# High Energy Physics - Lattice Publications (50)

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## High Energy Physics - Lattice Publications

We calculated the QCD equation of state using Taylor expansions that include contributions from up to sixth order in the baryon, strangeness and electric charge chemical potentials. Calculations have been performed with the Highly Improved Staggered Quark action in the temperature range $T\in [135~{\rm MeV}, 330~{\rm MeV}]$ using up to four different sets of lattice cut-offs corresponding to lattices of size $N_\sigma^3\times N_\tau$ with aspect ratio $N_\sigma/N_\tau=4$ and $N_\tau =6-16$. The strange quark mass is tuned to its physical value and we use two strange to light quark mass ratios $m_s/m_l=20$ and $27$, which in the continuum limit correspond to a pion mass of about $160$~MeV and $140$~MeV espectively. Read More

We give an accurate determination of the vector (electromagnetic) form factor, $F(Q^2)$, for a light meson up to squared momentum transfer $Q^2$ values of 6 $\mathrm{GeV}^2$ for the first time from full lattice QCD, including $u$, $d$, $s$ and $c$ quarks in the sea at multiple values of the lattice spacing. Our results show good control of lattice discretisation and sea quark mass effects, indicating that higher $Q^2$ values could be reached in future with finer lattices. We study a pseudoscalar meson made of valence $s$ quarks but the qualitative picture obtained applies also to the $\pi$ meson, relevant to upcoming experiments at Jefferson Lab. Read More

In this talk, we motivate the calculation of the matrix elements of novel CP violating operators, the quark EDM and the quark chromo EDM operators, within the nucleon state using lattice QCD. These matrix elements, combined with the bound on the neutron EDM, would provide stringent constraints on beyond the standard model physics, especially as the next generation of neutron EDM experiments reduce the current bound. We then present our lattice strategy for the calculation of these matrix elements, in particular we describe the use of the Schr\"odinger source method to reduce the calculation of the 4-point to 3-point functions needed to evaluate the quark chromo EDM contribution. Read More

We study the low-temperature behavior of antiferromagnets in two spatial dimensions that are subjected to a magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the staggered magnetization order parameter. The evaluation of the partition function is carried to two-loop order within the systematic effective Lagrangian technique. Low-temperature series that are valid in weak magnetic and staggered fields are derived for the pressure, staggered magnetization, and magnetization. Read More

We report on a recent computation of the form factors in semi-leptonic decays of the $\mathrm{B}_\mathrm{s}$ using Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) formalism applied on the lattice. The connection of the form factors with the 2-point and 3-point correlators on the lattice is explained, and the subsequent non-perturbative renormalization of HQET and it's matching to $N_f=2$ QCD is outlined. The results of the (static) leading-order calculation in the continuum limit is presented. Read More

We investigate the phase structure of QCD with 3 degenerate quark flavors as function of the degenerate quark masses at vanishing baryon number density. We use the Highly Improved Staggered Quarks on lattices with temporal extent $N_{t}=6$ and perform calculations for six values of quark masses, which in the continuum limit correspond to pion masses in the range $80~{\rm MeV} \lesssim m_{\pi} \lesssim 230~$MeV. By analyzing the volume and temperature dependence of the chiral condensate and chiral susceptibility we find no direct evidence for a first order phase transition in this range of pion mass values. Read More

The potential importance of short-distance nuclear effects in double-$\beta$ decay is assessed using a lattice QCD calculation of the $nn\rightarrow pp$ transition and effective field theory methods. At the unphysical quark masses used in the numerical computation, these effects, encoded in the isotensor axial polarisability, are found to be of similar magnitude to the nuclear modification of the single axial current, which phenomenologically is the quenching of the axial charge used in nuclear many-body calculations. This finding suggests that nuclear models for neutrinoful and neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decays should incorporate this previously neglected contribution if they are to provide reliable guidance for next-generation neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay searches. Read More

We calculate non-perturbatively the coefficient c_sw required for O(a) improvement of the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf = 2 fermions in the two-index symmetric (sextet) representation. For the calculations we impose the standard improvement condition in the Schr\"odinger functional framework, using two different discretisations for the gauge field i.e. Read More

