Computer Science - Performance Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Performance Publications

We study the scheduling polices for asymptotically optimal delay in queueing systems with switching overhead. Such systems consist of a single server that serves multiple queues, and some capacity is lost whenever the server switches to serve a different set of queues. The capacity loss due to this switching overhead can be significant in many emerging applications, and needs to be explicitly addressed in the design of scheduling policies. Read More


SRAM-based FPGAs are increasingly popular in the aerospace industry due to their field programmability and low cost. However, they suffer from cosmic radiation induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs). In safety-critical applications, the dependability of the design is a prime concern since failures may have catastrophic consequences. Read More


OpenRuleBench is a large benchmark suite for rule engines, which includes deductive databases. We previously proposed a translation of Datalog to C++ based on a method that "pushes" derived tuples immediately to places where they are used. In this paper, we report performance results of various implementation variants of this method compared to XSB, YAP and DLV. Read More


Convolutions have long been regarded as fundamental to applied mathematics, physics and engineering. Their mathematical elegance allows for common tasks such as numerical differentiation to be computed efficiently on large data sets. Efficient computation of convolutions is critical to artificial intelligence in real-time applications, like machine vision, where convolutions must be continuously and efficiently computed on tens to hundreds of kilobytes per second. Read More


Flexibility at hardware level is the main driving force behind adaptive systems whose aim is to realise microarhitecture deconfiguration 'online'. This feature allows the software/hardware stack to tolerate drastic changes of the workload in data centres. With emerge of FPGA reconfigurablity this technology is becoming a mainstream computing paradigm. Read More


Frameworks, such as MapReduce and Hadoop are abundant nowadays. They seek to reap benefits of parallelization, albeit subject to a synchronization constraint at the output. Fork-Join (FJ) queuing models are used to analyze such systems. Read More


Fork-Join (FJ) queuing models capture the dynamics of system parallelization under synchronization constraints, for example, for applications such as MapReduce, multipath transmission and RAID systems. Arriving jobs are first split into tasks and mapped to servers for execution, such that a job can only leave the system when all of its tasks are executed. In this paper, we provide computable stochastic bounds for the waiting and response time distributions for heterogeneous FJ systems under general parallelization benefit. Read More


We present efficient realization of Householder Transform (HT) based QR factorization through algorithm-architecture co-design where we achieve performance improvement of 3-90x in-terms of Gflops/watt over state-of-the-art multicore, General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and ClearSpeed CSX700. Theoretical and experimental analysis of classical HT is performed for opportunities to exhibit higher degree of parallelism where parallelism is quantified as a number of parallel operations per level in the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) of the transform. Based on theoretical analysis of classical HT, an opportunity re-arrange computations in the classical HT is identified that results in Modified HT (MHT) where it is shown that MHT exhibits 1. Read More


This article introduces a novel family of decentralised caching policies, applicable to wireless networks with finite storage at the edge-nodes (stations). These policies, that are based on the Least-Recently-Used replacement principle, are here referred to as spatial multi-LRU. They update cache inventories in a way that provides content diversity to users who are covered by, and thus have access to, more than one station. Read More


Demand-Response (DR) programs, whereby users of an electricity network are encouraged by economic incentives to rearrange their consumption in order to reduce production costs, are envisioned to be a key feature of the smart grid paradigm. Several recent works proposed DR mechanisms and used analytical models to derive optimal incentives. Most of these works, however, rely on a macroscopic description of the population that does not model individual choices of users. Read More


"Geographic Load Balancing" is a strategy for reducing the energy cost of data centers spreading across different terrestrial locations. In this paper, we focus on load balancing among micro-datacenters powered by renewable energy sources. We model via a Markov Chain the problem of scheduling jobs by prioritizing datacenters where renewable energy is currently available. Read More


The paper introduces RADULS, a new parallel sorter based on radix sort algorithm, intended to organize ultra-large data sets efficiently. For example 4G 16-byte records can be sorted with 16 threads in less than 15 seconds on Intel Xeon-based workstation. The implementation of RADULS is not only highly optimized to gain such an excellent performance, but also parallelized in a cache friendly manner to make the most of modern multicore architectures. Read More


We consider a Markovian many server queueing system in which customers are preemptively scheduled according to exogenously assigned priority levels. The priority levels are randomly assigned from a continuous probability measure rather than a discrete one and hence, the queue is modeled by an infinite dimensional stochastic process. We analyze the equilibrium behavior of the system and provide several results. Read More


