Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics Publications (50)

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Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics Publications

Although the cusp-core controversy for dwarf galaxies is seen as a problem, I argue that the cored central profiles can be explained by flattened cusps because they suffer from conflicting measurements and poor statistics and because there is a large number of conventional processes that could have flattened them since their creation, none of which requires new physics. Other problems, such as "too big to fail", are not discussed. Read More


We study the role of field redefinitions in general scalar-tensor theories. In particular, we first focus on the class of field redefinitions linear in the spin-2 field and involving derivatives of the spin-0 mode, generically known as disformal transformations. We start by defining the action of a disformal transformation in the tangent space. Read More


According to the dS/CFT correspondence, correlators of fields generated during a primordial de Sitter phase are constrained by three-dimensional conformal invariance. Using the properties of radially quantized conformal field theories and the operator-state correspondence, we glean information on some points. The Higuchi bound on the masses of spin-s states in de Sitter is a direct consequence of reflection positivity in radially quantized CFT$_3$ and the fact that scaling dimensions of operators are energies of states. Read More


We study the expected variance of measurements of the Hubble constant, $H_0$, as calculated in either linear perturbation theory or using non-linear velocity power spectra derived from $N$-body simulations. We compare the variance with that obtained by carrying out mock observations in the N-body simulations, and show that the estimator typically used for the local Hubble constant in studies based on perturbation theory is different from the one used in studies based on N-body simulations. The latter gives larger weight to distant sources, which explains why studies based on N-body simulations tend to obtain a smaller variance than that found from studies based on the power spectrum. Read More


The effect of baryons on the matter power spectrum is likely to have an observable effect for future galaxy surveys, like Euclid or LSST. As a first step towards a fully predictive theory, we investigate the effect of non-radiative hydrodynamics on the structure of galaxy groups sized halos, which contribute the most to the weak lensing power spectrum. We perform high resolution (more than one million particles per halo and one kilo-parsec resolution) non-radiative hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations of a sample of 16 halos, comparing the profiles to popular analytical models. Read More


We report the $4 \, \sigma$ detection of a faint object with a flux of ~ 0.3 mJy, in the vicinity of the quadruply lensed QSO MG0414+0534 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) Band 7. The object is most probably a dusty dark dwarf galaxy, which has not been detected in either the optical, near-infrared (NIR) or radio (cm) bands. Read More


A brief review of supersymmetric models and their candidates for dark matter is carried out. The neutralino is a WIMP candidate in the MSSM where $R$-parity is conserved, but this model has the $\mu$ problem. There are natural solutions to this problem that necessarily introduce new structure beyond the MSSM, including new candidates for dark matter. Read More


We present the results of a systematic search for Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at $6 \lesssim z \lesssim 7.6$ using the HST WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey. Our total volume over this redshift range is $\sim 8 \times10^5$ Mpc$^3$, comparable to many of the narrowband surveys despite their larger area coverage. Read More


Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful test of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) as it enables the detection and mass measurement of low mass haloes even if they do not contain baryons. Compact lensed sources such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are particularly sensitive to perturbing subhalos, but their use as a test of CDM has been limited by the small number of systems which have significant radio emission. Radio emission is extended enough avoid significant lensing by stars in the plane of the lens galaxy, and red enough to be minimally affected by differential dust extinction. Read More


Optical and near-infrared photometry, optical spectroscopy, and soft X-ray and UV monitoring of the changing look active galactic nucleus NGC 2617 show that it continues to have the appearance of a type-1 Seyfert galaxy. An optical light curve for 2010--2016 indicates that the change of type probably occurred between October 2010 and February 2012 and was not related to the brightening in 2013. In 2016 NGC 2617 brightened again to a level of activity close to that of April 2013. Read More


The possible slowing down of cosmic acceleration was widely studied. However, the imposition of dark energy parametrization brought some tensions. In our recent paper, we test this possibility using a model-independent method, Gaussian processes. Read More


Mergers of galaxies are thought to cause significant gas inflows to the inner parsecs, which can activate rapid accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), giving rise to Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). During a significant fraction of this process, SMBHs are predicted to be enshrouded by gas and dust. Studying 52 galactic nuclei in infrared-selected local Luminous and Ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages in the hard X-ray band, where radiation is less affected by absorption, we find that the amount of material around SMBHs increases during the last phases of the merger. Read More


