Mathematics - General Mathematics Publications (50)

Search

Mathematics - General Mathematics Publications

The conformal compactification is considered in a hierarchy of hypercomplex projective spaces with relevance in physics including Minkowski and Anti-de Sitter space. The geometries are expressed in terms of bicomplex Vahlen matrices and further broken down into their structural components. The relation between two subsequent projective spaces is displayed in terms of the complex unit and three additional hypercomplex numbers. Read More


The purpose of the present article is to examine the essence of what has commonlybeen described as a "projective line", but which is here named a "meridian". This shall be done in several papers: this first paper devoted to the meridian itself, the second to the character and form of the family of projective isomorphisms of one meridian onto another and the third to some connections between meridians and higher dimensional projective space. Here we view the meridian from various aspects: (1) as a set acted upon by a family of involutions; (2) as a set acted upon by a 3-transitive group of permutations; (3) as a set with a quinary operator; (4) as an equivalence class of quadruples, relating to the cross ratio. Read More


Calculating the value of $C^{k\in\{1,\infty\}}$ class of smoothness real-valued function's derivative in point of $\mathbb{R}^+$ in radius of convergence of its Taylor polynomial (or series), applying an analog of Newton's binomial theorem and $q$-difference operator. $(P,q)$-power difference introduced in section 5. Additionally, by means of Newton's interpolation formula, the discrete analog of Taylor series, interpolation using $q$-difference and $p,q$-power difference is shown. Read More


In this paper, we prove coincidence and common fixed points results under nonlinear contractions on a metric space equipped with an arbitrary binary relation. Our results extend, generalize, modify and unify several known results especially those are contained in Berzig [J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. Read More


In most studies related to colouring of graphs and perhaps in the study of other invariants and variants of graphs, the restrictions of non-triviality and connectedness are placed upon graphs. For the introduction to comp\^{o}nent\u{a} analysis, these restrictions are relaxed. In particular, this essay focuses on comp\^{o}nent\u{a} analysis in respect of the recently introduced $J$-colouring. Read More


In this paper we propose an alternative formulation of the binary and ternary Goldbach conjectures as the systems of equations involving the Euler $\phi$-function. Read More


We consider the set of ($n\times n\times n$) cubic stochastic matrices of type (1,2) together with different multiplication rules that not only retain their stochastic properties but also endow this set with an associative semigroup structure. Then we introduce different actions of the semigroup of nonnegative column stochastic $n\times n$ matrices on the set of cubic stochastic matrices of type (1,2) and study how these actions translate to the cubic matrix slices and marginal distributions. Actions introduced here provide an algebraic framework where considering different changes affecting the transition probabilities ruling certain biological populations. Read More


It is shown that an appropriate use of so-called double equations by Diophantus provides the origin of the Frey elliptic curve and from it we can deduce an elementary proof of Fermat's Last Theorem Read More


A detailed study of graded frame, graded fuzzy topological system and fuzzy topological space with graded inclusion is already done in our earlier paper. The notions of graded fuzzy topological system and fuzzy topological space with graded inclusion were obtained via fuzzy geometric logic with graded con- sequence. As an off shoot the notion of graded frame has been developed. Read More


The double exponential formula was introduced for calculating definite integrals with singular point oscillation functions and Fourier-integrals. The double exponential transformation is not only useful for numerical computations but it is also used in different methods of Sinc theory. In this paper we use double exponential transformation for calculating particular improper integrals. Read More


The double exponential formula was introduced for calculating definite integrals with singular point oscillation functions and Fourier integral. The double exponential transformation is not only useful for numerical computations but it is also used in different methods of Sinc theory. In this paper we give an upper bound estimate for the error of double exponential transformation. Read More


The concept of a $\Gamma$-semigroup has been introduced by Mridul Kanti Sen in the Int. Symp., New Delhi, 1981. Read More


This paper presents a comparative study of three kinds of ideals in fuzzy order theory: W-ideals (based on forward Cauchy nets), F-ideals (based on flat fuzzy lower sets) and G-ideals (based on irreducible fuzzy lower sets), including their role in connecting fuzzy order with fuzzy topology. Read More


