Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics Publications (50)

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Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics Publications

The KM3NeT/ARCA high energy neutrino telescope is currently under construction in the Mediterranean sea. The detector will consist of two blocks of instrumented structures and will have a size of the order of a cubic-kilometer. In this work the status of the detector, the expected performance to galactic and extragalactic neutrino sources, the results from prototypes and the first deployed lines will be briefly reported. Read More


Supernova (SN) classification and redshift estimation using photometric data only have become very important for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), given the large number of SNe that LSST will observe and the impossibility of spectroscopically following up all the SNe. We investigate the performance of a SN classifier that uses SN colors to classify LSST SNe with the Random Forest classification algorithm. Our classifier results in an AUC of 0. Read More


Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data-intensively online astronomical research and education environment, which takes advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and global access to astronomical information. AstroCloud is a cyber-infrastructure for astronomy research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) project, and also a kind of physical distributed platform which integrates lots of tasks such as telescope access proposal management, data archiving, data quality control, data release and open access, cloud based data processing and analysis. It consists of five application channels, i. Read More


We present a "multipatch" infrastructure for numerical simulation of fluid problems in which sub-regions require different gridscales, different grid geometries, different physical equations, or different reference frames. Its key element is a sophisticated client-router-server framework for efficiently linking processors supporting different regions ("patches") that must exchange boundary data. This infrastructure may be used with a wide variety of fluid dynamics codes; the only requirement is that their primary dependent variables be the same in all patches, e. Read More


Data processing pipelines are one of most common astronomical software. This kind of programs are chains of processes that transform raw data into valuable information. In this work a Python framework for astronomical pipeline generation is presented. Read More


The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a balloon-borne gamma-ray (0.2-5 MeV) telescope with inherent sensitivity to polarization. COSI's main goal is to study astrophysical sources such as $\gamma$-ray bursts, positron annihilation, Galactic nucleosynthesis, and compact objects. Read More


The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a balloon-borne, soft-gamma ray imager, spectrometer, and polarimeter with sensitivity from 0.2 to 5 MeV. Utilizing a compact Compton telescope design with twelve cross-strip, high-purity germanium detectors, COSI has three main science goals: study the 511 keV positron annihilation line from the Galactic plane, image diffuse emission from stellar nuclear lines, and perform polarization studies of gamma-ray bursts and other extreme astrophysical environments. Read More


Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28x28x20 mm3 (length x breadth x thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25x25x20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25x25x10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4x4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. Read More


Detection of the mostly geomagnetically generated radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers provides an alternative to air-Cherenkov and air-fluorescence detection, since it is not limited to clear nights. Like these established methods, the radio signal is sensitive to the calorimetric energy and the position of the maximum of the electromagnetic shower component. This makes antenna arrays an ideal extension for particle-detector arrays above a threshold energy of about 100 PeV of the primary cosmic-ray particles. Read More


2017Jan
Affiliations: 1JAXA/ISAS, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 4Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 5Univ. of Tokyo, 6Univ. of Tokyo

We apply three data science techniques, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), to simulated X-ray energy spectra of a particular class of super-massive black holes. Two competing physical models, one whose variable components are additive and the other whose variable components are multiplicative, are known to successfully describe X-ray spectral variation of these super-massive black holes, within accuracy of the contemporary observation. We hope to utilize these techniques to compare the viability of the models by probing the mathematical structure of the observed spectra, while comparing advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Read More


In fluid dynamical simulations in astrophysics, large deformations are common and surface tracking is sometimes necessary. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used in many of such simulations. Recently, however, it has been shown that SPH cannot handle contact discontinuities or free surfaces accurately. Read More


All next generation ground-based and space-based solar telescopes require a good quality assessment metric in order to evaluate their imaging performance. In this paper, a new image quality metric, the median filter gradient similarity (MFGS) is proposed for photospheric images. MFGS is a no-reference/blind objective image quality metric (IQM) by a measurement result between 0 and 1 and has been performed on short-exposure photospheric images captured by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) of the Fuxian Solar Observatory and by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite, respectively. Read More