We propose a simple analytic model to understand when star formation is time-steady versus bursty on short (<~10 Myr) time scales in galaxies. Recent models explain the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between star formation rate and gas surface densities in galaxies as resulting from a balance between stellar feedback and gravity. We argue that bursty star formation occurs when such an equilibrium cannot be stably sustained, and identify two regimes in which galaxy-scale star formation should be bursty: i) at high redshift (z>~1) for galaxies of all masses, and ii) at low masses (depending on gas fraction) for galaxies at any redshift. Read More


We study formation of stellar mass binary black holes (BBHs) originating from Population III (PopIII) stars, performing stellar evolution simulations for PopIII binaries with MESA. We find that a significant fraction of PopIII binaries form massive BBHs through stable mass transfer between two stars in a binary, without experiencing common envelope phases. We investigate necessary conditions required for PopIII binaries to form BBHs coalescing within the Hubble time with a semi-analytical model calibrated by the stellar evolution simulations. Read More


The phase transition responsible for axion dark matter production can create large amplitude isocurvature perturbations which collapse into dense objects known as axion miniclusters. We use microlensing data from the EROS survey, and from recent observations with the Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam to place constraints on the minicluster scenario. We compute the microlensing event rate for miniclusters treating them as spatially extended objects with an extended mass function. Read More


With the first two detections in late 2015, astrophysics has officially entered into the new era of gravitational wave observations. Since then, much has been going on in the field with a lot of work focussing on the observations and implications for astrophysics and tests of general relativity in the strong regime. However much less is understood about how gravitational detectors really work at their fundamental level. Read More


Motivated by tension between the predictions of ordinary cold dark matter (CDM) and observations at galactic scales, ultralight axionlike particles (ULALPs) with mass of the order $10^{-22}~{\rm eV}$ have been proposed as an alternative CDM candidate. We consider cold and collisionless ULALPs produced in the early universe by the vacuum realignment mechanism and constituting most of CDM. The ULALP fluid is commonly described by classical field equations. Read More


Broad emission-line outflows of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been proposed for many years but are very difficult to quantitatively study because of the coexistence of the gravitationally-bound and outflow emission. We present detailed analysis of a heavily reddened quasar, SDSS J000610.67+121501. Read More


Subject of this article is the relationship between modern cosmology and fundamental physics, in particular general relativity as a theory of gravity on one side, together with its unique application in cosmology, and the formation of structures and their statistics on the other. It summarises arguments for the formulation for a metric theory of gravity and the uniqueness of the construction of general relativity. It discusses symmetry arguments in the construction of Friedmann-Lema\^itre cosmologies as well as assumptions in relation to the presence of dark matter, when adopting general relativity as the gravitational theory. Read More


We present an analysis of the pairwise velocity statistics from a suite of cosmological N-body simulations describing the "Running Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker" (R-FLRW) cosmological model. This model is based on quantum field theory in a curved space-time and extends {\Lambda}CDM with a time-evolving vacuum energy density. To enforce local conservation of matter a time-evolving gravitational coupling is also included. Read More


We introduce CRASH-AMR, a new version of the cosmological Radiative Transfer (RT) code CRASH, enabled to use refined grids. This new feature allows us to attain higher resolution in our RT simulations and thus to describe more accurately ionisation and temperature patterns in high density regions. We have tested CRASH-AMR by simulating the evolution of an ionised region produced by a single source embedded in gas at constant density, as well as by a more realistic configuration of multiple sources in an inhomogeneous density field. Read More


2017Jan
Affiliations: 1Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 2Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 3Korea Institute for Advanced Study

We use the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N -body simulation to study the effects of distant and close interactions on the alignments of the shapes, spins, and orbits of targets haloes with their neighbours, and their dependence on the local density environment and neighbour separation. Interacting targets have a significantly lower spin and higher sphericity and oblateness than all targets. Interacting pairs initially have anti-parallel spins, but the spins develop parallel alignment as time goes on. Read More


The forecasted accuracy of upcoming surveys of large-scale structure cannot be achieved without a proper quantification of the error induced by foreground removal (or other systematics like 0-point photometry offset). Because these errors are highly correlated on the sky, their influence is expected to be especially important at very large scales. In this work we quantify how the uncertainty in the visibility mask of a survey influences the measured power spectrum of a sample of tracers of the density field and its covariance matrix. Read More


Simulations of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) predict that dark matter should lag behind galaxies during a collision. If the interaction is mediated by a high-mass force carrier, the distribution of dark matter can also develop asymmetric dark matter tails. To search for this asymmetry, we compute the gravitational lensing properties of a mass distribution with a free skewness parameter. Read More