We prove that a function given by Pistorius relating to Riemann zeta function $\zeta (s)$ and a Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem is meaningful in a strip domain in $\mathbb{C}$ which leads to that nontrivial zeros of $\zeta (s)$ all have real part equal to $\frac{1}{2}$ by using classical results of eigenvalue problem. Read More


It is well-known that the Lyapunov exponent plays a fundamental role in dynamical systems. In this note, we propose an alternative definition of Lyapunov exponent in terms of Lipschitz maps, which are not necessarily differentiable. We show that the results which are valid to standard discrete dynamical systems are also valid in this new context. Read More


We propose conformable Adomian decomposition method (CADM) for fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs). This method is a new Adomian decomposition method (ADM) based on conformable derivative operator (CDO) to solve FPDEs. At the same time, conformable reduced differential transform method (CRDTM) for FPDEs is briely given and a numerical comparison is made between this method and the newly introduced CADM. Read More


In this paper we propose a new method for determination of the two-term Machin-like formula for pi with arbitrarily small arguments of the arctangent function. This approach excludes irrational numbers in computation and leads to a significant improvement in convergence with decreasing arguments of the arctangent function. Read More


A vertex $v$ of a given graph is said to be in a rainbow neighbourhood of $G$ if every colour class of $G$ consists of at least one vertex from the closed neighbourhood $N[v]$. A maximal proper colouring of a graph $G$ is a Johan colouring if and only if every vertex of $G$ belongs to a rainbow neighbourhood of $G$. In general all graphs need not have a Johan colouring, even though they admit a chromatic colouring. Read More


Let n be a non-null positive integer and $d(n)$ is the number of positive divisors of n, called the divisor function. Of course, $d(n) \leq n$. $d(n) = 1$ if and only if $n = 1$. Read More


The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus links the integrand and its antiderivative via a simple first order differential equation. A numerical solution of this ode yields the antiderivative and hence the required integral. This approach offers an economical and accurate alternative to the conventional approaches like the Gauss and the Double Exponential (DE) quadratures as demonstrated by a variety of examples. Read More


The purpose of the paper is to construct a new representation of dual quaternions called bi$-$periodic dual Fibonacci quaternions. These quaternions are originated as a generalization of the known quaternions in literature such as dual Fibonacci quaternions, dual Pell quaternions and dual $k-$Fibonacci quaternions. Furthermore, some of them have not been introduced until this time. Read More


We study the geometry of Finsler submanifolds using the pulled-back approach. We define the Finsler normal pulled-back bundle and obtain the induced geometric objects, namely, induced pullback Finsler connection, normal pullback Finsler connection, second fundamental form and shape operator. Under a certain condition, we prove that induced and intrinsic Hashiguchi connections coincide on the pulled-back bundle of Finsler submanifold. Read More


The warped product $M_1 \times_F M_2$ of two Riemannian manifolds $(M_1,g_1)$ and $(M_2,g_2)$ is the product manifold $M_1 \times M_2$ equipped with the warped product metric $g=g_1 + F^2 g_2$, where $F$ is a positive function on $M_1$. The notion of warped product manifolds is one of the most fruitful generalizations of Riemannian products. Such a notion plays very important roles in differential geometry as well as in physics, especially in general relativity. Read More


In this article, we introduce a new general definition of fractional derivative and fractional integral, which depends on an unknown kernel. By using these definitions, we obtain the basic properties of fractional integral and fractional derivative such as Product Rule, Quotient Rule, Chain Rule, Roll's Theorem and Mean Value Theorem. We give some examples. Read More


Let $E$ be an elliptic curve of rank $\text{rk}(E) \geq 1$, and let $P \in E(\mathbb{Q})$ be a point of infinite order. The number of elliptic primes $p \leq x$ for which $\langle P\rangle=E(\mathbb{F}_p)$ is expected to be $\pi(x,E,P)=\delta(E,P)x/\log x+o(x/\log x)$, where $\delta(E,P)\geq 0$ is a constant. This note proves the lower bound $\pi(x,E,P) \gg x/\log x$. Read More


Results of research of possibility of transformation of a difference equation into a system of the first-order difference equation are presented. In contrast to the method used previously, an unknown grid function is split into two new auxiliary functions, which have definite properties. Several examples show that proposed approach can be useful in solving different physical problems. Read More


