# High Energy Physics - Lattice Publications (50)

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## High Energy Physics - Lattice Publications

We examine the properties of the wave-function-equivalent potentials which HAL QCD collaboration has introduced. We generalize the derivative expansion, and then apply it to energy-independent and non-local potentials in a coupled-channel model. We observe that the expansion converges by comparing the scattering phase shifts computed from these potentials with the exact one. Read More

The light-quark sector of the Lambda(1405) baryon is examined in the context of the recent discovery of a dominant antikaon-nucleon composition at low quark masses. Further evidence for this interpretation of the Lambda(1405) is presented, by calculating the u and d quark contributions to the Lambda(1405) magnetic form factors in lattice QCD. The extent to which these quantities are consistent with the exotic molecular description can then be quantified by comparing the results with the equivalent nucleon form factors. Read More

We present a lattice quantum chromodynamics determination of the scalar and vector form factors for the $B_s \rightarrow D_s \ell \nu$ decay over the full physical range of momentum transfer. In conjunction with future experimental data, our results will provide a new method to extract $|V_{cb}|$, which may elucidate the current tension between exclusive and inclusive determinations of this parameter. Combining the form factor results at non-zero recoil with recent HPQCD results for the $B \rightarrow D \ell \nu$ form factors, we determine the ratios $f^{B_s \rightarrow D_s}_0(M_\pi^2) / f^{B \rightarrow D}_0(M_K^2) = 1. Read More

The complex Langevin method and the generalized Lefschetz-thimble method are two closely related approaches to the sign problem, which are both based on complexification of the original dynamical variables. The former can be viewed as a generalization of the stochastic quantization using the Langevin equation, whereas the latter is a deformation of the integration contour using the so-called holomorphic gradient flow. In order to clarify their relationship, we propose a formulation which combines the two methods by applying the former method to the real variables that parametrize the deformed integration contour in the latter method. Read More

We study what happens to the Nucleon, Delta and Omega baryons in the hadronic gas and the quark-gluon plasma, with particular interest in parity doubling and its emergence as the plasma is heated. This is done using simulations of lattice QCD, employing the FASTSUM anisotropic Nf=2+1 ensembles, with four temperatures below and four above the deconfinement transition temperature. Below Tc we find that the positive-parity groundstate masses are largely temperature independent, whereas the negative-parity ones are reduced considerably as the temperature increases. Read More

A symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to study charmed heavy-light mesons. The contact interaction is a representation of nonperturbative kernels used in Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations of QCD. The Dyson-Schwinger equation is solved for the $u,\,d,\,s$ and $c$ quark propagators and the bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes respecting spacetime-translation invariance and the Ward-Green-Takahashi identities associated with global symmetries of QCD are obtained to calculate masses and electroweak decay constants of the pseudoscalar $\pi,\,K$, $D$ and $D_s$ and vector $\rho$, $K^*$, $D^*$, and $D^*_s$ mesons. Read More

**Authors:**C. Alexandrou

^{1}, M. Constantinou

^{2}, P. Dimopoulos

^{3}, R. Frezzotti

^{4}, K. Hadjiyiannakou

^{5}, K. Jansen

^{6}, C. Kallidonis

^{7}, B. Kostrzewa

^{8}, G. Koutsou

^{9}, M. Mangin-Brinet

^{10}, A. Vaquero Avilès-Casco

^{11}, U. Wenger

^{12}

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Univ. of Cyprus & The Cyprus Inst.,

^{2}Temple Univ.,

^{3}Centro Fermi & Rome Tor Vergata,

^{4}Rome Tor Vergata,

^{5}The Cyprus Inst.,

^{6}DESY-Zeuthen,

^{7}The Cyprus Inst.,

^{8}Bonn Univ.,

^{9}The Cyprus Inst.,

^{10}Grenoble,

^{11}Univ. of Utah,

^{12}Univ. of Bern

We present results on the light, strange and charm nucleon scalar and tensor charges from lattice QCD, using simulations with $N_f=2$ flavors of twisted mass Clover-improved fermions with a physical value of the pion mass. Both connected and disconnected contributions are included, enabling us to extract the isoscalar, strange and charm charges for the first time directly at the physical point. Furthermore, the renormalization is computed non-perturbatively for both isovector and isoscalar quantities. Read More