We investigate the transverse profile of the chromoelectric field generated by a quark-antiquark pair in the vacuum of (2+1) flavor QCD. Monte Carlo simulations are performed adopting the HISQ/tree action discretization, as implemented in the publicly available MILC code, suitably modified to measure the chromoelectric field. We work on the line of constant physics, with physical strange quark mass $m_s$ and light to strange mass ratio $m_l/m_s = 1/20$. Read More

We consider Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in the lattice regularized quantum field theory. We discuss two types of regularization - with and without exact chiral symmetry. In the latter case this effect is described by its conventional expression for the massless fermions. Read More

The computation of the form factors for the $B_s \to K \ell \nu$ decay is presented. The b quark is treated by means of Heavy Quark Effective Theory, currently in the static approximation. In these proceedings we discuss the extraction of the bare matrix elements from lattice data through a combined fit to two- and three-point correlation functions, as well as by considering suitable ratios. Read More

Using lattice QCD, we reveal a fundamental connection between centre vortices and several key features associated with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. Calculations are performed in pure SU(3) gauge theory using the chiral overlap fermion action. Starting from the original Monte Carlo gauge fields, a vortex identification procedure yields vortex-removed and vortex-only backgrounds. Read More

We consider the $SU(2)$ gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavors of Dirac fundamental fermions. We study the high-temperature behavior of the spectra of mesons, discretizing the theory on anisotropic lattices, and measuring the two-point correlation functions in the temporal direction as well as screening masses in various channels. We identify the (pseudo-)critical temperature as the temperature at which the susceptibility associated with the Polyakov loop has a maximum. Read More

We present results by the ALPHA collaboration for the $\Lambda$-parameter in 3-flavour QCD and the strong coupling constant at the electroweak scale, $\alpha_s(m_Z)$, in terms of hadronic quantities computed on the CLS gauge configurations. The first part of this proceedings contribution contains a review of published material \cite{Brida:2016flw,DallaBrida:2016kgh} and yields the $\Lambda$-parameter in units of a low energy scale, $1/L_{\rm had}$. We then discuss how to determine this scale in physical units from experimental data for the pion and kaon decay constants. Read More

We report a first, complete lattice QCD calculation of the long-distance contribution to the K+ -> \pi+ nu nu-bar decay within the standard model. This is a second-order weak process involving two four-Fermi operators that is highly sensitive to ne w physics and being studied by the NA62 experiment at CERN. While much of this decay comes from perturbative, short-distance physics there is a long-distance part, perhaps as large as the planned experimental error, which involves non-perturbative pheno mena. Read More

In these proceedings we discuss recent progress in nucleon structure using lattice QCD simulations at or near the physical value of the pion mass. Main focus will be given in observables such as the nucleon axial charge and the first moments of parton distributions, for both the valence and sea quark contributions, and discuss their implications on the spin content of the nucleon. We will will also report developments on the evaluation of the gluon momentum fraction, which contributes significantly to the nucleon spin. Read More

We extend our analysis of quasi-distributions onto the pion distribution amplitude. Using the formalism of parton virtuality distribution amplitudes (VDAs), we establish a connection between the pion transverse momentum dependent distribution amplitude (TMDA) $\Psi (x, k_\perp^2)$ and the pion quasi-distribution amplitude (QDA) $Q_\pi (y,p_3)$. We build models for the QDAs from the VDA-based models for soft TMDAs, and analyze the $p_3$ dependence of the resulting QDAs. Read More

We present the construction and stochastic summation of rooted-tree diagrams, based on the expansion of a root finding algorithm applied to the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). The mathematical formulation shows superior convergence properties compared to the bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach and the developed algorithm allows one to tackle generic high-dimensional integral equations, to avoid the curse of dealing explicitly with high-dimensional objects and to access non-perturbative regimes. The sign problem remains the limiting factor, but it is not found to be worse than in other approaches. Read More

