Computer Science - Software Engineering Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Software Engineering Publications

Build systems are an essential part of modern software engineering projects. As software projects change continuously, it is crucial to understand how the build system changes because neglecting its maintenance can lead to expensive build breakage. Recent studies have investigated the (co-)evolution of build configurations and reasons for build breakage, but they did this only on a coarse grained level. Read More


Requirements engineering (RE) is considerably different in agile development than in more traditional development processes. Yet, there is little empirical knowledge on the state of the practice and contemporary problems in agile RE. As part of a bigger survey initiative (Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineering), we build an empirical basis on such aspects of agile RE. Read More


Concurrent software for engineering computations consists of multiple cooperating modules. The behavior of individual modules is described by means on state diagrams. In the paper, the constraints on state diagrams are proposed, allowing for the specification of designer's intentions as to the synchronization of modules. Read More


Software libraries implement APIs that deliver reusable functionalities. To correctly use these functionalities, software applications must satisfy certain correctness policies, for instance policies about the order some API methods can be invoked and about the values that can be used for the parameters. If these policies are violated, applications may produce misbehaviors and failures at runtime. Read More


Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic, 2Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 3Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 4Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

A key challenge in System of Systems (SoS) engineering is the analysis and maintenance of global properties under SoS evolution, and the integration of new constituent elements. There is a need to model the constituent systems composing a SoS in order to allow the analysis of emergent behaviours at the SoS boundary. The Contract pattern allows the engineer to specify constrained behaviours to which constituent systems are required to conform in order to be a part of the SoS. Read More


Reconfiguration paths express sequences of successive reconfiguration operations within a component-based approach allowing dynamic reconfigurations. We use constructs from regular expressions-pin particular, alternatives-to introduce multiple reconfiguration paths. We show how to put into action procedures allowing architectural, event, and temporal properties to be proved. Read More


2017Mar

Testing networked systems is challenging. The client or server side cannot be tested by itself. We present a solution using tool "Modbat" that generates test cases for Java's network library java. Read More


Statecharts are frequently used as a modeling formalism in the design of state-based systems. Formal verification techniques are also often applied to prove certain properties about the behavior of the system. One of the most efficient techniques for formal verification is Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR), which reduces the complexity of systems by automatically building and refining abstractions. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Technical University of Munich, 2Technical University of Munich

Architecture patterns capture architectural design experience and provide abstract solutions to recurring architectural design problems. They consist of a description of component types and restrict component connection and activation. Therefore, they guarantee some desired properties for architectures employing the pattern. Read More


Context: Continuous practices, i.e., continuous integration, delivery, and deployment, are the software development industry practices that enable organizations to frequently and reliably release new features and products. Read More


In dynamic architectures, component activation and connections between components may vary over time. With the emergence of mobile computing such architectures became increasingly important and several techniques emerged to support in their specification. These techniques usually allow for the specification of concrete architecture instances. Read More


Agile development processes and especially Scrum are changing the state of the practice in software development. Many companies in the classical IT sector have adopted them to successfully tackle various challenges from the rapidly changing environments and increasingly complex software systems. Companies developing software for embedded or cyber-physical systems, however, are still hesitant to adopt such processes. Read More


These are the proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA). The workshop was held on April 22, 2017 in Uppsala (Sweden) as a satellite event to the European Joint Conference on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS'17). The aim of the FESCA workshop is to bring together junior researchers from formal methods, software engineering, and industry interested in the development and application of formal modelling approaches as well as associated analysis and reasoning techniques with practical benefits for software engineering. Read More


Model-based verification allows to express behavioral correctness conditions like the validity of execution states, boundaries of variables or timing at a high level of abstraction and affirm that they are satisfied by a software system. However, this requires expressive models which are difficult and cumbersome to create and maintain by hand. This paper presents a framework that automatically derives behavioral models from real-sized Java programs. Read More


This paper contains two parts: the description of a real electrical system, with many redundancies, reconfigurations and repairs, then the description of a reliability model of this system, based on the BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) formalism and partial results of a reliability and availability calculation made from this model. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Halmstad University, Sweden, 2Quviq AB, Sweden, 3Chalmers University of Technology and Quviq AB, Sweden

We demonstrate a specific method and technology for model-based testing of large software projects with the QuickCheck tool using property-based specifications. Our specifications are very precise, state-full models of the software under test (SUT). In our approach we define (a) formal descriptions of valid function call sequences (public API), (b) postconditions that check the validity of each call, and (c) call-out specifications that define and validate external system interactions (SUT calling external API). Read More


We present a term rewrite system that formally models the Message Authenticator Algorithm (MAA), which was one of the first cryptographic functions for computing a Message Authentication Code and was adopted, between 1987 and 2001, in international standards (ISO 8730 and ISO 8731-2) to ensure the authenticity and integrity of banking transactions. Our term rewrite system is large (13 sorts, 18 constructors, 644 non-constructors, and 684 rewrite rules), confluent, and terminating. Implementations in thirteen different languages have been automatically derived from this model and used to validate 200 official test vectors for the MAA. Read More


