High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena Publications (50)

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High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena Publications

Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. Read More


We present the results of our radio interferometric observations of pulsars at 325 MHz and 610 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We used the imaging method to estimate the flux densities of several pulsars at these radio frequencies. The analysis of the shapes of the pulsar spectra allowed us to identify five new gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS) pulsars. Read More


Be/X-ray binaries are the most populous class of High Mass X-ray Binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through optical spectroscopical dedicated observations. We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Read More


The direct observation of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO offers novel opportunities to test general relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. One such opportunity is the measurement of gravitational-wave polarizations. While general relativity predicts only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories of gravity allow for up to four additional vector and scalar modes. Read More


There are at least two formation scenarios consistent with the first gravitational-wave observations of binary black hole mergers. In field models, black hole binaries are formed from stellar binaries that may undergo common envelope evolution. In dynamic models, black hole binaries are formed through capture events in globular clusters. Read More


We investigate the properties of magnetized stars in the propeller regime using axisymmetric numerical simulations. We modelled the propeller regime for stars with realistically large magnetospheres (5-7 stellar radii), so that our results could be applied to different types of magnetized stars, including Classical T Tauri stars, cataclysmic variables, and accreting millisecond pulsars. A wide range of propeller strengths has been studied, from very strong propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates much more rapidly than the inner disk) to very weak propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates only slightly faster than the inner disc. Read More


The repeating FRB 121102, the only FRB with an accurately determined position, is associated with a variable persistent radio source consistent with a low luminosity active galactic nucleus. I suggest that FRB originate in the accretion disc funnels of intermediate mass black holes. Narrowly collimated radiation is emitted along the wandering instantaneous angular momentum axis of accreted matter. Read More


After several decades of extensive research the mechanism driving core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) is still unclear. A common mechanism is a neutrino driven outflow, but others have been proposed. Among those, a long-standing idea is that jets play an important role in SN explosions. Read More


The wide-area XMM-XXL X-ray survey is used to explore the fraction of obscured AGN at high accretion luminosities, $L_X (\rm 2-10 \, keV) > 10^{44} \, erg \,s ^{-1}$, and out to redshift $z\approx1.5$. The sample covers an area of about $\rm14\,deg^2$ and provides constraints on the space density of powerful AGN over a wide range of neutral hydrogen column densities extending beyond the Compton-thick limit, $\rm N_H\approx10^{24}\,cm^{-2}$. Read More


Tight binaries of helium white dwarfs (He WDs) orbiting millisecond pulsars (MSPs) will eventually "merge" due to gravitational damping of the orbit. The outcome has been predicted to be the production of long-lived ultra-compact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), in which the WD transfers material to the accreting neutron star (NS). Here we present complete numerical computations, for the first time, of such stable mass transfer from a He WD to a NS. Read More


We study the thermalization, injection, and acceleration of ions with different mass/charge ratios, $A/Z$, in non-relativistic collisionless shocks via hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations. In general, ions thermalize to a post-shock temperature proportional to $A$. When diffusive shock acceleration is efficient, ions develop a non-thermal tail whose extent scales with $Z$ and whose normalization is enhanced as $(A/Z)^2$, so that incompletely-ionized heavy ions are preferentially accelerated. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, 2Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, 3Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, 4Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge

The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) -- off-nuclear extra-galactic sources with luminosity, assumed isotropic, $\gtrsim 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$ -- is still debated. One possibility is that ULXs are stellar black holes accreting beyond the Eddington limit. This view has been recently reinforced by the discovery of ultrafast outflows at $\sim 0. Read More


A possible hint of dark matter annihilation has been found in Cuoco, Korsmeier and Kr\"amer (2017) from an analysis of recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 and taking into account cosmic-ray propagation uncertainties by fitting at the same time dark matter and propagation parameters. Here, we extend this analysis to a wider class of annihilation channels. We find consistent hints of a dark matter signal with an annihilation cross-section close to the thermal value and with masses in range between 40 and 130 GeV depending on the annihilation channel. Read More


The discovery of radionuclides like 60Fe with half-lives of million years in deep-sea crusts and sediments offers the unique possibility to date and locate nearby supernovae. We want to quantitatively establish that the 60Fe enhancement is the result of several supernovae which are also responsible for the formation of the Local Bubble, our Galactic habitat. We performed three-dimensional hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations (with resolutions down to subparsec scale) of the Local Bubble and the neighbouring Loop I superbubble in different homogeneous, self-gravitating environments. Read More