A five-dimensional coupled states (5D-CS) approximation is used to compute cross sections and rate coefficients for CO+H2 collisions. The 5D-CS calculations are benchmarked against accurate six-dimensional close-coupling (6D-CC) calculations for transitions between low-lying rovibrational states. Good agreement between the two formulations is found for collision energies greater than 10 cm-1. Read More


We report on the measurement of the trigonometric parallaxes of 1612 MHz hydroxyl masers around two asymptotic giant branch stars, WX Psc and OH138.0+7.2, using the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array with in-beam phase referencing calibration. Read More


The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) satellite was launched on December 17, 2015 and started its data taking operation a few days later. DAMPE has a large geometric factor ($\sim~0.3\ m^2\ sr$) and provides good tracking, calorimetric and charge measurements for electrons, gammas rays and nuclei. Read More


The Sky Quality Meter (SQM) has become the most common device to track the evolution of the brightness of the sky from polluted regions to first class astronomical observatories. A vast database of SQM measurements already exists for many places in the world. Unfortunately, the SQM operates over a wide spectral band and its spectral response interacts with the sky's spectrum in a complex manner. Read More


The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is one of the four satellites within Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). DAMPE can detect electrons, photons and ions in a wide energy range (5 GeV to 10 TeV) and ions up to iron (100GeV to 100 TeV). Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of the four payloads in DAMPE, providing e/{\gamma} separation and charge identification up to Iron. Read More


The volume of data generated by modern astronomical telescopes is extremely large and rapidly growing. However, current high-performance data processing architectures/frameworks are not well suited for astronomers because of their limitations and programming difficulties. In this paper, we therefore present OpenCluster, an open-source distributed computing framework to support rapidly developing high-performance processing pipelines of astronomical big data. Read More


Although for many solar physics problems the desirable or meaningful boundary is the radial component of the magnetic field $B_{\rm r}$, the most readily available measurement is the component of the magnetic field along the line-of-sight to the observer, $B_{\rm los}$. As this component is only equal to the radial component where the viewing angle is exactly zero, some approximation is required to estimate $B_{\rm r}$ at all other observed locations. In this study, a common approximation known as the "$\mu$-correction", which assumes all photospheric field to be radial, is compared to a method which invokes computing a potential field that matches the observed $B_{\rm los}$, from which the potential field radial component, $B_{\rm r}^{\rm pot}$ is recovered. Read More


Source detection in counting type experiments such as Cherenkov telescopes often involves the application of the classical Eq. 17 from the paper of Li & Ma (1983) to discrete on- and off-source regions. The on- source region is typically a circular area with radius {\theta} in which the signal is expected to appear with the shape of the instrument point spread function (PSF). Read More


Cosmic ray muons with the average energy of 280 GeV and neutrons produced by muons are detected with the Large Volume Detector at LNGS. We present an analysis of the seasonal variation of the neutron flux on the basis of the data obtained during 15 years. The measurement of the seasonal variation of the specific number of neutrons generated by muons allows to obtaine the variation magnitude of of the average energy of the muon flux at the depth of the LVD location. Read More


ImageJ is a graphical user interface (GUI) driven, public domain, Java-based, software package for general image processing traditionally used mainly in life sciences fields. The image processing capabilities of ImageJ are useful and extendable to other scientific fields. Here we present AstroImageJ (AIJ), which provides an astronomy specific image display environment and tools for astronomy specific image calibration and data reduction. Read More


We present the catalog of the KVN Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). This first part of the KVNCS is a single dish radio survey conducted at 22 (K band) and 43 GHz (Q band) simultaneously using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) from 2009 to 2011. A total 2045 sources selected from the VLBA Calibrator Survey (VCS) with an extrapolated flux density limit of 100 mJy at K band. Read More


Radio astronomy has traditionally depended on observatories allocating time to observers for exclusive use of their telescopes. The disadvantage of this scheme is that the data thus collected is rarely used for other astronomy applications, and in many cases, is unsuitable. For example, properly calibrated pulsar search data can, with some reduction, be used for spectral line surveys. Read More


