# Mathematics - General Mathematics Publications (50)

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## Mathematics - General Mathematics Publications

Let \(x\geq 1\) be a large number, and let $1 \leq a 0$ constant. This note proves that
the counting function for the number of primes $p \in \{p=qn+a: n \geq1 \}$
with a fixed primitive root $u\ne \pm 1, v^2$ has the asymptotic formula
$\pi_u(x,q,a)=\delta(u,q,a)x/ \log x +O(x/\log^b x),$ where $\delta(u,q,a)>0$
is the density, and $b>c+1$ is a constant.
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In 1976 Appel and Haken achieved a major break through by thoroughly establishing the Four Color Theorem (4CT). Their proof is based on studying a large number of cases for which a computer-assisted search for hours is required. In 1997 the 4CT was reproved with less need for computer verification by Robertson, Sanders, Seymour and Thomas. Read More

The aim of this paper is to establish some metrical coincidence and common fixed point theorems with an arbitrary relation under an implicit contractive condition which is general enough to cover a multitude of well known contraction conditions in one go besides yielding several new ones. We also provide an example to demonstrate the generality of our results over several well known corresponding results of the existing literature. Finally, we utilize our results to prove an existence theorem for ensuring the solution of an integral equation. Read More

In an article, E. Grafarend and B. Schaffrin studied the geometry of non-linear adjustment of the planar trisection problem using the Gauss Markov model and the method of the least squares. Read More

Let $X$ be a non-empty ground set and $\mathscr{P}(X)$ be its power set. A set-labeling (or a set-valuation) of a graph $G$ is an injective set-valued function $f:V(G)\to \mathscr{P}(X)$ such that the induced function $f^*:E(G) \to \mathscr{P}(X)$ is defined by $f^*(uv)=f(u)\ast f(v)$, where $f(u)\ast f(v)$ is a binary operation of the sets $f(u)$ and $f(v)$. A graph which admits a set-labeling is known to be a set-labeled graph. Read More

Two open problems in the fixed point theory of quasi metric spaces posed in [Berinde, V. and Choban, M. M. Read More

We introduce and study a general concept of multiple fixed point for mappings defined on partially ordered distance spaces in the presence of a contraction type condition and appropriate monotonicity properties. This notion and the obtained results complement the corresponding ones from [Choban, M., Berinde, V. Read More

Our main aim in this paper is to introduce a general concept of multidimensional fixed point of a mapping in spaces with distance and establish various multidimensional fixed point results. This new concept simplifies the similar notion from [A. Roldan, J. Read More

Hintikka and Sandu's independence-friendly (IF) logic is a conservative extension of first-order logic that allows one to consider semantic games with imperfect information. In the present article, we first show how several variants of the Monty Hall problem can be modeled as semantic games for IF sentences. In the process, we extend IF logic to include semantic games with chance moves and dub this extension stochastic IF logic. Read More

We transformed the generalized exponential power series to another functional form suitable for further analysis. By applying the Cauchy-Euler differential operator in the form of an exponential operator, the series became a sum of exponential differential operators acting on a simple exponential (exp(-x). In the process we found new relations for the operator and a new polynomial with some interesting properties. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - General Mathematics

In this paper we give a new definition of soft topology using elementary union and elementary intersection although these operations are not distributive. Also we have shown that this soft topology is different from Naz's soft topology and studied some basic properties of this new type of soft topology. Here we use elementary complement of soft sets, though law of excluded middle is not valid in general for this type of complementation. Read More

We determine the probability $P$ of two independent events $A$ and $B$, which occur randomly $n_A$ and $n_B$ times during a total time $T$ and last for $t_A$ and $t_B$, to occur simultaneously at some point during $T$. Therefore we first prove the precise equation \begin{equation*} P^* = \dfrac{t_A+t_B}{T} - \dfrac{t_A^2+t_B^2}{2T^2} \end{equation*} for the case $n_A = n_B = 1$ and continue to establish a simple approximation equation \begin{equation*} P \approx 1 - \left( 1 - n_A \dfrac{t_A + t_B}{T} \right)^{n_B} \end{equation*} for any given value of $n_A$ and $n_B$. Finally we prove the more complex universal equation \begin{equation*} P = 1 - \dfrac{ \left( T^+ - t_A n_A - t_B n_B \right)^{n_A + n_B} }{ \left( T^+ - t_A n_A \right)^{n_A} \left( T^+ - t_B n_B \right)^{n_B} } \pm E^\pm, \end{equation*} which yields the probability for $A$ and $B$ to overlap at some point for any given parameter, with $T^+ := T + \frac{t_A + t_B}{2}$ and a small error term $E^\pm$. Read More

