Mathematics - Geometric Topology Publications (50)

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Mathematics - Geometric Topology Publications

We discuss the connection between colorings of a link diagram and the Goeritz matrix. Read More


The virtual unknotting number of a virtual knot is the minimal number of crossing changes that makes the virtual knot to be the unknot, which is defined only for virtual knots virtually homotopic to the unknot. We focus on the virtual knot obtained from the standard (p,q)-torus knot diagram by replacing all crossings on one overstrand into virtual crossings and prove that its virtual unknotting number is equal to the unknotting number of the $(p,q)$-torus knot, i.e. Read More


We introduce an infinite family of quantum enhancements of the biquandle counting invariant we call biquandle virtual brackets. Defined in terms of skein invariants of biquandle colored oriented knot and link diagrams with values in a commutative ring $R$ using virtual crossings as smoothings, these invariants take the form of multisets of elements of $R$ and can be written in a "polynomial" form for convenience. The family of invariants defined herein includes as special cases all quandle and biquandle 2-cocycle invariants, all classical skein invariants (Alexander-Conway, Jones, HOMFLYPT and Kauffman polynomials) and all biquandle bracket invariants defined in previous work as well as new invariants defined using virtual crossings in a fundamental way, without an obvious purely classical definition. Read More


Almost-flat manifolds were defined by Gromov as a natural generalisation of flat manifolds and as such share many of their properties. Similarly to flat manifolds, it turns out that the existence of a spin structure on an almost-flat manifold is determined by the canonical orthogonal representation of its fundamental group. Utilising this, we classify the spin structures on all four-dimensional almost-flat manifolds that are not flat. Read More


In this paper, we give a new version of transfinite asymptotic dimensions and prove some related properties. Besides, we give some examples to distinguish them. In particular, we obtain that Thompson group F equipped with the word-metric with respect to the infinite generating set does not have asymptotic property C. Read More


A twisted torus knot is a knot obtained from a torus knot by twisting adjacent strands by full twists. The twisted torus knots lie in $F$, the genus 2 Heegaard surface for $S^3$. Primitive/primitive and primitive/Seifert knots lie in $F$ in a particular way. Read More


In this paper examples are constructed to illustrate that homotopically rigid spaces are not as rare as they initially were thought to be. These examples are then used as building blocks to forge highly connected rational spaces with prescribed finite group of self-homotopy equivalences. Finally, they are exploited to: (i) provide inflexible and strongly chiral manifolds; and (ii) compare Lusternik-Schnirelmann category to another numerical invariant. Read More


In this paper we study the kernel of the homomorphism $B_{g,n} \to B_n$ of the braid group $B_{g,n}$ in the handlebody $\mathcal{H}_g$ to the braid group $B_n$. We prove that this kernel is a semi-direct product of free groups. Also, we introduce an algebra $H_{g,n}(q)$, which is some analog of the Hecke algebra $H_n(q)$, constructed by the braid group $B_n$. Read More


For a given quasi-Fuchsian representation $\rho:\pi_1(S)\to$ PSL$_2\mathbb{C}$ of the fundamental group of a surface $S$ of genus $g\geq 2$, we prove that a generic branched complex projective structure on $S$ with holonomy $\rho$ and two branch points is obtained by bubbling some unbranched structure on $S$ with the same holonomy. Read More


Let $M$ be a compact orientable surface equipped with a volume form $\omega$, $P$ be either $\mathbb{R}$ or $S^1$, $f:M\to P$ be a $C^{\infty}$ Morse map, and $H$ be the Hamiltonian vector field of $f$ with respect to $\omega$. Let also $\mathcal{Z}_{\omega}(f) \subset C^{\infty}(M,\mathbb{R})$ be set of all functions taking constant values along orbits of $H$, and $\mathcal{S}_{\mathrm{id}}(f,\omega)$ be the identity path component of the group of diffeomorphisms of $M$ mutually preserving $\omega$ and $f$. We construct a canonical map $\varphi: \mathcal{Z}_{\omega}(f) \to \mathcal{S}_{\mathrm{id}}(f,\omega)$ being a homeomorphism whenever $f$ has at least one saddle point, and an infinite cyclic covering otherwise. Read More


We give an alternate construction of absolute Maslov and Alexander gradings on link Floer homology, using a surgery presentation of the link complement. We show that the link cobordism maps defined by the author are graded and satisfy a grading change formula. We also show that our construction agrees with the original definition of the symmetrized Alexander grading defined by Ozsv\'{a}th and Szab\'{o}. Read More