We present results for the decay constants of the $D$ and $D_s$ mesons computed in lattice QCD with $N_f=2+1$ dynamical flavours. The simulations are based on RBC/UKQCD's domain wall ensembles with both physical and unphysical light-quark masses and lattice spacings in the range 0.11--0. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}TWQCD Collaboration,

^{2}TWQCD Collaboration

We perform hybrid Monte Carlo simulation of (2+1+1)-flavors lattice QCD with the optimal domain-wall fermion (which has the effective 4D Dirac operator exactly equal to the Zolotarev optimal rational approximation of the overlap Dirac operator). The gauge ensemble is generated on the $32^3 \times 64 $ lattice with the extent $ N_s = 16 $ in the fifth dimension, and with the plaquette gauge action at $ \beta = 6/g^2 = 6.20 $. Read More

This contribution contains the first numerical computation of the complete set of relativistic corrections of relative order $v^{2}$ for electric dipole (E1) transitions in heavy quarkonium; in particular, for the processes $\chi_{bJ}(1P) \to \Upsilon(1S) + \gamma$ with $J=0,\,1,\,2$. We assume that the momentum transfer of the heavy mesons involved in the reactions lies in the weak-coupling regime of the low-energy effective field theory potential non-relativistic QCD (pNRQCD) and thus a full perturbative calculation can be performed. Read More

The dual superconductivity is a promising mechanism for quark confinement. We have presented a new formulation of the Yang-Mills theory on the lattice that enables us to change the original non-Abelian gauge field into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge independent way. We have pointed out that the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory has another reformulation using new field variables (minimal option), in addition to the way adopted by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi (maximal option). Read More

QCD at nonzero baryon chemical potential suffers from the sign problem, due to the complex quark determinant. Complex Langevin dynamics can provide a solution, provided certain conditions are met. One of these conditions, holomorphicity of the Langevin drift, is absent in QCD since zeroes of the determinant result in a meromorphic drift. Read More

In this article we apply background-independent renormalization group methods to spin foam quantum gravity. It is aimed at extending and elucidating the analysis of a companion letter, in which the existence of a fixed point in the truncated RG flow for the model was reported. Here we repeat the analysis with various modifications, and find that both qualitative and quantitative features of the fixed point are robust in this setting. Read More

In this paper we study the shear viscosity temperature dependence of $SU(3)$--gluodynamics within lattice simulation. To do so, we measure the correlation functions of energy-momentum tensor in the range of temperatures $T/T_c\in [0.9, 1. Read More

The self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean gravity is constructed. In contrast to the well known Eguchi-Hanson solution to continuous Euclidean Gravity, the lattice solution is asymptotically {\it{globally}} Euclidean, i.e. Read More

In this work, we show the flux tubes of the quark-antiquark and quark-quark at finite temperature for SU(3) Lattice QCD. The chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields are calculated above and below the phase transition. Read More

Since 2003 many charmonium-like states were observed experimentally. Especially those charged charmonium-like $Z_c$ states and bottomonium-like $Z_b$ states cannot be accommodated within the naive quark model, which are good candidates of either the hidden-charm tetraquark states or molecules composed of a pair of charmed mesons. In 2015, the LHCb Collaboration discovered two hidden-charm pentaquark states, which are also beyond the quark model. Read More

Given a Wigner distribution simultaneously characterizing quark transverse positions and momenta in a proton, one can directly evaluate their cross-product, i.e., quark orbital angular momentum. Read More

TeV-scale lepton number violation can affect neutrinoless double beta decay through dimension-9 $\Delta L= \Delta I = 2$ operators involving two electrons and four quarks. Since the dominant effects within a nucleus are expected to arise from pion exchange, the $ \pi^- \to \pi^+ e e$ matrix elements of the dimension-9 operators are a key hadronic input. In this letter we provide estimates for the $\pi^- \to \pi^+ $ matrix elements of all Lorentz scalar $\Delta I = 2$ four-quark operators relevant to the study of TeV-scale lepton number violation. Read More

