other not. A complete Lie symmetry classification, including a number of the cases characterised being unlikely to be identified purely by intuition, is obtained. Notably, in addition to the symmetry analysis of the PDEs themselves, the approach is extended to allow the derivation of exact solutions to specific moving-boundary problems motivated by biological applications tumour growth). Read More

In this note we aim to characterize the cylindrical Wigner measures associated to regular quantum states in the Weyl C*-algebra of canonical commutation relations. In particular, we provide conditions at the quantum level sufficient to prove the concentration of all the corresponding cylindrical Wigner measures as Radon measures on suitable topological vector spaces. The analysis is motivated by variational and dynamical problems in the semiclassical study of bosonic quantum field theories. Read More

We prove that the ground space projections of a subspace of energy operators in a matrix *-algebra are the greatest projections of the algebra under certain operator cone constraints. The lattice of ground space projections being coatomistic, we also discuss its maximal elements as building blocks. We demonstrate the results with (commutative) two-local three-bit Hamiltonians. Read More

We discuss the possibility of protecting the state of a quantum system that goes through noise by measurements and operations before and after the noise process. We extend our previous result on nonexistence of "truly quantum" protocols that protect an unknown qubit state against the depolarizing noise better than "classical" ones [Phys. Rev. Read More

Time-independent gauge transformations are implemented in the canonical formalism by the Gauss law which is not covariant. The covariant form of Gauss law is conceptually important for studying asymptotic properties of the gauge fields. For QED in $3+1$ dimensions, we have developed a formalism for treating the equations of motion (EOM) themselves as constraints, that is, constraints on states using Peierls' quantization. Read More

In this paper we extend the approach of orthogonal polynomials for extreme value calculations of Hermitian random matrices, developed by Nadal and Majumdar [1102.0738], to normal random matrices and 2D Coulomb gases in general. Firstly, we show that this approach provides an alternative derivation of results in the literature. Read More

We consider pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on four-dimensional de Sitter space dS$_4$ and construct a smooth and spatially homogeneous magnetic solution to the Yang-Mills equations. Slicing dS$_4$ as ${\mathbb R}\times S^3$, via an SU(2)-equivariant ansatz we reduce the Yang-Mills equations to ordinary matrix differential equations and further to Newtonian dynamics in a double-well potential. Its local maximum yields a Yang-Mills solution whose color-magnetic field at time $\tau\in{\mathbb R}$ is given by $\tilde{B}_a=-\frac12 I_a/(R^2\cosh^2\!\tau)$, where $I_a$ for $a=1,2,3$ are the SU(2) generators and $R$ is the de Sitter radius. Read More

The competition between local Brownian roughness and global parabolic curvature experienced in many random interface models reflects an important aspect of the KPZ universality class. It may be summarised by an exponent triple $(1/2,1/3,2/3)$ representing local interface fluctuation, local roughness (or inward deviation) and convex hull facet length. The three effects arise, for example, in droplets in planar Ising models (Alexander, '01, Hammond, '11,'12). Read More

In this expository note, we discuss spatially inhomogeneous quantum walks in one dimension and describe a genre of mathematical methods that enables one to translate information about the time-independent eigenvalue equation for the unitary generator into dynamical estimates for the corresponding quantum walk. To illustrate the general methods, we show how to apply them to a 1D coined quantum walk whose coins are distributed according to an element of the Thue--Morse subshift. Read More

Let $K\subset S^3$ be a knot, $X:= S^3\setminus K$ its complement, and $\mathbb{T}$ the circle group identified with $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$. To any oriented long knot diagram of $K$, we associate a quadratic polynomial in variables bijectively associated with the bridges of the diagram such that, when the variables projected to $\mathbb{T}$ satisfy the linear equations characterizing the first homology group $H_1(\tilde{X}_2)$ of the double cyclic covering of $X$, the polynomial projects down to a well defined $\mathbb{T}$-valued function on $T^1(\tilde{X}_2,\mathbb{T})$ (the dual of the torsion part $T_1$ of $H_1$). This function is sensitive to knot chirality, for example, it seems to confirm chirality of the knot $10_{71}$. Read More

In this paper we study the combinatorics of quasi-trigonometric solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation, arising from simple vector bundles on a nodal Weierstrass cubic. Read More

In 1975, Lieb and Thirring derived a semiclassical lower bound on the kinetic energy for fermions, which agrees with the Thomas-Fermi approximation up to a constant factor. Whenever the optimal constant in their bound coincides with the semiclassical one is a long-standing open question. We prove an improved bound with the semiclassical constant and a gradient error term which is of lower order. Read More

We prove that any hyperbolic end with particles (cone singularities along infinite curves of angles less than $\pi$) admits a unique foliation by constant Gauss curvature surfaces. Using a form of duality between hyperbolic ends with particles and convex globally hyperbolic maximal (GHM) de Sitter spacetime with particles, it follows that any convex GHM de Sitter spacetime with particles also admits a unique foliation by constant Gauss curvature surfaces. We prove that the grafting map from the product of Teichm\"uller space with the space of measured laminations to the space of complex projective structures is a homeomorphism for surfaces with cone singularities of angles less than $\pi$, as well as an analogue when grafting is replaced by "smooth grafting". Read More