Let $\Gamma\backslash G$ be a $\mathbb{Z}^d$-cover of a compact rank one homogeneous space, and $\{a_t\}$ a one-parameter diagonalizable subgroup of $G$. We prove the following $\it{local\, mixing\, theorem}$: for any compactly supported measure $\mu$ on $\Gamma\backslash G$ with a continuous density: $$\lim_{t\to \infty} t^{d/2} \int \psi \, d\mu_t=c \int \psi \,dg$$ where $c>0$ is a constant depending only on $\Gamma$. More generally, we establish the local mixing theorem for any $\mathbb{Z}^d$-cover of a homogeneous space $\Gamma_0\backslash G$ with $\Gamma_0$ a convex cocompact Zariski dense subgroup of $G$. Read More


The firefighter game problem on locally finite connected graphs was introduced by Bert Hartnell. The game on a graph $G$ can be described as follows: let $f_n$ be a sequence of positive integers; an initial fire starts at a finite set of vertices; at each (integer) time $n\geq 1$, $f_n$ vertices which are not on fire become protected, and then the fire spreads to all unprotected neighbors of vertices on fire; once a vertex is protected or is on fire, it remains so for all time intervals. The graph $G$ has the \emph{$f_n$-containment property} if every initial fire admits an strategy that protects $f_n$ vertices at time $n$ so that the set of vertices on fire is eventually constant. Read More


A well known question of Gromov asks whether every one-ended hyperbolic group $\Gamma$ has a surface subgroup. We give a positive answer when $\Gamma$ is the fundamental group of a graph of free groups with cyclic edge groups. As a result, Gromov's question is reduced (modulo a technical assumption on 2-torsion) to the case when $\Gamma$ is rigid. Read More


Let K be a knot in S^3, and M and M' be distinct Dehn surgeries along K. We investigate when M covers M'. When K is a torus knot, we provide a complete classification of such covers. Read More


Given a simply-connected closed $4$-manifold $X$ and a smoothly embedded oriented surface $\Sigma$, various constructions based on Fintushel-Stern knot surgery have produced new surfaces in $X$ that are pairwise homeomorphic to $\Sigma$, but not diffeomorphic. We prove that for all known examples of surface knots constructed from knot surgery operations that preserve the fundamental group of the complement of surface knots, they become pairwise diffeomorphic after stabilizing by connected summing with one $S^2\tilde{\times}S^2$. When $X$ is spin, we show in addition that any surfaces obtained by a knot surgery whose complements have cyclic fundamental group become pairwise diffeomorphic after one stabilization by $S^2\tilde{\times}S^2$. Read More


We introduce a quotient of the affine Temperley-Lieb category that encodes all weight-preserving linear maps between finite-dimensional sl(2)-representations. We study the diagrammatic idempotents that correspond to projections onto extremal weight spaces and find that they satisfy similar properties as Jones-Wenzl projectors, and that they categorify the Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. This gives a categorification of the Kauffman bracket skein algebra of the annulus, which is well adapted to the task of categorifying the multiplication on the Kauffman bracket skein module of the torus. Read More


In the mapping class group of a $k$-holed torus with $0 \leq k \leq 9$, one can factorize the boundary multi-twist (or the identity when $k=0$) as the product of twelve right-handed Dehn twists. Such factorizations were explicitly given by Korkmaz and Ozbagci for each $k \leq 9$ and an alternative one for $k=8$ by Tanaka. In this note, we simplify their expressions for the $k$-holed torus relations. Read More


This article proves that the parity of the number of Klein-bottle leaves in a smooth cooriented taut foliation is invariant under smooth deformations within taut foliations, provided that every Klein-bottle leaf involved in the counting has non-trivial linear holonomy. Read More


We prove that the cardinality of the intersection of two compact exact Lagrangian submanifolds in a cotangent bundle is bounded from below by the dimension of the Hom space of the Guillermou's sheaf quantizations of the Lagrangians in Tamarkin's category. This gives a purely sheaf-theoretic new proof of a result of Nadler and Fukaya-Seidel-Smith, which asserts that the cardinality is at least the sum of the Betti numbers of the base space. Read More


In this note we study the Seifert rational homology spheres with two complementary legs, i.e. with a pair of invariants whose fractions add up to one. Read More


We compare two important bases of an irreducible representation of the symmetric group: the web basis and the Specht basis. The web basis has its roots in the Temperley-Lieb algebra and knot-theoretic considerations. The Specht basis is a classic algebraic and combinatorial construction of symmetric group representations which arises in this context through the geometry of varieties called Springer fibers. Read More


Links in lens spaces may be defined to be equivalent by ambient isotopy or by diffeomorphism of pairs. In the first case, for all the combinatorial representations of links, there is a set of Reidemeister-type moves on diagrams connecting isotopy equivalent links. In this paper we provide a set of moves on disk, band and grid diagrams that connects diffeo equivalent links: there are up to four isotopy equivalent links in each diffeo equivalence class. Read More