The congruence lattices of all algebras defined on a fixed finite set $A$ ordered by inclusion form a finite atomistic lattice $\mathcal E$. We describe the atoms and coatoms. Each meet-irreducible element of $\mathcal E$ being determined by a single unary mapping on A, we characterize completely those which are determined by a permutation or by an acyclic mapping on the set $A$. Read More

The concept of Type-2 soft sets had been proposed as a generalization of Molodstov's soft sets. In this paper some shortcomings of some existing distance measures for Type-1 soft sets have been shown and accordingly some new distance measures have been proposed. The axiomatic definitions for distance, entropy and similarity measures for Type-2 soft sets have been introduced and a couple of such measures have been defined. Read More

In this paper, we extend the Banach contraction principle to metric-like as well as partial metric spaces (not essentially complete) equipped with an arbitrary binary relation. Thereafter, we derive some fixed point results which are sharper versions of the corresponding known results of the existing literature. Finally, we use an example to demonstrate our main result. Read More

This paper establishes grounds for deeper exploration into the question of dual nature of mathematics as an abstract discipline and as a concrete science. It is argued, as one of the consequences of the discussion, that the division into "pure" and "applied" mathematics is artificial. The criterion of creativity and applicability outside of the original context is used as a litmus test. Read More

In this paper, a new type of colouring called Johan colouring is introduced. This colouring concept is motivated by the newly introduced invariant called the rainbow neighbourhood number of a graph. The study ponders on maximal colouring opposed to minimum colouring. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH

**Category:**Mathematics - General Mathematics

In this note we compare two formulas for the higher order derivatives of the function 1/(exp(x) -1). We also provide an integral representation for these derivatives and obtain a classical formula relating zeta values and Bernoulli numbers. Read More

In the present study, we derive the problem of constructing a hypersurface family from a given isogeodesic curve in the 4D Galilean space $\mathbf{G}_{4}.$ We obtain the hypersurface as a linear combination of the Frenet frame in $\mathbf{G}_{4}$ and examine the necessary and sufficient conditions for the curve as a geodesic curve$.$ Finally, some examples related to our method are given for the sake of clarity. Read More

In this study, we investigate a new type of a surface curve is said to be a new $D$-type special curve\ such that the unit surface normal $\eta _{1}$ of the curve $r(s)$, unit darboux vector $E_{0}$ and the vectors of tangent $t$ $\ $satisfy the condition $\left\langle \eta _{1},E_{0}\mathbf{\wedge }t\right\rangle =\lambda =cons\tan t.$ Also, we show a new $D$-type special curve\ more generally than a geodesic curve or an asymptotic curve. \ Then,\textbf{\ }we give\textbf{\ }necessary and sufficient conditions for this curve to be a new $D$-type special curve\ using Frenet frame in Galilean space. Read More

**Category:**Mathematics - General Mathematics

In this paper, we introduce notion of fuzzy soft number. Here defined fuzzy soft number and four arithmetric operations $ \tilde{+}, \tilde{-}, \tilde{\times}, \tilde{\div} $ and related properties. Also introduce Hausdorff distance, Fuzzy soft metric space, convergence sequence, Cauchy sequence, Continuity and uniform continuity of fuzzy soft numbers. Read More

This paper revisits formulas for $\pi$ involving nested radicals in iterative forms by discussing a method of deriving an infinite number of them.This method involves deriving a limit for $\pi$ from the formula expression, circumference, $C=2r k$. In consequence the limit derived is transformed into formula expressions consisting of infinitely nested radicals. Read More

The purpose of this paper is to emulate the process used in defining and learning about the algebraic structure known as a Field in order to create a new algebraic structure which contains numbers that can be used to define Division By Zero, just as $i$ can be used to define $\sqrt{-1}$. This method of Division By Zero is different from other previous attempts in that each ${\alpha\over 0}$ has a different unique, numerical solution for every possible $\alpha$, albeit these numerical solutions are not any numbers we have ever seen. To do this, the reader will be introduced to an algebraic structure called an S-Structure and will become familiar with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in particular S-Structures. Read More