We investigate the elliptic supersymmetric $gl(1|1)$ integrable model introduced by Deguchi and Martin, which is an elliptic extension of the Perk-Schultz model. We introduce and study the wavefunctions of the elliptic model. We first make a face-type version of the Izergin-Korepin analysis to give characterizations of the wavefunctions. Read More

This paper presents a symmetric monoidal and compact closed bicategory that categorifies the zx-calculus developed by Coecke and Duncan. The $1$-cells in this bicategory are certain graph morphisms that correspond to the string diagrams of the zx-calculus, while the $2$-cells are rewrite rules. Read More

Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a {cascade involving} kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach in order to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Read More

In this paper, a general bright-dark soliton solution in the form of pfaffian is constructed for an integrable semi-discrete vector NLS equation via Hirota's bilinear method. One- and two- bright-dark soliton solutions are explicitly presented for two-component semi-discrete NLS equation, two-bright-one-dark, and one-bright-two-dark soliton solutions are also given explicitly for three-component semi-discrete NLS equation. The asymptotic behavior is analysed for two-soliton solutions. Read More

We propose a spectral method that discretizes the Boltzmann collision operator and satisfies a discrete version of the H-theorem. The method is obtained by modifying the existing Fourier spectral method to match a classical form of the discrete velocity method. It preserves the positivity of the solution on the Fourier collocation points and as a result satisfies the H-theorem. Read More

We prove local well posedness in regular spaces and a Beale-Kato-Majda blow-up criterion for a recently derived stochastic model of the 3D Euler fluid equation for incompressible flow. This model describes incompressible fluid motions whose Lagrangian particle paths follow a stochastic process with cylindrical noise and also satisfy Newton's 2nd Law in every Lagrangian domain. Read More

We consider the three most important equations of hypergeometric type, ${}_2F_1$, ${}_1F_1$ and ${}_1F_0$, in the so-called degenerate case. In this case one of the parameters, usually denoted $c$, is an integer and the standard basis of solutions consists of a hypergeometric-type function and a function with a logarithmic singularity. This article is devoted to a thorough analysis of the latter solution to all three equations. Read More

We consider a Hamilton operator which describes a finite dimensional quantum mechanical system with degenerate eigenvalues coupled to a field of relativistic bosons. We show that the ground state and the ground state energy are analytic functions of the coupling constant in a cone with apex at the origin, provided a mild infrared assumption holds. To show the result operator theoretic renormalization is used and extended to degenerate situations. Read More

We obtain an exact result for the midpoint probability distribution function (pdf) of the stationary continuum directed polymer, when averaged over the disorder. It is obtained by relating that pdf to the linear response of the stochastic Burgers field to some perturbation. From the symmetries of the stochastic Burgers equation we derive a fluctuation-dissipation relation so that the pdf gets given by the stationary two space-time points correlation function of the Burgers field. Read More

Here we obtain explicit formulae for bounds on the complex electrical polarizability at a given frequency of an inclusion with known volume that follow directly from the quasistatic bounds of Bergman and Milton on the effective complex dielectric constant of a two-phase medium. We also describe how analogous bounds on the orientationally averaged bulk and shear polarizabilities at a given frequency can be obtained from bounds on the effective complex bulk and shear moduli of a two-phase medium obtained by Milton, Gibiansky and Berryman, using the quasistatic variational principles of Cherkaev and Gibiansky. We also show how the polarizability problem and the acoustic scattering problem can both be reformulated in an abstract setting as "Y -problems". Read More

We give a proof of perturbative renormalizability of SU(2) Yang--Mills theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space which is based on the Flow Equations of the renormalization group. The main motivation is to present a proof which does not make appear mathematically undefined objects (as for example dimensionally regularized generating functionals), which permits to parametrize the theory in terms of {\it physical} renormalization conditions, and which allows to control the singularities of the correlation functions of the theory in the infrared domain. Thus a large part of the proof is dedicated to bounds on massless correlation functions. Read More

We present a new method for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering from homogeneous penetrable bodies. Our approach is based on a reformulation of the governing Maxwell equations in terms of two uncoupled vector Helmholtz systems: one for the electric feld and one for the magnetic field. This permits the derivation of resonance-free Fredholm equations of the second kind that are stable at all frequencies, insensitive to the genus of the scatterers, and invertible for all passive materials including those with negative permittivities or permeabilities. Read More

Using a separable Buchwald representation in cylindrical coordinates, we show how under certain conditions the coupled equations of motion governing the Buchwald potentials can be decoupled and then solved using well-known techniques from the theory of PDEs. Under these conditions, we then construct several parametrized families of particular solutions to the Navier-Lame equation. In this paper, we specifically construct solutions having 2pi-periodic angular parts. Read More