Theoretical and observational evidences have been recently gained for a two-fold classification of short bursts: 1) short gamma-ray flashes (S-GRFs), with isotropic energy $E_{iso}<10^{52}$~erg and no black hole (BH) formation, and 2) the authentic short gamma-ray bursts (S-GRBs), with isotropic energy $E_{iso}>10^{52}$~erg evidencing a BH formation in the binary neutron star merging process. The signature for the BH formation consists in the on-set of the high energy ($0.1$--$100$~GeV) emission, coeval to the prompt emission, in all S-GRBs. Read More


SS~433 is an X-ray binary and the source of sub-relativistic, precessing, baryonic jets. We present high-resolution spectrograms of SS 433 in the infrared H and K bands. The spectrum is dominated by hydrogen and helium emission lines. Read More


We analyze three scenarios to address the challenge of ultrafast gamma-ray variability reported from active galactic nuclei. We focus on the energy requirements imposed by these scenarios: (i) external cloud in the jet, (ii) relativistic blob propagating through the jet material, and (iii) production of high energy gamma rays in the magnetosphere gaps. We show that while the first two scenarios are not constrained by the flare luminosity, there is a robust upper limit on the luminosity of flares generated in the black hole magnetosphere. Read More


As shown in an earlier paper, in an axially symmetric Szekeres model infinite blueshift can appear only on those rays that intersect the symmetry axis. It was also shown that with the Szekeres mass-dipole superposed on an L--T background any finite $z$ becomes closer to $-1$ and that null geodesics with $z \approx -1$ exist also in a nonsymmetric Szekeres model. Those Szekeres spacetimes were chosen for their simplicity. Read More


Recently, in a study the X-ray flaring activity of Sgr A* with Chandra and XMM-Newton public observations from 1999 to 2014 and 2014 Swift data, it has been argued that the "bright and very bright" flaring rate raised from 2014 Aug. 31. Thanks to 482ks of observations performed in 2015 with Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift, we test the significance of this rise of flaring rate and determine the threshold of unabsorbed flare flux or fluence leading to any flaring-rate change. Read More


Fast radio bursts, or FRBs, are transient sources of unknown origin. Recent radio and optical observations have provided strong evidence for an extragalactic origin of the phenomenon and the precise localization of the repeating FRB 121102. Observations using the Karl G. Read More


We compile a sample of spectral energy distribution (SED) of 12 GeV radio galaxies (RGs), including eight FR I RGs and four FR II RGs. These SEDs can be represented with the one-zone leptonic model. No significant unification as expected in the unification model is found for the derived jet parameters between FR I RGs and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and between FR II RGs and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Read More


Recurrence networks and the associated statistical measures have become important tools in the analysis of time series data. In this work, we test how effective the recurrence network measures are in analyzing real world data involving two main types of noise, white noise and colored noise. We use two prominent network measures as discriminating statistic for hypothesis testing using surrogate data for a specific null hypothesis that the data is derived from a linear stochastic process. Read More


The low-lying energy levels of proton-rich $^{56}$Cu have been extracted using in-beam $\gamma$-ray spectroscopy with the state-of-the-art $\gamma$-ray tracking array GRETINA in conjunction with the S800 spectrograph at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. Excited states in $^{56}$Cu serve as resonances in the $^{55}$Ni(p,$\gamma$)$^{56}$Cu reaction, which is a part of the rp-process in type I x-ray bursts. To resolve existing ambiguities in the reaction Q-value, a more localized IMME mass fit is used resulting in $Q=639\pm82$~keV. Read More


We calculate the electromagnetic signal of a gamma-ray flare coming from the surface of a neutron star shortly before merger with a black hole companion. Using a new version of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code Pandurata that incorporates dynamic spacetimes, we integrate photon geodesics from the neutron star surface until they reach a distant observer or are captured by the black hole. The gamma-ray light curve is modulated by a number of relativistic effects, including Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing. Read More


Starting from the semi-analytic construction of a equation of state (EoS) which takes into account nuclear and quark matter at finite temperature, we study the possibility that proto-neutron stars, be proto-hybrid stars whose cores are composed of quark matter. We obtain the mass-radius relationship and discuss the latest constraints on masses and radii of neutron stars, considering the pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348 + 0432. Read More


We study the possibility of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of neutron stars, taking into account different schematic evolutionary stages at finite temperature. Furthermore, we analyze the astrophysical properties of hot and cold hybrid stars, considering the constraint on maximum mass given by the pulsars J1614-2230 and J1614-2230. We obtain cold hybrid stars with maximum masses $\geq 2$ M$_{\odot}$. Read More


Timing properties of black hole X-ray binaries in outburst can be modeled with mass accretion rate fluctuations propagating towards the black hole. Such models predict time lags between energy bands due to propagation delays. First application of a propagating fluctuations model to black hole power spectra showed good agreement with the data. Read More