The paper deals with the process of mathematical modeling representations of exponential and logarithmic functions hypercomplex number system of generalized quaternions via determining a linear differential equation with hypercomplex coefficients. Simulation is performed using symbolic computation system Maple. Some properties of these concepts and their relation to the exponential representations of specific non-commutative hypercomplex number systems of dimension four. Read More

By using Modified simple equation method, we study the Cahn Allen equation which arises in many scientific applications such as mathematical biology, quantum mechanics and plasma physics. As a result, the existence of solitary wave solutions of the Cahn Allen equation is obtained. Exact explicit solutions interms of hyperbolic solutions of the associated Cahn Allen equation are characterized with some free parameters. Read More

In this article we introduce a simple straightforward and powerful method involving symbolic manipulation, Picard iteration, and auxiliary variables for approximating solutions of partial differential boundary value problems. The method is easy to implement, computationally efficient, and it is highly accurate. The output of the method is a function that approximates the exact solution. Read More

This analysis which uses new mathematical methods aims at proving the Riemann hypothesis and figuring out an approximate base for imaginary non-trivial zeros of zeta function at very large numbers, in order to determine the path that those numbers would take. This analysis will prove that there is a relation links the non-trivial zeros of zeta with the prime numbers, as well as approximately pointing out the shape of this relationship, which is going to be a totally valid one at numbers approaching infinity. Read More

In 1918 S. Ramanujan defined a family of trigonometric sum now known as Ramanujan sums. In the last few years, Ramanujan sums have inspired the signal processing community. Read More

In this note the authors have raised the question regarding the validity of the main result in [1] by setting an example. Read More

In this paper, we characterize the positive integers $n$ for which intersection graph of ideals of $\mathbb{Z}_n$ is perfect. Read More

For a colour cluster $\mathbb{C} =(\mathcal{C}_1,\mathcal{C}_2, \mathcal{C}_3,\ldots,\mathcal{C}_\ell)$, where $\mathcal{C}_i$ is a colour class such that $|\mathcal{C}_i|=r_i$, a positive integer, we investigate two types of simple connected graph structures $G^{\mathbb{C}}_1$, $G^{\mathbb{C}}_2$ which represent graphical embodiments of the colour cluster such that the chromatic numbers $\chi(G^{\mathbb{C}}_1)=\chi(G^{\mathbb{C}}_2)=\ell$ and $\min\{\varepsilon(G^{\mathbb{C}}_1)\}=\min\{\varepsilon(G^{\mathbb{C}}_2)\} =\sum\limits_{i=1}^{\ell}r_i-1$. Therefore, the problem is the edge-minimality inverse to finding the chromatic number of a given simple connected graph. In this paper, we also discuss the chromatic Zagreb indices corresponding to $G^{\mathbb{C}}_1$, $G^{\mathbb{C}}_2$. Read More

In this paper we present a new identity and some of its variants which can be used for finding solutions while solving fractional infinite and finite series. We introduce another simple identity which is capable of generating solutions for some finite series. We demonstrate a method for generation of variants of the identities based on the findings. Read More

The aim of this paper is to construct a Riemann-Lagrange geometry (in the sense of d-linear connection, d-torsions and d-curvatures) for a quadratic multi-time Lagrangian. Read More

We present a generalized $\text{Vi\'ete's}$-like formula for pi with rapid convergence. This formula is based on the arctangent function identity with argument $x=\sqrt{2-{{a}_{K-1}}}/{{a}_{K}}$, where \[ {{a}_{K}}=\underbrace{\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2+\cdots +\sqrt{2}}}}}_{K\,\,\text{square}\,\,\text{roots}} \] is a radical consisting of $K$ nested square roots of twos. The computational test we performed reveals that the generalized $\text{Vi\'ete's}$-like formula provides a significant improvement in accuracy as the integer $K$ increases. Read More

In this paper we develop the Riemann-Lagrange geometry, in the sense of nonlinear connection, d-torsions, d-curvatures and jet Yang-Mills entity, associated with the dynamical system concerning social interaction in colonial organisms. Read More