In recent years, the quasi parton distribution has been introduced for extracting the parton distribution functions from lattice QCD simulations. The quasi and standard distribution share the same perturbative collinear singularity and the renormalized quasi distribution can be factorized into the standard distribution with a perturbative matching factor. The quasi parton distribution is known to have power-law UV divergences, which do not exist in the standard distribution. Read More

We study a vectorial asymptotically free gauge theory, with gauge group $G$ and $N_f$ massless fermions in a representation $R$ of this group, that exhibits an infrared (IR) zero in its beta function, $\beta$, at the coupling $\alpha=\alpha_{IR}$ in the non-Abelian Coulomb phase. For general $G$ and $R$, we calculate the scheme-independent series expansions of (i) the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear, $\gamma_{\bar\psi\psi,IR}$, to $O(\Delta_f^4)$ and (ii) the derivative $\beta' = d\beta/d\alpha$, to $O(\Delta_f^5)$, both evaluated at $\alpha_{IR}$, where $\Delta_f$ is an $N_f$-dependent expansion variable. These are the highest orders to which these expansions have been calculated. Read More

The spin-independent and transversity generalised form factors (GFFs) of the $\phi$ meson are studied using lattice QCD calculations with light quark masses corresponding to a pion mass $m_\pi\sim450(5)$ MeV. One transversity and three spin-independent GFFs related to the lowest moments of leading-twist spin-independent and transversity gluon distributions are obtained at six non-zero values of the momentum transfer up to 1.2 GeV$^2$. Read More

We study the global symmetries of naive lattices Dirac operators in QCD-like theories in any dimension larger than two. In particular we investigate how the chosen number of lattice sites in each direction affects the global symmetries of the Dirac operator. These symmetries are important since they do not only determine the infra-red spectrum of the Dirac operator but also the symmetry breaking pattern and, thus, the lightest pseudo-scalar mesons. Read More

The topological charge density, topological susceptibility and its slope in momentum space $\chi^{\prime}(k^2)$ at momentum $k^{2}=0$ are determined by multi-probing approximation using overlap fermions in quenched SU(3) gauge theory. Then we investigate the topological structure of the quenched QCD vacuum, and compare it with result from the all-scale topological density, the results are consistent. Random permuted topological charge density is used to check whether these structures represent underlying ordered properties. Read More

We study decay properties of the $P$-wave charmed baryons using the method of light-cone QCD sum rules, including the $S$-wave decays of the flavor $\mathbf{\bar 3}_F$ $P$-wave charmed baryons into ground-state charmed baryons accompanied by a pseudoscalar meson ($\pi$ or $K$) or a vector meson ($\rho$ or $K^*$), and the $S$-wave decays of the flavor $\mathbf{6}_F$ $P$-wave charmed baryons into ground-state charmed baryons accompanied by a pseudoscalar meson ($\pi$ or $K$). We study both two-body and three-body decays which are kinematically allowed. We find two mixing solutions from internal $\rho$- and $\lambda$-mode excitations, which can well describe both masses and decay properties of the $\Lambda_c(2595)$, $\Lambda_c(2625)$, $\Xi_c(2790)$ and $\Xi_c(2815)$. Read More

A dual representation for non-Abelian lattice gauge theories where the new set of dynamical variables belong to the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}_{0}$ is discussed. After looking at the constraints on the dual variables due to gauge symmetry, the theory for the gauge group SU(2) is solved using Monte Carlo simulations based on Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm type of algorithms. The performance of the Monte Carlo is investigated for different types of updates. Read More

On the basis of the L\"uscher's finite volume formula, a simple test (sanity check) is introduced and applied to inspect the recent claims of the existence of the nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) bound state(s) for heavy quark masses in lattice QCD. We show that the consistency between the scattering phase shifts at $k^2 > 0$ and/or $k^2 < 0$ obtained from the lattice data and the behavior of phase shifts from the effective range expansion (ERE) around $k^2=0$ exposes the validity of the original lattice data, otherwise such information is hidden in the energy shift $\Delta E$ of the two nucleons on the lattice. We carry out this sanity check for all the lattice results in the literature claiming the existence of the $NN$ bound state(s) for heavy quark masses, and find that (i) some of the $NN$ data show clear inconsistency between the behavior of ERE at $k^2 > 0$ and that at $k^2 < 0$, (ii) some of the $NN$ data exhibit singular behavior of the low energy parameter (such as the divergent effective range) at $k^2<0$, (iii) some of the $NN$ data have the unphysical residue for the bound state pole in S-matrix, and (iv) the rest of the $NN$ data are inconsistent among themselves. Read More