We explore for the first time the effect of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the dark matter (DM) and baryonic distribution in massive galaxies formed in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, including explicit baryonic physics treatment. A novel implementation of Super-Massive Black Hole (SMBH) formation and evolution is used, as in Tremmel et al.(2015, 2016), allowing to explicitly follow SMBH dynamics at the center of galaxies. Read More


We present here predictions for the spatial distribution of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations from high-dynamic-range simulations for AGN-dominated reionization histories that have been tested against available Lyman-alpha and CMB data. We model AGN by extrapolating the observed M-sigma relation to high redshifts and assign them ionizing emissivities consistent with recent UV luminosity function measurements. We assess the observability of the predicted spatial 21 cm fluctuations by ongoing and upcoming experiments in the late stages of reionization in the limit in which the hydrogen 21 cm spin temperature is significantly larger than the CMB temperature. Read More


We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg$^2$ patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the $\textit{Herschel}$ $500\,\mu m$ map of the CIB. Read More


We argue that $isotropic$ scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by $\zeta$ and $\mathcal R$, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. Read More


A fourth-order theory of gravity is considered which in terms of dynamics has the same degrees of freedom and number of constraints as those of scalar-tensor theories. In addition it admits a canonical point-like Lagrangian description. We study the critical points of the theory and we show that it can describe the matter epoch of the universe and that two accelerated phases can be recovered one of which describes a de Sitter universe. Read More


Based on the Effective Field Theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations, we revisit the nonsingular cosmologices, without using the integral inequality. We clarify the pathology in nonsingular cubic Galileon models and show how to cure it in EFT with new insights into this issue. With a new application of $R^{(3)}\delta g^{00}$ operator, we build a model with a Genesis phase followed by slow-roll inflation. Read More


The recently proposed coupled scalar tachyon bounce (CSTB) model is a bounce universe model based on Type IIB string theory. We investigate the dynamics of fluctuations across the bounce point and check whether the scale invariance of the spectrum of the primordial density perturbations generated during the phase of matter-dominated contraction is preserved by the bounce. To this end we utilize the AdS/CFT correspondence: we map the fluctuations onto the boundary before the onset of the strongly coupled gravitational interactions in the bulk. Read More


To explain the unusual richness and compactness of the Abell 2744, we propose a hypothesis that it may be a rich supercluster aligned along the sightline, and present a supporting evidence obtained numerically from the MultiDark Planck 2 simulations with a linear box size of $1\,h^{-1}$Gpc. Applying the friends-of-friends (FoF) algorithm with a linkage length of $0.33$ to a sample of the cluster-size halos from the simulations, we identify the superclusters and investigate how many superclusters have filamentary branches that would appear to be similar to the Abell 2744 if the filamentary axis is aligned with the sightline. Read More


A revolution in galaxy cluster science is only a few years away. The survey machines eROSITA and Euclid will provide cluster samples of never-before-seen statistical quality. XMM-Newton will be the key instrument to exploit these rich datasets in terms of detailed follow-up of the cluster hot gas content, systematically characterizing sub-samples as well as exotic new objects. Read More


Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory predicts the abundances of the light elements D, $^3$He, $^4$He and $^7$Li produced in the early universe. The primordial abundances of D and $^4$He inferred from observational data are in good agreement with predictions, however, the BBN theory overestimates the primordial $^7$Li abundance by about a factor of three. This is the so-called "cosmological lithium problem". Read More


We develop a general framework for the open dynamics of an ensemble of quantum particles subject to spacetime fluctuations about the flat background. An arbitrary number of interacting bosonic and fermionic particles are considered. A systematic approach to the generation of gravitational waves in the quantum domain is presented that recovers known classical limits in terms of the quadrupole radiation formula and back-reaction dissipation. Read More


To investigate the relationship between thermal and non-thermal components in merger galaxy clusters, we present deep JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The Chandra image shows a complex merger event, with at least four components belonging to different merging subclusters. Read More


Consistency relations of large-scale structures provide exact nonperturbative results for cross-correlations of cosmic fields in the squeezed limit. They only depend on the equivalence principle and the assumption of Gaussian initial conditions, and remain nonzero at equal times for cross-correlations of density fields with velocity or momentum fields, or with the time derivative of density fields. We show how to apply these relations to observational probes that involve the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect or the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Read More