This letter complements a formation scenario of the progenitor of the supernova iPTF13bvn proposed in Hirai (2017). Although the scenario was successful in reproducing various observational features of the explosion and pre-explosion photometry by assuming that the progenitor had a relatively large black hole companion, it lacked an explanation for the origin of the black hole itself. We now explore the possible evolutionary paths towards this binary with a relatively large black hole companion. Read More


Context. About 120 Be/X-ray binaries (BeXBs) are known in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC); about half of them are pulsating with periods from a few to hundreds of seconds. SXP 1323 is one of the longest-period pulsars known in this galaxy. Read More


Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here we combine those tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Far\`ese (DEF), which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs). First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOS) for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Read More


The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). Read More


2017Apr
Authors: A. U. Abeysekara, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. D. Álvarez, R. Arceo, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, D. Avila Rojas, H. A. Ayala Solares, A. S. Barber, N. Bautista-Elivar, J. Becerra Gonzalez, A. Becerril, E. Belmont-Moreno, S. Y. BenZvi, A. Bernal, J. Braun, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, T. Capistrán, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, M. Castillo, U. Cotti, J. Cotzomi, S. Coutiño de León, E. De la Fuente, C. De León, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, R. W. Ellsworth, K. Engel, D. W. Fiorino, N. Fraija, J. A. García-González, F. Garfias, M. Gerhardt, M. M. González, A. González Muñoz, J. A. Goodman, Z. Hampel-Arias, J. P. Harding, S. Hernandez, A. Hernandez-Almada, B. Hona, C. M. Hui, P. Hüntemeyer, A. Iriarte, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, S. Kaufmann, D. Kieda, R. J. Lauer, W. H. Lee, D. Lennarz, H. León Vargas, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, D. López-Cámara, R. López-Coto, G. Luis Raya, R. Luna-García, K. Malone, S. S. Marinelli, O. Martinez, I. Martinez-Castellanos, J. Martínez-Castro, H. Martínez-Huerta, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, M. Mostafá, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, R. Pelayo, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, J. Pretz, Z. Ren, C. D. Rho, C. Rivière, D. Rosa-González, M. Rosenberg, E. Ruiz-Velasco, H. Salazar, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, M. Schneider, H. Schoorlemmer, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, R. W. Springer, P. Surajbali, I. Taboada, O. Tibolla, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, T. N. Ukwatta, G. Vianello, T. Weisgarber, S. Westerhoff, I. G. Wisher, J. Wood, T. Yapici, P. W. Younk, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou

We present the development of a real-time flare monitor for the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory. The flare monitor has been fully operational since 2017 January and is designed to detect very high energy (VHE; $E\gtrsim100$ GeV) transient events from blazars on time scales lasting from 2 minutes to 10 hours in order to facilitate multiwavelength and multimessenger studies. These flares provide information for investigations into the mechanisms that power the blazars' relativistic jets and accelerate particles within them, and they may also serve as probes of the populations of particles and fields in intergalactic space. Read More


We report the results of three Chandra observations covering most of the extent of the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1616-508 and a search for a lower energy counterpart to this source. We detect 56 X-ray sources, of which 37 have counterparts at lower frequencies, including a young massive star cluster, but none of them appears to be a particularly promising counterpart to the TeV source. The brightest X-ray source, CXOU J161423. Read More


Considering gravitational waves propagating on the most general 4+N-dimensional space-time, we investigate the effects due to the N extra dimensions on the four-dimensional waves. All wave equations are derived in general and discussed. On Minkowski4 times an arbitrary Ricci-flat compact manifold, we find: a massless wave with an additional polarization, the breathing mode, and extra waves with high frequencies fixed by Kaluza-Klein masses. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1YITP, Kyoto;, 2YITP, Kyoto;, 3DAMTP, Cambridge;, 4TAPIR, Caltech;, 5NCSA, Illinois, 6TAPIR, Caltech;, 7YITP, Kyoto;

We present results from a controlled numerical experiment investigating the effect of stellar density gas on the coalescence of binary black holes (BBHs) and the resulting gravitational waves (GWs). This investigation is motivated by the proposed stellar core fragmentation scenario for BBH formation and the associated possibility of an electromagnetic counterpart to a BBH GW event. We employ full numerical relativity coupled with general-relativistic hydrodynamics and set up a $30 + 30 M_\odot$ BBH (motivated by GW150914) inside gas with realistic stellar densities. Read More