The masses and residues of the radially excited heavy $\Omega_c^{0}$ and $ \Omega_b^{-}$ baryons with spin-parity $J^{P}=\frac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $J^{P}= \frac{3}{2}^{+}$ are calculated by means of QCD two-point sum rule method using the general form of their interpolating currents. In calculations the quark, gluon and mixed vacuum condensates up to ten dimensions are taken into account. In $\Omega_c^{0}$ channel a comparison is made with the narrow excited states recently observed by the LHCb Collaboration. Read More

We report a calculation of the nucleon axial form factors $G_A^q(Q^2)$ and $G_P^q(Q^2)$ for all three light quark flavors $q\in\{u,d,s\}$ in the range $0\leq Q^2\lesssim 1.2\text{ GeV}^2$ using lattice QCD. This work was done using a single ensemble with pion mass 317 MeV and made use of the hierarchical probing technique to efficiently evaluate the required disconnected loops. Read More

We use results from a 6-th order Taylor expansion of the QCD equation of state to construct expansions for cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations and their correlations. We show that these cumulants strongly constrain the range of applicability of hadron resonance gas model calculations. We point out that the latter is inappropriate to describe equilibrium properties of QCD at zero and non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential already at T~155 MeV. Read More

Nonperturbative effects in the quark-gluon thermodynamics are studied in the framework of Vacuum Correlator Method. It is shown, that two correlators: colorelectric $D_1^E(x)$ and colormagnetic $D^H(x)$, provide the Polyakov line and the colormagnetic confinement in the spatial planes respectively. As a result both effects produce the realistic behavior of $P(T)$ and $s(T)$, being in good agreement with numerical lattice data. Read More

We study chemical-potential dependence of confinement and mass gap in QCD with adjoint fermions in spacetime with one spatial compact direction. By calculating the one-loop effective potential for the Wilson line in the presence of chemical potential, we show that a center-symmetric phase and a center-broken phase alternate when the chemical potential in unit of the compactification scale is increased. In the center-symmetric phase we use semiclassical methods to show that photons in the magnetic bion plasma acquire a mass gap that grows with the chemical potential as a result of anisotropic interactions between monopole-instantons. Read More

In this work we investigate theoretical and computational aspects of novel lattice fermion formulations for the simulation of lattice gauge theories. The lattice approach to quantum gauge theories is an important tool for studying quantum chromodynamics, where it is the only known framework for calculating physical observables from first principles. In our investigations we focus on staggered Wilson fermions and the related staggered domain wall and staggered overlap formulations. Read More

We study the vector and axial-vector current correlators in perturbative and non-perturbative regimes of QCD. The correlators are calculated on the lattice using the M\"obius domain-wall fermion formulation at three lattice spacings covering 0.044-0. Read More

We investigate the static inter-quark potential for the three-quark system in SU(3) lattice gauge theory at zero temperature by using Monte Carlo simulations. We extract the potential from the correlation function of the three Polyakov loops, which are computed by employing the multi-level algorithm. We obtain remarkably clean results of the three-quark potential for O(200) sets of the three-quark configurations of various sizes and geometries including not only the cases that three quarks are put at the vertices of acute, right, and obtuse triangles, but also the extreme cases such that three quarks are put in line. Read More

Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) provides the only known systematic, nonperturbative method for first-principles calculations of nucleon structure. However, for quantities such as light-front parton distribution functions (PDFs) and generalized parton distributions (GPDs), the restriction to Euclidean time prevents direct calculation of the desired observable. Recently, progress has been made in relating these quantities to matrix elements of spatially non-local, zero-time operators, referred to as quasi-distributions. Read More

We investigate a recently proposed UV-complete composite Higgs scenario in the light of the first LHC runs. The model is based on a SU(4) gauge group with global flavour symmetry breaking SU(5)$\to$ SO(5), giving rise to pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons in addition to the Higgs doublet. This includes a real and a complex electroweak triplet with exotic electric charges. Read More

We present a simple toy model for a scalar-isoscalar two-point correlator, which can serve as a testing ground for the extraction of resonance parameters from Lattice QCD calculations. We discuss in detail how the model correlator behaves when it is restricted to a finite spatial volume, and how the finite-volume data can be used to reconstruct the spectral function of the correlator in the infinite volume, which allows to extract properties of the resonance from such data. Read More