The rapid advances in sensors and ultra-low power wireless communication has enabled a new generation of wireless sensor networks: Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). To the best of our knowledge the current paper is the first to address broadcast in WBAN. We first analyze several broadcast strategies inspired from the area of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN). Read More


Nowadays Big Data are becoming more and more important. Many sectors of our economy are now guided by data-driven decision processes. Big Data and business intelligence applications are facilitated by the MapReduce programming model while, at infrastructural layer, cloud computing provides flexible and cost effective solutions for allocating on demand large clusters. Read More


In this paper, we present a stochastic queuing model for the road traffic, which captures the stationary density-flow relationships in both uncongested and congestion conditions. The proposed model is based on the $M/g/c/c$ state dependent queuing model of Jain and Smith, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a reformulation of the $M/g/c/c$ state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. Read More


We present a modular framework, the Workload Characterisation Framework (WCF), that is developed to reproducibly obtain, store and compare key characteristics of radio astronomy processing software. As a demonstration, we discuss the experiences using the framework to characterise a LOFAR calibration and imaging pipeline. Read More


The IPv4 addresses exhaustion demands a protocol transition from IPv4 to IPv6. The original transition technique, the dual stack, is not widely deployed yet and it demanded the creation of new transition techniques to extend the transition period. This work makes an experimental comparison of techniques that use dual stack with a limited IPv4 address. Read More


Demand response is a crucial technology to allow large-scale penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the electric grid. This paper is based on the thesis that datacenters represent especially attractive candidates for providing flexible, real-time demand response services to the grid; they are capable of finely-controllable power consumption, fast power ramp-rates, and large dynamic range. This paper makes two main contributions: (a) it provides detailed experimental evidence justifying this thesis, and (b) it presents a comparative investigation of three candidate software interfaces for power control within the servers. Read More


DESP-C++ is a C++ discrete-event random simulation engine that has been designed to be fast, very easy to use and expand, and valid. DESP-C++ is based on the resource view. Its complete architecture is presented in detail, as well as a short " user manual ". Read More


High speed wireless access on 60 GHz spectrum relies on high-gain directional antennas to overcome the severe signal attenuation. However, perfect alignment between transmitting and receiving antenna beams is rare in practice and overheard signals from concurrent transmissions may cause significant interference. In this paper we analyze the impact of antenna beam misalignment on the system performance of 60 GHz wireless access. Read More


There exist multitudes of cloud performance metrics, including workload performance, application placement, software/hardware optimization, scalability, capacity, reliability, agility and so on. In this paper, we consider jointly optimizing the performance of the software applications in the cloud. The challenges lie in bringing a diversity of raw data into tidy data format, unifying performance data from multiple systems based on timestamps, and assessing the quality of the processed performance data. Read More


The term "performance portability" has been informally used in computing to refer to a variety of notions which generally include: 1) the ability to run one application across multiple hardware platforms; and 2) achieving some notional level of performance on these platforms. However, there has been a noticeable lack of consensus on the precise meaning of the term, and authors' conclusions regarding their success (or failure) to achieve performance portability have thus been subjective. Comparing one approach to performance portability with another has generally been marked with vague claims and verbose, qualitative explanation of the comparison. Read More


We propose two novel techniques for overcoming load-imbalance encountered when implementing so-called look-ahead mechanisms in relevant dense matrix factorizations for the solution of linear systems. Both techniques target the scenario where two thread teams are created/activated during the factorization, with each team in charge of performing an independent task/branch of execution. The first technique promotes worker sharing (WS) between the two tasks, allowing the threads of the task that completes first to be reallocated for use by the costlier task. Read More


A fundamental building block for supporting better utilization of radio spectrum involves predicting the impact that an emitter will have at different geographic locations. To this end, fixed sensors can be deployed to spatially sample the RF environment over an area of interest, with interpolation methods used to infer received power at locations between sensors. This paper describes a radio map interpolation method that exploits the known properties of most path loss models, with the aim of minimizing the RMS errors in predicted dB-power. Read More


We describe a high-performance implementation of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for sparse 3D geometries on graphic processors (GPU). The main contribution of this work is a data layout that allows to minimise the number of redundant memory transactions during the propagation step of LBM. We show that by using a uniform mesh of small three-dimensional tiles and a careful data placement it is possible to utilise more than 70% of maximum theoretical GPU memory bandwidth for D3Q19 lattice and double precision numbers. Read More