In 1898, Riemann had announced the following conjecture : the nontrivial roots (zeros) $s=\alpha+i\beta$ of the zeta function, defined by: $$\zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{1}{n^s},\,\mbox{for}\quad \Re(s)>1$$ have real part $\alpha= \frac{1}{2}$. We give a proof that $0<\alpha \leq \frac{1}{2}$ using an equivalent statement of Riemann Hypothesis. Read More


We give a Goldbach's pair for even numbers that are in a specific form. Consider the following two functions where $x$ and $m$ are odd integers greater than $1$. $g(x,m) = x+2m-(x-m)mod(2m),$ and $f(x)$ returns the smallest prime factor of $x$. Read More


It is well known the concept of the condition number $\kappa(A) = \|A\|\|A^{-1}\|$, where $A$ is a $n \times n$ real or complex matrix and the norm used is the spectral norm. Although it is very common to think in $\kappa(A)$ as "the" condition number of $A$, the truth is that condition numbers are associated to problems, not just instance of problems. Our goal is to clarify this difference. Read More


We prove Riemann hypothesis. Method is to show the convexity of function which has zeros critical strip the same as zeta function. Read More


This paper sheds light on the essential characteristics of geodesics, which frequently occur in considerations from motion in Euclidean space. Focus is mainly on a method of obtaining them from the calculus of variations, and an explicit geodesic computation for a Riemannian hypersurface. Read More


We investigate whether there exists an arithmetic progression or geometric progression consisting only palindromic numbers. In this paper we show that the answer to this question is NO. Given the first and final term we will also give an estimate for how large that AP could be and so for the GP given its first term and common ratio. Read More


A lacunary sequence is an increasing integer sequence $\theta=(k_r)$ such that $k_r-k_{r-1}\rightarrow \infty$ as $r\rightarrow \infty.$ In this article we introduce arithmetic statistically convergent sequence space $ASC$ and lacunary arithmetic statistically convergent sequence space $ASC_{\theta}$ and study some inclusion properties between the two spaces. Finally we introduce lacunary arithmetic statistical continuity and establish some interesting results. Read More


In this paper, we give Smarandache curves according to the asymptotic orthonormal frame in null cone Q^2. By using cone frame formulas, we present some characterizations of Smarandache curves and calculate cone frenet invariants of these curves. Also, we illustrate these curves with an example. Read More


In this study, a computational method referred to as Perturbation Iteration Transform Method (PITM), which is a combination of the conventional Laplace Transform Method (LTM) and the Perturbation Iteration Algorithm (PIA) is applied for the solution of Newell-Whitehead- Segel Equations (NWSEs). Three unique examples are considered and the results obtained are compared with their exact solutions graphically. Also, the results agree with those obtained via other semi-analytical methods viz: New Iterative Method and Adomian Decomposition Method. Read More


In this paper, we introduce the notion of the rainbow neighbourhood and a related graph parameter namely, the rainbow neighbourhood number of a graph $G$. We report on preliminary results thereof. We also establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a rainbow neighbourhood in the line graph of a graph $G$. Read More


This article explores the geometric algebra of Minkowski spacetime, and its relationship to the geometric algebra of Euclidean 4-space. Both of these geometric algebras are algebraically isomorphic to the 2x2 matrix algebra over Hamilton's famous quaternions, and provide a rich geometric framework for various important topics in mathematics and physics, including stereographic projection and spinors, and both spherical and hyperbolic geometry. In addition, by identifying the time-like Minkowski unit vector with the extra dimension of Euclidean 4-space, David Hestenes' Space-Time Algebra of Minkowski spacetime is unified with William Baylis' Algebra of Physical Space. Read More


The non-elementary integrals $\text{Si}_{\beta,\alpha}=\int [\sin{(\lambda x^\beta)}/(\lambda x^\alpha)] dx$ and $\text{Ci}_{\beta,\alpha}=\int [\cos{(\lambda x^\beta)}/(\lambda x^\alpha)] dx$, where $\beta\ge1$ and $\alpha\ge1$, are evaluated in terms of the hypergeometric functions $_{1}F_2$ and $_{2}F_3$ respectively, and their asymptotic expressions for $|x|\gg1$ are derived. Integrals of the form $\int [\sin^n{(\lambda x^\beta)}/(\lambda x^\alpha)] dx$ and $\int [\cos^n{(\lambda x^\beta)}/(\lambda x^\alpha)] dx$, where n is a positive integer, are expressed in terms $\text{Si}_{\beta,\alpha}$ and $\text{Ci}_{\beta,\alpha}$, and then evaluated. On the other hand, $\text{Si}_{\beta,\alpha}$ and $\text{Ci}_{\beta,\alpha}$ are evaluated in terms of the hypergeometric function $_{2}F_2$. Read More