We use first-principles Quantum Monte-Carlo simulations to study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between hydrogen adatoms attached to a graphene sheet. We find that the pairwise RKKY interactions at distances of a few lattice spacings are strongly affected by inter-electron interactions. We also analyse the stability of several regular adatom superlattices with respect to small displacements of a single adatom, distinguishing the cases of adatoms which populate either both or only one sublattice of the graphene lattice. Read More

We compare correlators for pseudoscalar and vector mesons made from valence strange quarks using the clover quark and highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) formalisms in full lattice QCD. We use fully nonperturbative methods to normalise vector and axial vector current operators made from HISQ quarks, clover quarks and from combining HISQ and clover fields. This allows us to test expectations for the renormalisation factors based on perturbative QCD, with implications for the error budget of lattice QCD calculations of the matrix elements of clover-staggered $b$-light weak currents, as well as further HISQ calculations of the hadronic vacuum polarisation. Read More

We provide an origin of family replications in the standard model of particle physics by constructing renormalizable, asymptotically free, four dimensional local gauge theories that dynamically generate the fifth and sixth dimensions with magnetic fluxes. Read More

The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than the one for simulating 4D QCD. However to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. Read More

A continuum approach to the kaon and pion bound-state problems is used to reveal their electromagnetic structure. For both systems, when used with parton distribution amplitudes appropriate to the scale of the experiment, Standard Model hard-scattering formulae are accurate to within 25% at momentum transfers $Q^2 \approx 8\,$GeV$^2$. There are measurable differences between the distribution of strange and normal matter within the kaons, e. Read More

As an improvement of the QCD sum rule method to study modifications of light vector mesons in nuclear matter and/or at finite temperature, we calculate the Wilson coefficients of all independent gluonic non-scalar operators up to dimension 6 in the operator product expansion (OPE) of the vector channel for light quarks. To obtain the gluon part of the light quark OPE from the heavy quark one, we also compute the heavy quark expansion of the relevant quark condensates. Together with the results for the quark operators that are already available in the literature, this completes the OPE of the vector channel in a hot or dense medium for operators up to dimension 6. Read More

The gradient flow and its small flow-time expansion provide a very versatile method to represent renormalized composite operators in a regularization-independent manner. This technique has been utilized to construct typical Noether currents such as the energy--momentum tensor and the axial-vector current in lattice gauge theory. In this paper, we apply the same technique to the supercurrent in the four-dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ super Yang--Mills theory (4D $\mathcal{N}=1$ SYM) in the Wess--Zumino gauge. Read More

We present results for the interaction of two kaons at maximal isospin. The calculation is based on $N_f=2+1+1$ flavour gauge configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with pion masses ranging from about $230$ to $450\,\textrm{MeV}$ at three values of the lattice spacing. The elastic scattering length $a_0^{I=1}$ is calculated at several values of the bare strange and light quark masses. Read More

It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the DGLAP evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. Read More

Quantum field theories at finite matter densities generically possess a partition function that is exponentially suppressed with the volume compared to that of the phase quenched analogue. The smallness arises from an almost uniform distribution for the phase of the fermion determinant. Large cancellations upon integration is the origin of a poor signal to noise ratio. Read More

The baryon electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of two-dimensional densities describing the distribution of charge and magnetization in transverse space at fixed light-front time. We calculate the transverse densities of the spin-1/2 flavor-octet baryons at peripheral distances b = O(M_\pi^{-1}) using methods of relativistic chiral effective field theory (\chi EFT) and dispersion analysis. The densities are represented as dispersive integrals over the imaginary parts of the form factors in the timelike region (spectral functions). Read More

Numerical stochastic perturbation theory is a powerful tool for estimating high-order perturbative expansions in lattice field theory. The standard algorithms based on the Langevin equation, however, suffer from several limitations which in practice restrict the potential of this technique. In this work we investigate some alternative methods which could in principle improve on the standard approach. Read More

The viability of a variant of numerical stochastic perturbation theory, where the Langevin equation is replaced by the SMD algorithm, is examined. In particular, the convergence of the process to a unique stationary state is rigorously established and the use of higher-order symplectic integration schemes is shown to be highly profitable in this context. For illustration, the gradient-flow coupling in finite volume with Schr\"odinger functional boundary conditions is computed to two-loop (i. Read More