PBC J2333.9-2343 is a giant radio galaxy which shows different characteristics at different wavebands that are difficult to explain within the actual generic schemes of unification of active galactic nuclei (AGN), thus being a good candidate to host different phases of nuclear activity. We aim at disentangling the nature of this AGN by using simultaneous multiwavelength data. Read More


Gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers provide a new probe of massive-star evolution and the formation channels of binary compact objects. By coupling the growing sample of binary black hole systems with realistic population synthesis models, we can begin to constrain the parameters of such models and glean unprecedented knowledge of the inherent physical processes that underpin binary stellar evolution. In this study, we apply a hierarchical Bayesian model on mass measurements from a synthetic gravitational-wave sample to constrain the physical prescriptions in population models and the relative fractions of systems generated from various channels. Read More


Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter (CCDM) paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead to formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties, and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. Read More


The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) aims at the detection of air showers induced by high-energy cosmic rays. As an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, it measures complementary information to the particle detectors, fluorescence telescopes and to the muon scintillators of the Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA). AERA is sensitive to all fundamental parameters of an extensive air shower such as the arrival direction, energy and depth of shower maximum. Read More


Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most violent explosions in the universe, seen primarily as bright, short flashes of gamma-rays. Long GRBs are most likely associated with the violent death of a very massive star. They are thus believed to originate within regions of recent or ongoing star formation with various bright, young stars, for instance, OB associations. Read More


We present a measurement of the cosmic-ray electron+positron spectrum between 7 GeV and 2 TeV performed with almost seven years of data collected with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We find that the spectrum is well fit by a broken power law with a break energy at about 50 GeV. Above 50 GeV, the spectrum is well described by a single power law with a spectral index of $3. Read More


Recently the possibility of detecting echoes of ringdown gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers was shown. The presence of echoes is expected if the black hole is surrounded by a mirror that reflects gravitational waves near the horizon. Here, we present a little more sophisticated templates motivated by a waveform which is obtained by solving the linear perturbation equation around a Kerr black hole with a complete reflecting boundary condition. Read More


We calculate moment of inertia of neutron star with different exotic constituents such as hyperons and (anti)kaon condensates and study its variation with mass and spin frequency. The sets of equation of state, generated within the framework of relativistic mean field model with density-dependent couplings are adopted for the purpose. We follow the quasi-stationary evolution of rotating stars along the constant rest mass sequences, that varies considerably with different constituents in the equation of state. Read More


We review the experimental evidences about flux and mass composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays in connection with theoretical scenarios concerning astrophysical sources. In this context, we also address the discussion about the expected transition between cosmic rays produced inside the Galaxy and those coming from the intergalactic space. Read More


Studies were made of the 1-70 keV persistent spectra of fifteen magnetars as a complete sample observed with Suzaku from 2006 to 2013. Combined with early NuSTAR observations of four hard X-ray emitters, nine objects showed a hard power-law emission dominating at $\gtrsim$10 keV with the 15--60 keV flux of $\sim$1-$11\times 10^{-11}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. The hard X-ray luminosity $L_{\rm h}$, relative to that of a soft-thermal surface radiation $L_{\rm s}$, tends to become higher toward younger and strongly magnetized objects. Read More


We aim to explain in a unified way the experimental data on ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and neutrinos, using a single source class and obeying limits on the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB). If UHECRs only interact hadronically with gas around their sources, the resulting diffuse CR flux can be matched well to the observed one, providing at the same time large neutrino fluxes. However, air showers in the Earth's atmosphere induced by UHECRs with energies $E>3\times 10^{18}$ eV would reach in such a case their maxima too high. Read More


In the Ellis wormhole (WH) metrics the motion of a particle along curved rotating channels is studied. By taking into account a prescribed shape of a trajectory we derive the reduced $1+1$ metrics, obtain the corresponding Langrangian of a free particle and analytically and numerically solve the corresponding equations of motion. We have shown that if the channels are twisted and lag behind rotation, under certain conditions beads might asymptotically reach infinity, leaving the WH, which is not possible for straight co-rotating trajectories. Read More


Multiple cosmological observations indicate that dark matter (DM) constitutes 85% of all matter in the Universe [1]. All the current evidence for DM comes from galactic or larger scale observations through the gravitational pull of DM on ordinary matter [1], leaving the microscopic nature of DM a mystery. Ambitious programs in particle physics have mostly focused on searches for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) as DM candidates [2]. Read More


The broadband emission of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) is well described by non-thermal emissions from accelerated electrons and positrons. However, the standard shock acceleration model of PWNe does not account for the hard spectrum in radio wavelengths. The origin of the radio-emitting particles is also important to determine the pair production efficiency in the pulsar magnetosphere. Read More