In this paper, a methodology is presented and employed for simulating the Internet of Things (IoT). The requirement for scalability, due to the possibly huge amount of involved sensors and devices, and the heterogeneous scenarios that might occur, impose resorting to sophisticated modeling and simulation techniques. In particular, multi-level simulation is regarded as a main framework that allows simulating large-scale IoT environments while keeping high levels of detail, when it is needed. Read More


We consider an input queued switch operating under the MaxWeight scheduling algorithm. This system is interesting to study because it is a model for Internet routers and data center networks. Recently, it was shown that the MaxWeight algorithm has optimal heavy-traffic queue length scaling when all ports are uniformly saturated. Read More


In this paper we focus on the integration of high-performance numerical libraries in ab initio codes and the portability of performance and scalability. The target of our work is FLEUR, a software for electronic structure calculations developed in the Forschungszentrum J\"ulich over the course of two decades. The presented work follows up on a previous effort to modernize legacy code by re-engineering and rewriting it in terms of highly optimized libraries. Read More


Nowadays, more and more increasingly hard computations are performed in challenging fields like weather forecasting, oil and gas exploration, and cryptanalysis. Many of such computations can be implemented using a computer cluster with a large number of servers. Incoming computation requests are then, via a so-called load balancing policy, distributed over the servers to ensure optimal performance. Read More


2016Oct
Affiliations: 1University of Trieste, CNR-ISTI, 2University of Edinburgh

In this paper we focus on spatial Markov population models, describing the stochastic evolution of populations of agents, explicitly modelling their spatial distribution, representing space as a discrete, finite graph. More specifically, we present a heuristic approach to aggregating spatial locations, which is designed to preserve the dynamical behaviour of the model whilst reducing the computational cost of analysis. Our approach combines stochastic approximation ideas (moment closure, linear noise), with computational statistics (spectral clustering) to obtain an efficient aggregation, which is experimentally shown to be reasonably accurate on two case studies: an instance of epidemic spreading and a London bike sharing scenario. Read More


Polyhedral compilers perform optimizations such as tiling and parallelization; when doing both, they usually generate code that executes "barrier-synchronized wavefronts" of tiles. We present a system to express and generate code for hybrid schedules, where some constraints are automatically satisfied through the structure of the code, and the remainder are dynamically enforced at run-time with data flow mechanisms. We prove bounds on the added overheads that are better, by at least one polynomial degree, than those of previous techniques. Read More


Multi-server systems have received increasing attention with important implementations such as Google MapReduce, Hadoop, and Spark. Common to these systems are a fork operation, where jobs are first divided into tasks that are processed in parallel, and a later join operation, where completed tasks wait until the results of all tasks of a job can be combined and the job leaves the system. The synchronization constraint of the join operation makes the analysis of fork-join systems challenging and few explicit results are known. Read More


A breakdown of a benchmark score is how much each aspect of the system performance affects the score. Existing methods require internal analysis on the benchmarking program and then involve the following problems: (1) require a certain amount of labor for code analysis, profiling, simulation, and so on and (2) require the benchmarking program itself. In this paper, we present a method for breaking down a benchmark score without internal analysis of the benchmarking program. Read More


Device-to-Device (D2D) communication, which enables direct communication between nearby mobile devices, is an attractive add-on component to improve spectrum efficiency and user experience by reusing licensed cellular spectrum. Nowadays, LTE-unlicensed (LTE-U) emerges to extend the cellular network to the unlicensed spectrum to alleviate the spectrum scarcity issue. In this paper, we propose to enable D2D communication in unlicensed spectrum (D2D-U) as an underlay of the uplink cellular network for further booming the network capacity. Read More


We consider a mathematical model for streaming media packets (as the motivating key example) from a transmitter buffer to a receiver over a wireless link while controlling the transmitter power (hence, the packet/job processing rate). When each packet comes to the head-of-line (HOL) in the buffer, it is given a deadline $D$ which is the maximum number of times the transmitter can attempt retransmission in order to successfully transmit the packet. If this number of transmission attempts is exhausted, the packet is ejected from the buffer and the next packet comes to the HOL. Read More