For a G-invariant holomorphic 1-form with an isolated singular point on a germ of a complex-analytic G-variety with an isolated singular point (G is a finite group) one has notions of the equivariant homological index and of the (reduced) equivariant radial index as elements of the ring of complex representations of the group. We show that on a germ of a smooth complex-analytic G-variety these indices coincide. This permits to consider the difference between them as a version of the equivariant Milnor number of a germ a G-variety with an isolated singular point. Read More


In this paper, we introduce a new combinatorial curvature on triangulated surfaces with inversive distance circle packing metrics. Then we prove that this combinatorial curvature has global rigidity. To study the Yamabe problem of the new curvature, we introduce a combinatorial Ricci flow, along which the curvature evolves almost in the same way as that of scalar curvature along the surface Ricci flow obtained by Hamilton \cite{Ham1}. Read More


Baker showed that 10 of the 12 classes of Berge knots are obtained by surgery on the minimally twisted 5-chain link. In this article we enumerate all hyperbolic knots in S^3 obtained by surgery on the minimally twisted 5 chain link that realize the maximal known distances between slopes corresponding to exceptional (lens, lens), (lens, toroidal), (lens, Seifert fibred spaces) pairs. In light of Baker's work, the classification in this paper conjecturally accounts for 'most' hyperbolic knots in S^3 realizing the maximal distance between these exceptional pairs. Read More


We offer a new proof that two closed oriented 4-manifolds are cobordant if their signatures agree, in the spirit of Lickorish's proof that all closed oriented 3-manifolds bound 4-manifolds. Where Lickorish uses Heegaard splittings we use trisections. In fact we begin with a subtle recasting of Lickorish's argument: Instead of factoring the gluing map for a Heegaard splitting as a product of Dehn twists, we encode each handlebody in a Heegaard splitting in terms of a Morse function on the surface and build the 4-manifold from a generic homotopy between the two functions. Read More


Generalizing a construction of J.L. Harer's paper "The virtual cohomological dimension of the mapping class group of an orientable surface", we introduce and study diagonal complexes $\mathcal{C}$ and $\mathcal{B}$ related to a (possibly bordered) oriented surface $F$ equipped with a number of labeled fixed points. Read More


The Hennings invariant for the small quantum group associated to an arbitrary simple Lie algebra at a root of unity is shown to agree with the Chern-Simons (aka Jones-Witten or Reshetikhin-Turaev) invariant for the same Lie algebra and the same root of unity on all integer homology three- spheres, at roots of unity where both are defined. This partially generalizes the work of Chen, et al. ([CYZ12, CKS09]) which relates the Hennings and Chern-Simons invariants for SL(2) and SO(3) for arbitrary rational homology three-spheres. Read More


In this paper we prove that if $K\subset S^3$ is a tunnel number one knot which admits a Dehn filling resulting in a lens space then $K$ is in the Berge list. Read More


In this paper we investigate the unlinking numbers of 10-crossing links. We make use of various link invariants and explore their behaviour when crossings are changed. The methods we describe have been used previously to compute unlinking numbers of links with crossing number at most 9. Read More


We bound the size of $d$-dimensional cubulations of finitely presented groups. We apply this bound to obtain acylindrical accessibility for actions on CAT(0) cube complexes and bounds on curves on surfaces. Read More


In this paper, we study two classes of planar self-similar fractals $T_\varepsilon$ with a shifting parameter $\varepsilon$. The first one is a class of self-similar tiles by shifting $x$-coordinates of some digits. We give a detailed discussion on the disk-likeness ({\it i. Read More


Following the work of Delzant and Gromov, there is great interest in understanding which subgroups of direct products of surface groups are K\"ahler. We construct new classes of examples. These arise as kernels of a homomorphisms from direct products of surface groups onto free abelian groups of even rank. Read More


We study properties of Cartesian products of digital images, using a variety of adjacencies that have appeared in the literature. Read More


We give a new, elementary proof that Khovanov homology with $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$--coefficients is invariant under Conway mutation. This proof also gives a strategy to prove Baldwin and Levine's conjecture that $\delta$--graded knot Floer homology is mutation--invariant. Using the Clifford module structure on $\widetilde{\text{HFK}}$ induced by basepoint maps, we carry out this strategy for mutations on a large class of tangles. Read More


Using a probabilistic argument we show that the second bounded cohomology of an acylindrically hyperbolic group $G$ (e.g., a non-elementary hyperbolic or relatively hyperbolic group, non-exceptional mapping class group, ${\rm Out}(F_n)$, \dots) embeds via the natural restriction maps into the inverse limit of the second bounded cohomologies of its virtually free subgroups, and in fact even into the inverse limit of the second bounded cohomologies of its hyperbolically embedded virtually free subgroups. Read More