X-ray polarimetry has seen a growing interest in recent years. Improvements in detector technology and focusing X-ray optics now enable sensitive astrophysical X-ray polarization measurements. These measurements will provide new insights into the processes at work in accreting black holes, the emission of X-rays from neutron stars and magnetars, and the structure of AGN jets. Read More


We report the performance of an active veto system using a liquid scintillator with NaI(Tl) crystals for use in a dark matter search experiment. When a NaI(Tl) crystal is immersed in the prototype detector, the detector tags 48% of the internal K-40 background in the 0-10 keV energy region. We also determined the tagging efficiency for events at 6-20 keV as 26. Read More


The Doppler effect is a shift in the frequency of waves emitted from an object moving relative to the observer. By observing and analysing the Doppler shift in electromagnetic waves from astronomical objects, astronomers gain greater insight into the structure and operation of our universe. In this paper, a simple technique is described for teaching the basics of the Doppler effect to undergraduate astrophysics students using acoustic waves. Read More


This is a manual for the MOSiC package. MOSiC is a collection of IDL programs for profile analysis and Gaussian fitting of the Mg II h/k lines along with Gaussian fitting of the C II 133.5 nm line pair, the O I 135. Read More


The spatial distribution of Cherenkov radiation from cascade showers generated by muons in water has been measured with Cherenkov water calorimeter (CWC) NEVOD. This result allowed to improve the techniques of treating cascade showers with unknown axes by means of CWC response analysis. The techniques of selecting the events with high energy cascade showers and reconstructing their parameters are discussed. Read More


We use a laboratory facility to study the sputtering properties of centimeter-thick porous water ice subjected to the bombardment of ions and electrons to better understand the formation of exospheres of the icy moons of Jupiter. Our ice samples are as similar as possible to the expected moon surfaces but surface charging of the samples during ion irradiation may distort the experimental results. We therefore monitor the time scales for charging and dis- charging of the samples when subjected to a beam of ions. Read More


ORCA (Oscillation Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the next-generation research infrastructure hosting underwater Cherenkov detectors in the Mediterranean Sea. ORCA's primary goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy by measuring the matter-induced modifications on the oscillation probabilities of few-GeV atmospheric neutrinos. The ORCA detector design foresees a dense configuration of KM3NeT neutrino detection technology, optimised for measuring the interactions of neutrinos in the energy range of 3 - 20 GeV. Read More


High-energy muons from air shower events detected in IceCube are selected using state of the art machine learning algorithms. Attributes to distinguish a HE-muon event from the background of low-energy muon bundles are selected using the mRMR algorithm and the events are classified by a random forest model. In a subsequent analysis step the obtained sample is used to reconstruct the atmospheric muon energy spectrum, using the unfolding software TRUEE. Read More


Solar Orbiter is a joint ESA-NASA mission planed for launch in October 2018. The science payload includes remote-sensing and in-situ instrumentation designed with the primary goal of understanding how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere. The spacecraft will follow an elliptical orbit around the Sun, with perihelion as close as 0. Read More


The temperature coefficients for all the directions of the Nagoya muon telescope were obtained. The zenith angular dependence of the temperature coefficients was studied. Read More


Our computation effort is primarily concentrated on support of current and future measurements being carried out at various synchrotron radiation facilities around the globe, and photodissociation computations for astrophysical applications. In our work we solve the Schr\"odinger or Dirac equation for the appropriate collision problem using the R-matrix or R-matrix with pseudo-states approach from first principles. The time dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method is also used in our work. Read More


In this paper we compare the performance of two likelihood ratio based detection statistics namely maximum likelihood ratio statistic and {\it hybrid} statistic in the context of multi-detector coherent gravitational wave search for the compact binary coalescence in various 2, 3, 4 and 5 detector networks. We perform simulations for non-spinning neutron star - black hole binary injections distribution in a distance range $100$Mpc - $1200$Mpc uniform in volume. We observe that, on average, the maximum likelihood ratio statistic recover $\sim 35. Read More