We present the reweighted complex Langevin method, which enlarges the applicability range of the complex Langevin method by reweighting the complex trajectories. In this reweighting procedure both the auxiliary and target ensembles have a complex action. We validate the method by applying it to two-dimensional strong-coupling QCD at nonzero chemical potential, and observe that it gives access to parameter regions that could otherwise not be reached with the complex Langevin method. Read More

Although the complex Langevin method can solve the sign problem in simulations of theories with complex actions, the method will yield wrong results if known validity conditions are not satisfied. We present a novel method to compute observables for a target ensemble by reweighting complex trajectories generated with the complex Langevin method for an auxiliary ensemble having itself a complex action. While it is imperative that the validity conditions be satisfied for the auxiliary ensemble, there are no such requirements for the target ensemble. Read More

We report on our study of the D meson semileptonic decays in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD. Gauge ensembles are generated at three lattice cutoffs up to 4.5 GeV and with pion masses as low as 300 MeV. Read More

We study the energy dependence of global polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons in peripheral $Au-Au$ collisions. We combine the calculation of vorticity and strange chemical potential in the framework of kinetic Quark-Gluon String Model with the anomalous mechanism related to axial vortical effect. We pay special attention to the temperature dependent contribution related to gravitational anomaly and found that the preliminary RHIC data are compatible with its suppression discovered earlier in lattice calculations. Read More

It has become customary to use a smoothing algorithm called "gradient flow" to fix the lattice spacing in a simulation, through a parameter called $t_0$. It is shown that in order to keep the length $t_0$ fixed with respect to mesonic or gluonic observables as the number of colors $N_c$ is varied, the fiducial point for the flow parameter must be scaled nearly linearly in $N_c$. In simulations with dynamical fermions, the dependence of $t_0$ on the pseudoscalar meson mass flattens as the number of colors rises, in a way which is consistent with large $N_c$ expectations. Read More

Given a smooth manifold $M$ and a Lie group $G$, we consider parallel transport maps --groupoid homomorphisms from a path groupoid in $M$ to $G$-- as an alternative description of principal $G$-bundles with smooth connections on them. Using a cellular decomposition $\mathscr{C}$ of $M$, and a system of paths associated to $\mathscr{C}$, we define a homotopical equivalence relation of parallel transport maps, leading to the concept of an extended lattice gauge (ELG) field. A lattice gauge field, as used in Lattice Gauge Theory, is part of the data contained in an ELG field, but the latter contains additional topological information of local nature, sufficient to reconstruct a principal $G$-bundle up to equivalence, in the spirit of Barrett. Read More

We investigate the Brillouin action in terms of its suitability as a kernel to the overlap procedure, with a view on both heavy and light quark physics. We use the diagonal elements of the Kenney-Laub family of iterations for the sparse matrix sign function, since they grow monotonically and facilitate cascaded preconditioning strategies with different rational approximations to the sign function. We find that the overlap action with the Brillouin kernel is significantly better localized than the version with the Wilson kernel. Read More

The dispersive approach to QCD is briefly overviewed and its application to the assessment of hadronic contributions to electroweak observables is discussed. Read More

In this work, based on consideration of periodicity and asymptotic forms of wave function, we propose a novel approach to the solution of finite volume three-body problem by mapping a three-body problem into a higher dimensional two-body problem. The idea is demonstrated by an example of two light spinless particles and one heavy particle scattering in one spatial dimension. This 1D three-body problem resembles a two-body problem in two spatial dimensions mathematically, and quantization condition of 1D three-body problem is thus derived accordingly. Read More

The present panorama of HPC architectures is extremely heterogeneous, ranging from traditional multi-core CPU processors, supporting a wide class of applications but delivering moderate computing performance, to many-core GPUs, exploiting aggressive data-parallelism and delivering higher performances for streaming computing applications. In this scenario, code portability (and performance portability) become necessary for easy maintainability of applications; this is very relevant in scientific computing where code changes are very frequent, making it tedious and prone to error to keep different code versions aligned. In this work we present the design and optimization of a state-of-the-art production-level LQCD Monte Carlo application, using the directive-based OpenACC programming model. Read More