As the use of crowdsourcing increases, it is important to think about performance optimization. For this purpose, it is possible to think about each worker as a HPU(Human Processing Unit), and to draw inspiration from performance optimization on traditional computers or cloud nodes with CPUs. However, as we characterize HPUs in detail for this purpose, we find that there are important differences between CPUs and HPUs, leading to the need for completely new optimization algorithms. Read More


Leveraging large data sets, deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) achieve state-of-the-art recognition accuracy. Due to the substantial compute and memory operations, however, they require significant execution time. The massive parallel computing capability of GPUs make them as one of the ideal platforms to accelerate CNNs and a number of GPU-based CNN libraries have been developed. Read More


To reduce automobile exhaust pollution, traffic congestion and parking difficulties, bike-sharing systems are rapidly developed in many countries and more than 500 major cities in the world over the past decade. In this paper, we discuss a large-scale bike-sharing system under Markovian environment, and propose a mean-field matrix-analytic method in the study of bike-sharing systems through combining the mean-field theory with the time-inhomogeneous queues as well as the nonlinear QBD processes. Firstly, we establish an empirical measure process to express the states of this bike-sharing system. Read More


This paper is about partitioning in parallel and distributed simulation. That means decomposing the simulation model into a numberof components and to properly allocate them on the execution units. An adaptive solution based on self-clustering, that considers both communication reduction and computational load-balancing, is proposed. Read More


Despite computation becomes much complex on data with unprecedented large-scale, we argue computers or smart devices should and will consistently provide information and knowledge to human being in the order of a few tens milliseconds. We coin a new term 10-millisecond computing to call attention to this class of workloads. Public reports indicate that internet service users are sensitive to the service or job-level response time outliers, so we propose a very simple but powerful metric-outlier proportion to characterize the system behaviors. Read More


Obtaining high quality sensor information is critical in vehicular emergencies. However, existing standards such as IEEE 802.11p/DSRC and LTE-A cannot support either the required data rates or the latency requirements. Read More


We consider a network of processor-sharing queues with state-dependent service rates. These are allocated according to balanced fairness within a polymatroid capacity set. Balanced fairness is known to be both insensitive and Pareto-efficient in such networks, which ensures that the performance metrics, when computable, will provide robust insights into the real performance of the system considered. Read More


This paper proposes a data-unit-size distribution model to represent the retransmitted packet size preservation (RPSP) property in a scenario where independently lost packets are retransmitted by a stop-and-wait protocol. RPSP means that retransmitted packets with the same sequence number are equal in size to the packet of the original transmission, which is identical to the packet generated from a message through the segmentation function, namely, generated packet. Furthermore, we derive goodput formula using an approach to derive the data-unit-size distribution. Read More


Rate adaptation in 802.11 WLANs has received a lot of attention from the research community, with most of the proposals aiming at maximising throughput based on network conditions. Considering energy consumption, an implicit assumption is that optimality in throughput implies optimality in energy efficiency, but this assumption has been recently put into question. Read More


Caching popular content at the edge of future mobile networks has been widely considered in order to alleviate the impact of the data tsunami on both the access and backhaul networks. A number of interesting techniques have been proposed, including femto-caching and "delayed" or opportunistic cache access. Nevertheless, the majority of these approaches suffer from the rather limited storage capacity of the edge caches, compared to the tremendous and rapidly increasing size of the Internet content catalog. Read More


In order to boost the performance of data-intensive computing on HPC systems, in-memory computing frameworks, such as Apache Spark and Flink, use local DRAM for data storage. Optimizing the memory allocation to data storage is critical to delivering performance to traditional HPC compute jobs and throughput to data-intensive applications sharing the HPC resources. Current practices that statically configure in-memory storage may leave inadequate space for compute jobs or lose the opportunity to utilize more available space for data-intensive applications. Read More


Graph algorithms have wide applicablity to a variety of domains and are often used on massive datasets. Recent standardization efforts such as the GraphBLAS specify a set of key computational kernels that hardware and software developers can adhere to. Graphulo is a processing framework that enables GraphBLAS kernels in the Apache Accumulo database. Read More


We consider a Markovian single server queue in which customers are preemptively scheduled by exogenously assigned priority levels. The novelty in our model is that the priority levels are randomly assigned from a continuous probability measure rather than a discrete one. Because the priority levels are drawn from a continuum, the queue is modeled by a measure-valued stochastic process. Read More