An algebraic structure underlying the quantity calculus is proposed consisting in an algebraic fiber bundle, that is, a base structure which is a free Abelian group together with fibers which are one dimensional vector spaces, all of them bound by algebraic restrictions. Subspaces, tensor product and quotient spaces are considered as well as homomorphisms to end with a classification theorem of these structures. The new structure provides an axiomatic foundation for quantity calculus and gives complete justification within its framework of the way that quantity calculus is actually performed. Read More

In the present study, we solve initial boundary value problem construted on nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. The collocation method on exponential cubic B-spline functions forming a set of basis for the functions defined in the same interval is set up for the numerical approach. The efficiency and validity of the proposed method are determined by computing the error between the numerical and the analytical solutions. Read More

A generalization of classical cubic B-spline functions with a parameter is used as basis in the collocation method. Some initial boundary value problems constructed on the nonlinear Klein-gordon equation are solved by the proposed method for extension various parameters. The coupled system derived as a result of the reduction of the time order of the equation is integrated in time by the Crank-Nicolson method. Read More

We wrote this paper as an example to show the way we pass from ordered semigroups to ordered hypersemigroups. Read More

In this paper, we give an interesting extension of the partial S-metric space which was introduced [4] to the M_s-metric space. Also, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a fixed point for a self mapping on an Ms-metric space under different contraction principles. Read More

In this paper, we find a non-dominated solution of a fuzzy maximum-return problem ( unconstrained single-variable fuzzy optimization problem ) . We establish Newton method to find the solution of the unconstrained single-variable fuzzy optimization problem using the differentiability of $\alpha$-level functions of a fuzzy-valued function and partial order relation on a set of fuzzy numbers. Read More

Let $X$ be a non-empty ground set and $\mathcal{P}(X)$ be its power set. A set-labeling (or a set-valuation) of a graph $G$ is an injective set-valued function $f:V(G)\to \mathcal{P}(X)$ such that the induced function $f^\oplus:E(G) \to \mathcal{P}(X)$ is defined by $f^\oplus(uv) = f(u)\oplus f(v)$, where $f(u)\oplus f(v)$ is the symmetric difference of the sets $f(u)$ and $f(v)$. A graph which admits a set-labeling is known to be a set-labeled graph. Read More

Let $H_n = \sum_{k = 1}^{n}\frac{1}{k}$. Using Chebyshev function and prime number theorem, this paper proves that, there exists a positive constant A, such that for all natural numbers $n = q_1 * q_2 *.. Read More

It is generalized Weyl conformal curvature tensor in the case of a conformal mappings of a generalized Riemannian space in this paper. Moreover, it is found universal generalizations of it without any additional assumption. A method used in this paper may help different scientists in their researching. Read More

Linear systems often involve, as a basic building block, solutions of equations of the form \begin{align*} A_Sx_S&+A_Px_P =0\\ A'_Sx_S & =0, \end{align*} where our primary interest might be in the vector variable $x_P.$ Usually, neither $x_S$ nor $x_P$ can be written as a function of the other but they are linked through the linear relationship, that of $(x_S,x_P) $ belonging to $\mathcal{V}_{SP},$ the solution space of the first of the two equations. If $\mathcal{V}_{S}$ is the solution space of the second equation, we may regard the final space of solutions $\mathcal{V}_{P}$ as derived from the other two spaces by an operation, say, `$\mathcal{V}_{P}=\mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow \mathcal{V}_{S}. Read More

In the proposed matrix primes, through which one can readily generate a sequence of primes. The paper also proposes a number of theorems proved by which an infinite number of prime numbers twins Read More

The major part of this thesis deals with fuzzy geometric logic and fuzzy geometric logic with graded consequence. The first chapter mainly contains the concept of topological system introduced by S. Vickers in 1989. Read More

A cursory familiarity with Benford random variables may lead one to think that the pdf of such a random variable must have the form f(x) = c/x over a suitable domain where c is a suitable constant, or is a patchwork of functions of this form. This assumption is incorrect. In fact, the pdf of Benford random variables may have a large variety of forms, including forms that are positive and continuously differentiable over the entire set of positive real numbers, and have the form c/x over no interval of positive length. Read More