Correct and efficient initialization of wireless sensor networks can be challenging in the face of many uncertainties present in ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper we examine an implementation for the formation of a cluster-tree topology in a network which operates on top of the TSCH MAC operation mode of the IEEE 802.15. Read More


This paper considers on a network routing protocol known as Better Approach to Mobile Ad hoc Networks (B.A.T. Read More


The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a Transport Layer protocol that has been proposed as an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for the Internet of Things (IoT). SCTP, with its four-way handshake mechanism, claims to protect the Server from a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack by ensuring the legitimacy of the Client, which has been a known issue pertaining to the three-way handshake of TCP. This paper compares the handshakes of TCP and SCTP to discuss its shortcomings and strengths. Read More


Template-based code generation (TBCG) is a synthesis technique that produces code from high-level specifications, called templates. TBCG is a popular technique in model-driven engineering (MDE) given that they both emphasize abstraction and automation. Given the diversity of tools and approaches, it is necessary to classify existing TBCG techniques to better guide developers in their choices. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1University of York, UK, 2University of York, UK, 3University of York, UK, 4Linnaeus University, Sweden, 5University of York, UK, 6Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium

Building on concepts drawn from control theory, self-adaptive software handles environmental and internal uncertainties by dynamically adjusting its architecture and parameters in response to events such as workload changes and component failures. Self-adaptive software is increasingly expected to meet strict functional and non-functional requirements in applications from areas as diverse as manufacturing, healthcare and finance. To address this need, we introduce a methodology for the systematic ENgineering of TRUstworthy Self-adaptive sofTware (ENTRUST). Read More


The same defect can be rediscovered by multiple clients, causing unplanned outages and leading to reduced customer satisfaction. In the case of popular open source software, high volume of defects is reported on a regular basis. A large number of these reports are actually duplicates / rediscoveries of each other. Read More


Background: Defect prediction in software can be highly beneficial for development projects, when prediction is highly effective and defect-prone areas are predicted correctly. One of the key elements to gain effective software defect prediction is proper selection of metrics used for dataset preparation. Objective: The purpose of this research is to verify, whether code smells metrics, collected using Microsoft CodeAnalysis tool, added to basic metric set, can improve defect prediction in industrial software development project. Read More


In this paper, we describe our experience implementing some of classic software engineering metrics using Boa - a large-scale software repository mining platform - and its dedicated language. We also aim to take an advantage of the Boa infrastructure to propose new software metrics and to characterize open source projects by software metrics to provide reference values of software metrics based on large number of open source projects. Presented software metrics, well known and proposed in this paper, can be used to build large-scale software defect prediction models. Read More


Transfer learning has been the subject of much recent research. In practice, that research means that the models are unstable since they are continually revised whenever new data arrives. This paper offers a very simple "bellwether" transfer learner. Read More


Process discovery techniques return process models that are either formal (precisely describing the possible behaviors) or informal (merely a "picture" not allowing for any form of formal reasoning). Formal models are able to classify traces (i.e. Read More


Notwithstanding several authors have recognised the conceptual key of "politics" as an important component in any Require-ments Engineering (RE) process, practitioners still lack a prag-matic answer on how to deal with the political dimension: such an ability has become a mostly desirable but totally undetailed part of what we usually and vaguely refer to as "professional experience". Nor were practitioners given any suitable tool or method to easily detect, represent, control and if possible leverage politics. Authors argue that this issue could be successfully ad-dressed and resolved if, when we map organisations against the system to be developed, we include power and politics in their "too human" and even emotional dimension. Read More


Traceroute is the main tools to explore Internet path. It provides limited information about each node along the path. However, Traceroute cannot go further in statistics analysis, or \emph{Man-Machine Interface (MMI)}. Read More


Traffic Light Controller, a typical benchmark device, is specified and verified using of a formal model called Concurrent State Machines (CSM) and the software environment COSMA 2.0, which supports the system level specification and analysis of concurrent, asynchronous and communicating units. The TLC itself is a system of three concurrent components (the controller and two timers). Read More


The case study analyzed in the paper illustrates the example of model checking in the COSMA environment. The system itself is a three-stage pipeline consisting of mutually concurrent modules which also compete for a shared resource. System components are specified in terms of Concurrent State Machines (CSM) The paper shows verification of behavioral properties, model reduction technique, analysis of counter-example and checking of real time properties. Read More


Agile techniques recently have received attention in developing safety-critical systems. However, a lack of empirical knowledge of performing safety assurance techniques in practice, especially safety analysis into agile development processes prevents further steps. In this article, we aim at investigating the feasibility and the effects of our S-Scrum development process, and stepwise improving and proposing an Optimized S-Scrum development process for safety-critical systems in a real environment. Read More


In this paper, we introduce the concept of a virtual machine with graph-organised memory as a versatile backend for both explicit-state and abstraction-driven verification of software. Our virtual machine uses the LLVM IR as its instruction set, enriched with a small set of hypercalls. We show that the provided hypercalls are sufficient to implement a small operating system, which can then be linked with applications to provide a POSIX-compatible verification environment. Read More