Determination of mass composition of high energy cosmic rays is one of the greatest challenge in modern astrophysics. All of previous methods for finding the mass composition of primary cosmic rays in a surface array at least require two independent measurements (e.g. Read More


Many aspects of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) instrument are still unknown due to its young age. One such aspect is the true nature of the primary beam of each baseline, and how changes to the individual primary beams affect astronomical observations when said changes are ignored during imaging. This paper aims to create a more thorough understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of ALMA through realistic modeling of the primary beams and simulated observations, which in turn can inform the user of the necessity of implementing more computationally costly algorithms, such as A-Projection, and when simpler, quicker algorithms will suffice. Read More


We describe a system to measure the Quantum Efficiency in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 1100 nm of 40x40 mm n-channel CCD sensors for the construction of the 3.2 gigapixel LSST focal plane. The technique uses a series of instrument to create a very uniform flux of photons of controllable intensity in the wavelength range of interest across the face the sensor. Read More


Imaging bundles provide a convenient way to translate a spatially coherent image, yet conventional imaging bundles made from silica fibre optics typically remain expensive with large losses due to poor filling factors (~40%). We present the characterisation of a novel polymer imaging bundle made from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) that is considerably cheaper and a better alternative to silica imaging bundles over short distances (~1 m; from the middle to the edge of a telescope's focal plane). The large increase in filling factor (92% for the polymer imaging bundle) outweighs the large increase in optical attenuation from using PMMA (1 dB/m) instead of silica (10^{-3} dB/m). Read More


Radio-interferometric imaging aims to estimate an unknown sky intensity image from degraded observations, acquired through an antenna array. In the theoretical case of a perfectly calibrated array, it has been shown that solving the corresponding imaging problem by iterative algorithms based on convex optimization and compressive sensing theory can be competitive with classical algorithms as CLEAN. However, in practice, antenna-based gains are unknown and have to be calibrated. Read More


Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) represent a class of instruments which are dedicated to the ground-based observation of cosmic VHE gamma ray emission based on the detection of the Cherenkov radiation produced in the interaction of gamma rays with the Earth atmosphere. One of the key elements of such instruments is a pixelized focal-plane camera consisting of photodetectors. To date, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been the common choice given their high photon detection efficiency (PDE) and fast time response. Read More


Closure quantities measured by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations are independent of instrumental and propagation instabilities and antenna gain factors, but are sensitive to source structure. A new method is proposed to calculate a structure index based on the median values of closure quantities rather than the brightness distribution of a source. The results are comparable to structure indices based on imaging observations at other epochs and demonstrate the flexibility of deriving structure indices from exactly the same observations as used for geodetic analysis and without imaging analysis. Read More


We introduce a new method for performing robust Bayesian estimation of the three-dimensional spatial power spectrum at the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), from interferometric observations. The versatility of this technique allows us to present two approaches. First, when the observations span only a small number of independent spatial frequencies ($k$-modes) we sample directly from the spherical power spectrum coefficients that describe the EoR signal realisation. Read More


Based on the luminosity-distance diagram, we propose a method to quickly estimate the luminosity function for any certain astrophysical objects. Giving the mean distance between any two objects at a given luminosity range, we can find the relation between the mean distance and the luminosity, and consequently can obtain the luminosity function. Not like the straightforward counting method, this method does not need a complete sample. Read More


Spectral structures from instrumental systematic effects is the current limiting factor for the experiments attempting to detect the redshifted 21 cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Recent advances in the delay spectrum methodology for measuring the 21 cm EoR power spectrum have brought new attention to the impact of an antenna's frequency response on the viability of making this challenging measurement.In particular, delay spectrum methodology provides a somewhat straightforward relationship between timedomain reponse of an instrument that can be directly measured and the power spectrum modes accessible to a 21 cm EoR experiment. Read More


We present a catalog of compact sources of radio emission at 1420 MHz in the northern Galactic plane from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey. The catalog contains 72,787 compact sources with angular size less than 3$'$ within the Galactic longitude range $52^{\circ} < \ell < 192^{\circ}$ down to a 5$\sigma$ detection level of $\sim$1.2 mJy. Read More