The hypothesis is made that, at large scales where General Relativity may be applied, the empty space is scale invariant. This establishes a relation between the cosmological constant and the scale factor of the scale invariant framework. This relation brings major simplifications in the scale invariant equations for cosmology, which now contain a new term, depending on the derivative of the scale factor, that opposes to gravity and produces an accelerated expansion. Read More


This paper derives an upper limit on the density $\rho_{\scriptstyle\Lambda}$ of dark energy based on the requirement that cosmological structure forms before being frozen out by the eventual acceleration of the universe. By allowing for variations in both the cosmological parameters and the strength of gravity, the resulting constraint is a generalization of previous limits. The specific parameters under consideration include the amplitude $Q$ of the primordial density fluctuations, the Planck mass $M_{\rm pl}$, the baryon-to-photon ratio $\eta$, and the density ratio $\Omega_M/\Omega_b$. Read More


We present the combined Chandra and Swift-BAT spectral analysis of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from the Swift-BAT 100-month catalog. We selected nearby (z<=0.03) sources lacking of a ROSAT counterpart and never previously observed with Chandra in the 0. Read More


So far, direct detection searches have come empty handed in their quest for Dark Matter (DM). Meanwhile, asteroseismology arises as a complementary tool to study DM, as its accumulation in a star can enhance energy transport, by providing a conduction mechanism, producing significant changes in the stellar structure during the course of the star's evolution. The stellar core, particularly affected by the presence of DM, can be investigated through precise asteroseismic diagnostics. Read More


The high quality data provided by helioseismology, solar neutrino flux measurements, spectral determination of solar abundances, nuclear reactions rates coefficients among other experimental data, leads to the highly accurate prediction of the internal structure of the present Sun - the standard solar model. In this talk, I have discussed how the standard solar model, the best representation of the real Sun, can be used to study the properties of dark matter, for which two complementary approaches have been developed: - to limit the number of theoretical candidates proposed as the dark matter particles, this analysis complements the experimental search of dark matter, and - as a template for the study of the impact of dark matter in the evolution of stars, which possibly occurs for stellar populations formed in regions of high density of dark matter, such as stars formed in the centre of galaxies and the first generations of stars. Read More


We consider gauge invariant cosmological perturbations in UV-modified, z=3 Horava gravity with one scalar matter field, which has been proposed as a renormalizable gravity theory without the ghost problem in four dimensions. In order to exhibit its dynamical degrees of freedom, we consider the Hamiltonian reduction method and find that, by solving "all" the constraint equations, the degrees of freedom are the same as those of Einstein gravity: One scalar and two tensor (graviton) modes when a scalar matter field presents. However, we confirm that there is no extra graviton modes and general relativity is recovered in IR, which achieves the consistency of the model. Read More


We present a low-frequency view of the Perseus cluster with new observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 230-470 MHz. The data reveal a multitude of new structures associated with the mini-halo. Read More


Reliable extraction of cosmological information from clustering measurements of galaxy surveys requires estimation of the error covariance matrices of observables. The accuracy of covariance matrices is limited by our ability to generate sufficiently large number of independent mock catalogs that can describe the physics of galaxy clustering across a wide range of scales. Furthermore, galaxy mock catalogs are required to study systematics in galaxy surveys and to test analysis tools. Read More


We present the detection of four far-infrared fine-structure oxygen lines, as well as strong upper limits for the CO(2-1) and [N II] 205 um lines, in 3C 368, a well-studied radio-loud galaxy at z = 1.131. These new oxygen lines, taken in conjunction with previously observed neon and carbon fine-structure lines, suggest a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN), accompanied by vigorous and extended star formation. Read More


Spectral absorption features can be used to constrain the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in the integrated light of galaxies. Spectral indices used at low redshift are in the far red, and therefore increasingly hard to detect at higher and higher redshifts as they pass out of atmospheric transmission and CCD detector wavelength windows. We employ IMF-sensitive indices at bluer wavelengths. Read More


The fine details of the large-scale structure in the local universe provide important empirical benchmarks for testing cosmological models of structure formation. Dwarf galaxies are key object for such studies. Enlarge the sample of known dwarf galaxies in the local universe. Read More


The statistical distribution of galaxies is a powerful probe to constrain cosmological models and gravity. In particular the matter power spectrum $P(k)$ brings information about the cosmological distance evolution and the galaxy clustering together. However the building of $P(k)$ from galaxy catalogues needs a cosmological model to convert angles on the sky and redshifts into distances, which leads to difficulties when comparing data with predicted $P(k)$ from other cosmological models, and for photometric surveys like LSST. Read More