We introduce a new methodology based on refinement for testing the functional correctness of hardware and low-level software. Our methodology overcomes several major drawbacks of the de facto testing methodologies used in industry: (1) it is difficult to determine completeness of the properties and tests under consideration (2) defining oracles for tests is expensive and error-prone (3) properties are defined in terms of low-level designs. Our approach compiles a formal refinement conjecture into a runtime check that is performed during simulation. Read More


Jolie is a service-oriented programming language which comes with the formal specification of its type system. However, there is no tool to ensure that programs in Jolie are well-typed. In this paper we provide the results of building a type checker for Jolie as a part of its syntax and semantics formal model. Read More


Interoperability is the ability of a programming language to work with systems based on different languages and paradigms. These days, many widely used high-level language impementations provide access to external functionalities. In this paper, we present some ideas on CLR interoperability focusing on the kind of constructs desirable by a programmer to this regard. Read More


The happy-productive worker thesis states that happy workers are more productive. Recent research in software engineering supports the thesis, and the ideal of flourishing happiness among software developers is often expressed among industry practitioners. However, the literature suggests that a cost-effective way to foster happiness and productivity among workers could be to limit unhappiness. Read More


Programming by Example (PBE) targets at automatically inferring a computer program for accomplishing a certain task from sample input and output. In this paper, we propose a deep neural networks (DNN) based PBE model called Neural Programming by Example (NPBE), which can learn from input-output strings and induce programs that solve the string manipulation problems. Our NPBE model has four neural network based components: a string encoder, an input-output analyzer, a program generator, and a symbol selector. Read More


Relaying on early effort estimation to predict the required number of resources is not often sufficient, and could lead to under or over estimation. It is widely acknowledge that that software development process should be refined regularly and that software prediction made at early stage of software development is yet kind of guesses. Even good predictions are not sufficient with inherent uncertainty and risks. Read More


Background: It is widely recognized that software effort estimation is a regression problem. Model Tree (MT) is one of the Machine Learning based regression techniques that is useful for software effort estimation, but as other machine learning algorithms, the MT has a large space of configuration and requires to carefully setting its parameters. The choice of such parameters is a dataset dependent so no general guideline can govern this process which forms the motivation of this work. Read More


During the past years, psychological diseases related to unhealthy work environments, such as burnouts, have drawn more and more public attention. One of the known causes of these affective problems is time pressure. In order to form a theoretical background for time pressure detection in software repositories, this paper combines interdisciplinary knowledge by analyzing 1270 papers found on Scopus database and containing terms related to time pressure. Read More


Bug triage is an important step in the process of bug fixing. The goal of bug triage is to assign a new-coming bug to the correct potential developer. The existing bug triage approaches are based on machine learning algorithms, which build classifiers from the training sets of bug reports. Read More


The concept of software quality is very complex and has many facets. Reflecting all these facets and at the same time measuring everything related to these facets results in comprehensive but large quality models and extensive measurements. In contrast, there are also many smaller, focused quality models claiming to evaluate quality with few measures. Read More


Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the CDP components run in an environment that has several interfaces to the Internet, these components are vulnerable to various kinds of malicious attacks. Read More


We would like to present the idea of our Continuous Defect Prediction (CDP) research and a related dataset that we created and share. Our dataset is currently a set of more than 11 million data rows, representing files involved in Continuous Integration (CI) builds, that synthesize the results of CI builds with data we mine from software repositories. Our dataset embraces 1265 software projects, 30,022 distinct commit authors and several software process metrics that in earlier research appeared to be useful in software defect prediction. Read More


Estimation by Analogy (EBA) is an increasingly active research method in the area of software engineering. The fundamental assumption of this method is that the similar projects in terms of attribute values will also be similar in terms of effort values. It is well recognized that the quality of software datasets has a considerable impact on the reliability and accuracy of such method. Read More


Despite the predictive performance of Analogy-Based Estimation (ABE) in generating better effort estimates, there is no consensus on how to predict the best number of analogies, and which adjustment technique produces better estimates. This paper proposes a new adjusted ABE model based on optimizing and approximating complex relationships between features and reflects that approximation on the final estimate. The results show that the predictive performance of ABE has noticeably been improved, and the number of analogies was remarkably variable for each test project. Read More


Analogy-based effort estimation (ABE) is one of the efficient methods for software effort estimation because of its outstanding performance and capability of handling noisy datasets. Conventional ABE models usually use the same number of analogies for all projects in the datasets in order to make good estimates. The authors' claim is that using same number of analogies may produce overall best performance for the whole dataset but not necessarily best performance for each individual project. Read More


Use Case Points (UCP) is a well-known method to estimate the project size, based on Use Case diagram, at early phases of software development. Although the Use Case diagram is widely accepted as a de-facto model for analyzing object oriented software requirements over the world, UCP method did not take sufficient amount of attention because, as yet, there is no consensus on how to produce software effort from UCP. This paper aims to study the potential of using Fuzzy Model Tree to derive effort estimates based on UCP size measure using a dataset collected for that purpose. Read More