The Oktay-Kronfeld (OK) action extends the Fermilab improvement program for massive Wilson fermions to higher order in suitable power-counting schemes. It includes dimension-six and -seven operators necessary for matching to QCD through order ${\mathrm{O}}(\Lambda^3/m_Q^3)$ in HQET power counting, for applications to heavy-light systems, and ${\mathrm{O}}(v^6)$ in NRQCD power counting, for applications to quarkonia. In the Symanzik power counting of lattice gauge theory near the continuum limit, the OK action includes all ${\mathrm{O}}(a^2)$ and some ${\mathrm{O}}(a^3)$ terms. Read More

We derive the finite-volume correction to the binding energy of an N-particle quantum bound state in a cubic periodic volume. Our results are applicable to bound states with arbitrary composition and total angular momentum, and in any number of spatial dimensions. The only assumptions are that the interactions have finite range. Read More

In this paper we review recent progress in hadron structure using lattice QCD simulations, with main focus in the evaluation of nucleon matrix elements. We highlight developments that may guide new Physics searches, such as the scalar and tensor charges, as well as, the neutron electric dipole moment. Read More

The liquid droplet formula is applied to an analysis of the properties of geometrical (anti)clusters formed in SU(2) gluodynamics by the Polyakov loops of the same sign. Using this approach, we explain the phase transition in SU(2) gluodynamics as a transition between two liquids during which one of the liquid droplets (the largest cluster of a certain Polyakov loop sign) experiences a condensation, while the droplet of another liquid (the next to the largest cluster of the opposite sign of Polyakov loop) evaporates. The clusters of smaller sizes form two accompanying gases, which behave oppositely to their liquids. Read More

We develop the heat kernel method in the context of finite temperature quantum field theory. We compute the heat kernel expansion in the presence of general gauge and scalar fields which may be non Abelian and non stationary. The Polyakov loop appears at finite temperature as a new gauge covariant operator. Read More

We study the flow equation of the O($N$) $\varphi^4$ model in $d$ dimensions at the next-to-leading order (NLO) in the $1/N$ expansion. Using the Schwinger-Dyson equation, we derive 2-pt and 4-pt functions of flowed fields. As the first application of the NLO calculations, we study the running coupling defined from the connected 4-pt function of flowed fields in the $d+1$ dimensional theory. Read More

A general field-theoretic framework for the treatment of liquid-gas phase transitions is developed. Starting from a fundamental four-dimensional field theory at nonzero temperature and density, an effective three-dimensional field theory with a sign problem is derived. Although charge conjugation $\mathcal{C}$ is broken at finite density, there remains a symmetry under $\mathcal{CK}$, where $\mathcal{K}$ is complex conjugation. Read More

The representation of the wave functions of the nucleon resonances within a relativistic framework is a complex task, particularly for resonances with negative parity. In a nonrelativistic framework the orthogonality between states can be imposed naturally. In a relativistic generalization, however, the derivation of the orthogonality condition between states can be problematic, particularly when the states have different masses. Read More

We study the curvature of the chiral transition/crossover line between the low-temperature hadronic phase and the high-temperature quark-gluon-plasma phase at low densities, performing simulations of two-flavor QCD with improved Wilson quarks. After confirming that the chiral order parameter defined by a Ward-Takahashi identity is consistent with the scaling of the O(4) universality class at zero chemical potential, we extend the scaling analysis to finite chemical potential to determine the curvature of the chiral transition/crossover line at low densities assuming the O(4) universality. To convert the curvature in lattice units to that of the $T_c(\mu_B)$ in physical units, we evaluate the lattice scale applying a gradient flow method. Read More

We present a sampling of analyses concerning the gender ratio of plenary speakers during the years 2000--2016 and make comparisons with other conferences, such as the APS April meeting. We hope this will invite discussion of ideas for how to make our field more accessible to women and minorities. We are preparing for an in-depth survey of the lattice field and welcome any ideas or suggestions. Read More