We consider configuration mixing for the nonstrange positive parity excited baryons in the $[\mathbf{56'},0^+],[\mathbf{56},2^+], [\mathbf{70},0^+] $ and $[\mathbf{70},2^+]$ quark model $SU(6) \times O(3)$ multiplets contained in the $N=2$ band. Starting from the effective mass operator for these states we show by an explicit calculation that in the large $N_c$ limit they fall into six towers of degenerate states labeled by $K=0,1,1',2,2',3$. We find that the mixing of the quark model states is much simpler than what is naively expected. Read More

We study the Landau gauge correlators of Yang-Mills fields for infrared Euclidean momenta in the context of a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov Lagrangian which, we argue, underlies a variety of continuum approaches. Standard (perturbative) renormalization group techniques with a specific, infrared-safe renormalization scheme produce so-called decoupling and scaling solutions for the ghost and gluon propagators, which correspond to nontrivial infrared fixed points. The decoupling fixed point is infrared stable and weakly coupled, while the scaling fixed point is unstable and generically strongly coupled except for low dimensions $d\to2$. Read More

We report on our studies of the renormalization of flavor singlet quark bilinear operators in lattice QCD. The renormalization constants are determined non-perturbatively using gauge field ensembles with Nf=2 dynamical clover improved fermions. The renormalization is performed in the RI'-MOM scheme. Read More

We present a Density of States calculation with the Functional Fit Approach (DoS FFA) in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with a finite density of static color sources. The DoS FFA uses a parameterized density of states and determines the parameters of the density by fitting data from restricted Monte Carlo simulations with an analytically known function. We discuss the implementation of DoS FFA and the results for a qualitative picture of the phase diagram in a model which is a further step towards implementing DoS FFA in full QCD. Read More

In this work, we study the propagators of matter fields within the framework of the Refined Gribov-Zwanziger theory, which takes into account the effects of the Gribov copies in the gauge-fixing quantization procedure of Yang-Mills theory. In full analogy with the pure gluon sector of the Refined Gribov-Zwanziger action, a non-local long-range term in the inverse of the Faddeev-Popov operator is added in the matter sector. Making use of the recent BRST invariant formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework achieved in \cite{Capri:2015ixa,Capri:2016aqq,Capri:2015nzw,Pereira:2016fpn,Capri:2016gut}, the propagators of scalar and quark fields in the adjoint and fundamental representations of the gauge group are worked out explicitly in the linear covariant, Curci-Ferrari and maximal Abelian gauges. Read More

The worm algorithm is a versatile technique in use of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method for both quantum and classical systems. In particular, the dynamic critical exponents of classical spin systems are greatly reduced, compared to the case of a single spin update. We improve the efficiency of the worm algorithm for classical models in combination with the directed-loop framework and the geometric probability optimization. Read More

We present a modular analysis program to estimate statistical errors and autocorrelation times for sequences of data by means of the {\Gamma}-method algorithm, with a particular focus on Monte Carlo simulations. After a brief review of this method, we describe the main features of the program, such as the input data handling and the plots management. The program is characterized by a user-friendly interface and an open source environment which, along with its modularity, make it a versatile tool. Read More

Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is an approach used by theoretical physicists to model the strong nuclear force. This works at the sub-nuclear scale to bind quarks together into hadrons including the proton and neutron. One of the long term goals in lattice QCD is to produce a phase diagram of QCD matter as thermodynamic control parameters temperature and baryon chemical potential are varied. Read More

Instanton-dyons are topological solitons -- solutions of Yang-Mills equations -- which appear at non-trivial expectation value of $A_0$ at nonzero temperatures. Using the ensembles of those, generated in our previous work, for 2-color and 2-flavor QCD, below and above the deconfinement-chiral phase transition, we study the correlations between them, as well as fluctuations of several global charges in the sub-volumes of the total volume. The determined correlation lengths are the finite-$T$ extension of hadronic masses, such as that of $\eta'$ meson. Read More

Quantum field theories with complex actions cannot be investigated using importance sampling due to the sign problem. One possible solution is to use the holomorphic gradient flow, a method we introduced related to the Lefschetz thimbles idea. In many cases the probability distribution generated by this method is multi-modal and standard Monte-Carlo sampling fails. Read More

We study the finite temperature (FT) phase transitions of two-dimensional (2D) $q$-states Potts models on the square lattice, using the first principles Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as well as the techniques of neural networks (NN). We demonstrate that the ideas from NN can be adopted to study these considered FT phase transitions efficiently. In particular, even with a simple NN constructed in this investigation, we are able to obtain the relevant information of the nature of these FT phase transitions, namely whether they are first order or second order. Read More