For each integer number $N\geq 2$, Mari\~no and Moore defined a generalized Donaldson invariant by the methods of quantum Field theory, and made predictions about the values of these invariants. Subsequently, Kronheimer gave a rigorous definition of generalized Donaldson invariants using the moduli space of anti-self-dual connections on hermitian vector bundles of rank $N$. In this paper, Mari\~no and Moore's predictions are confirmed for simply connected elliptic surfaces without multiple fibers, and certain surfaces of general type in the case that $N=3$. Read More


Margalit and Schleimer observed that Dehn twists on orientable surfaces have nontrivial roots. We study the problem of roots of Dehn twists t_c about nonseparating circles c in the mapping class group M(N_g) of a nonorientable surface N_g of genus g. We investigate the existence of roots and, following the work of McCullough, Rajeevsarathy and Monden, give a simple arithmetic description of their conjugacy classes. Read More


This paper proves that every non-disk Seifert surface $F$ for a knot $K$ in $S^3$ is smoothly concordant to a Seifert surface $F^{\prime}$ for a hyperbolic knot $K^{\prime}$ of arbitrarily large volume. This gives a new and simpler proof of the result of Friedl and of Kawauchi that every knot is $S$-equivalent to a hyperbolic knot of arbitrarily large volume. The construction also gives a new and simpler proof of the result of Silver and Whitten and of Kawauchi that for every knot $K$ there is a hyperbolic knot $K^{\prime}$ of arbitrarily large volume and a map of pairs $f:(S^3,K^{\prime})\rightarrow (S^3,K)$ which induces an epimorphism on the knot groups. Read More


Racah matrices and higher $j$-symbols are used in description of braiding properties of conformal blocks and in construction of knot polynomials. However, in complicated cases the logic is actually inverted: they are much better deduced from these applications than from the basic representation theory. Following the recent proposal of arXiv:1612. Read More


We find boundaries of Borel-Serre compactifications of locally symmetric spaces, for which any filling is incompressible. We prove this result by showing that these boundaries have small singular models and using these models to obstruct compressions. We also show that small singular models of boundaries obstruct $S^1$-actions (and more generally homotopically trivial $\mathbb Z/p$-actions) on interiors of aspherical fillings. Read More


Let G be an acylindrically hyperbolic group. We consider a random subgroup H in G, generated by a finite collection of independent random walks. We show that, with asymptotic probability one, such a random subgroup H of G is a free group, and the semidirect product of H acting on E(G) is hyperbolically embedded in G, where E(G) is the unique maximal finite normal subgroup of G. Read More


Let $\Sigma$ be a simply connected rational homology sphere. A pair of disjoint closed submanifolds $M_+, M_-$ in $\Sigma$ are called dual to each other if the complement $\Sigma - M_+$ strongly homotopy retracts onto $M_-$ or vice-versa. In this paper we will give a complete answer of which integral triples $(n; m_+, m_-)$ can appear, where $n=dim \Sigma -1$, $m_+={codim}M_+ -1$ and $m_-={codim}M_- -1$. Read More


We show that for any weakly convergent sequence of ergodic $SL_2(\mathbb{R})$-invariant probability measures on a stratum of unit-area translation surfaces, the corresponding Siegel-Veech constants converge to the Siegel-Veech constant of the limit measure. Together with a measure equidistribution result due to Eskin-Mirzakhani-Mohammadi, this yields the (previously conjectured) convergence of sequences of Siegel-Veech constants associated to Teichm\"uller curves in genus two. The proof uses a recurrence result closely related to techniques developed by Eskin-Masur. Read More


In the first paper of this series (arxiv.org/abs/1210.2961) we studied the asymptotic behavior of Betti numbers, twisted torsion and other spectral invariants for sequences of lattices in Lie groups G. Read More


We prove that in dimensions not equal to 4, 5, or 7, the homology and homotopy groups of the classifying space of the topological group of diffeomorphisms of a disk fixing the boundary are finitely generated in each degree. The proof uses homological stability, embedding calculus and the arithmeticity of mapping class groups. From this we deduce similar results for the homeomorphisms of R^n and various types of automorphisms of 2-connected manifolds. Read More


We provide a generalization of the Deligne sheaf construction of intersection homology theory and a corresponding generalization of Poincare duality on pseudomanifolds such that the Goresky-MacPherson, Goresky-Siegel, and Cappell-Shaneson duality theorems all arise as special cases. Unlike classical intersection homology theory, our duality theorem holds with ground coefficients in an arbitrary PID and with no "locally torsion free" conditions on the underlying space. Read More