In this paper, we present a way to measure the intelligence (or the interest) of an approximation of a given real number in a given model of approximation. Basing on the idea of the complexity of a number, defined as the number of its digits, we introduce a function noted $\mu$ (called a measure of intelligence) associating to any approximation $\mathbf{app}$ of a given real number in a given model a positive number $\mu(\mathbf{app})$, which characterises the intelligence of that approximation. Precisely, the approximation $\mathbf{app}$ is intelligent if and only if $\mu(\mathbf{app}) \geq 1$. Read More


In this article, we give the explicit solutions to the Laplace equations associated to the Dirac operator, Euler operator and the harmonic oscillator in R. Read More


In this note we find the least order of a noncommutative even square ring and we note that it is a nil ring having characteristic four. In addition we note that if R be an even square ring such that 2ab+2ba=0, for all a, b in R then R is not necessarily a commutative ring. Read More


Certain analytical expressions which "feel" the divisors of natural numbers are investigated. We show that these expressions encode to some extent the well-known algorithm of the sieve of Eratosthenes. Most part of the text is written in pedagogical style, however some formulas are new. Read More


We report an inconsistency found in probability theory (also referred to as measure-theoretic probability). For probability measures induced by real-valued random variables, we deduce an "equality" such that one side of the "equality" is a probability, but the other side is not. For probability measures induced by extended random variables, we deduce an "equality" such that its two sides are unequal probabilities. Read More


We present a prime-generating polynomial $(1+2n)(p -2n) + 2$ where $p>2$ is a lower member of a pair of twin primes less than $41$ and the integer $n$ is such that $\: \frac {1-p}{2} < n < p-1$. Read More


Let $E$ be an elliptic curve of rank $\text{rk}(E) \geq 1$, and let $E(\mathbb{F}_p)$ be the elliptic group of order $\#E(\mathbb{F}_p)=n$. The number of primes $p\leq x$ such that $n$ is prime is expected to be $\pi(x,E)=\delta(E)x/\log^2 x+o(x/\log^2 x)$, where $\delta(E)\geq 0$ is the density constant. This note proves a lower bound $\pi(x,E) \gg x/\log^3 x$. Read More


In this article, utilizing the concept of w-distance, we prove the celebrated Banach's fixed point theorem in metric spaces equipped with an arbitrary binary relation. Necessarily our findings unveil another direction of relation-theoretic metrical fixed point theory. Also, our paper consists of several non-trivial examples which signify the motivation for such investigations. Read More


We examine the prime gaps using a statistical approach. It is first shown that the Andrica's conjecture is true for half or more cases. Using the arguments of averages, it is further shown that Andrica's conjecture is true. Read More


The Collatz variations pattern seems not to have any recurrence relation between numbers. But knowing that there is at least a natural number that converges after several iterations we construct a function $f_{X,Y}$ that is equal to the value of convergence for all convergent sequences. A canonical decomposition can be expressed for such numbers. Read More


Closed form expressions are given for computing the parameters and vectors that identify and define the $n-1$ dimensional conic section that results from the intersection of a hyperplane with an $n$-dimensional conic section: cone, hyperboloid of two sheets, ellipsoid or paraboloid. The conic sections are assumed to be symmetric about their major axis, but may have any orientation and center. A class of hyperboloids are identified with the property that the parameters and vectors of the intersection of all hyperboloids in a subset of the class can be computed efficiently. Read More


Sensitivity-based methods are extensively used to construct differentially private mechanisms. In this paper, we realize that designing a differentially private mechanism can be considered as finding a randomized mapping between two metric spaces. The metric in the first metric space can be considered as a metric about privacy and the metric in the second metric space can be considered as a metric about utility. Read More