# Computer Science - Learning Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Learning Publications

The classification of MRI images according to the anatomical field of view is a necessary task to solve when faced with the increasing quantity of medical images. In parallel, advances in deep learning makes it a suitable tool for computer vision problems. Using a common architecture (such as AlexNet) provides quite good results, but not sufficient for clinical use. Read More

We derive bounds on the sample complexity of empirical risk minimization (ERM) in the context of minimizing non-convex risks that admit the strict saddle property. Recent progress in non-convex optimization has yielded efficient algorithms for minimizing such functions. Our results imply that these efficient algorithms are statistically stable and also generalize well. Read More

We introduce a library of geometric voxel features for CAD surface recognition/retrieval tasks. Our features include local versions of the intrinsic volumes (the usual 3D volume, surface area, integrated mean and Gaussian curvature) and a few closely related quantities. We also compute Haar wavelet and statistical distribution features by aggregating raw voxel features. Read More

This paper proposes a convolution neural network (CNN)-based method that learns traffic as images and predicts large-scale, network-wide traffic speed with high accuracy. Spatiotemporal traffic dynamics is converted to images describing the time and space relations of traffic flow via a two-dimensional time-space matrix. CNN is applied to the image following two consecutive steps: abstract traffic feature extraction and network-wide traffic speed prediction. Read More

We present a novel extension of Thompson Sampling for stochastic sequential decision problems with graph feedback, even when the graph structure itself is unknown and/or changing. We provide theoretical guarantees on the Bayesian regret of the algorithm, linking its performance to the underlying properties of the graph. Thompson Sampling has the advantage of being applicable without the need to construct complicated upper confidence bounds for different problems. Read More

In this paper, we improve the previously best known regret bound to achieve $\epsilon$-differential privacy in oblivious adversarial bandits from $\mathcal{O}{(T^{2/3}/\epsilon)}$ to $\mathcal{O}{(\sqrt{T} \ln T /\epsilon)}$. This is achieved by combining a Laplace Mechanism with EXP3. We show that though EXP3 is already differentially private, it leaks a linear amount of information in $T$. Read More

Deep learning classifiers are known to be inherently vulnerable to manipulation by intentionally perturbed inputs, named adversarial examples. In this work, we establish that reinforcement learning techniques based on Deep Q-Networks (DQNs) are also vulnerable to adversarial input perturbations, and verify the transferability of adversarial examples across different DQN models. Furthermore, we present a novel class of attacks based on this vulnerability that enable policy manipulation and induction in the learning process of DQNs. Read More

We study characteristics of receptive fields of units in deep convolutional networks. The receptive field size is a crucial issue in many visual tasks, as the output must respond to large enough areas in the image to capture information about large objects. We introduce the notion of an effective receptive field, and show that it both has a Gaussian distribution and only occupies a fraction of the full theoretical receptive field. Read More

The combinatorial explosion that plagues planning and reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms can be moderated using state abstraction. Prohibitively large task representations can be condensed such that essential information is preserved, and consequently, solutions are tractably computable. However, exact abstractions, which treat only fully-identical situations as equivalent, fail to present opportunities for abstraction in environments where no two situations are exactly alike. Read More

Predicting user response is one of the core machine learning tasks in computational advertising. Field-aware Factorization Machines (FFM) have recently been established as a state-of-the-art method for that problem and in particular won two Kaggle challenges. This paper presents some results from implementing this method in a production system that predicts click-through and conversion rates for display advertising and shows that this method it is not only effective to win challenges but is also valuable in a real-world prediction system. Read More

Providing Reinforcement Learning agents with expert advice can dramatically improve various aspects of learning. Prior work has developed teaching protocols that enable agents to learn efficiently in complex environments; many of these methods tailor the teacher's guidance to agents with a particular representation or underlying learning scheme, offering effective but specialized teaching procedures. In this work, we explore protocol programs, an agent-agnostic schema for Human-in-the-Loop Reinforcement Learning. Read More

Existing approaches to online convex optimization (OCO) make sequential one-slot-ahead decisions, which lead to (possibly adversarial) losses that drive subsequent decision iterates. Their performance is evaluated by the so-called regret that measures the difference of losses between the online solution and the best yet fixed overall solution in hindsight. The present paper deals with online convex optimization involving adversarial loss functions and adversarial constraints, where the constraints are revealed after making decisions, and can be tolerable to instantaneous violations but must be satisfied in the long term. Read More

We present a new class of decentralized first-order methods for nonsmooth and stochastic optimization problems defined over multiagent networks. Considering that communication is a major bottleneck in decentralized optimization, our main goal in this paper is to develop algorithmic frameworks which can significantly reduce the number of inter-node communications. We first propose a decentralized primal-dual method which can find an $\epsilon$-solution both in terms of functional optimality gap and feasibility residual in $O(1/\epsilon)$ inter-node communication rounds when the objective functions are convex and the local primal subproblems are solved exactly. Read More

This work presents a fast and scalable algorithm for incremental learning of Gaussian mixture models. By performing rank-one updates on its precision matrices and determinants, its asymptotic time complexity is of \BigO{NKD^2} for $N$ data points, $K$ Gaussian components and $D$ dimensions. The resulting algorithm can be applied to high dimensional tasks, and this is confirmed by applying it to the classification datasets MNIST and CIFAR-10. Read More

We are now witnessing the increasing availability of event stream data, i.e., a sequence of events with each event typically being denoted by the time it occurs and its mark information (e. Read More

We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities, and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the H\"older ordinary and reverse inequalities, and present two novel classes of H\"older divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e. Read More

The promise of compressive sensing (CS) has been offset by two significant challenges. First, real-world data is not exactly sparse in a fixed basis. Second, current high-performance recovery algorithms are slow to converge, which limits CS to either non-real-time applications or scenarios where massive back-end computing is available. Read More

Credit assignment in traditional recurrent neural networks usually involves back-propagating through a long chain of tied weight matrices. The length of this chain scales linearly with the number of time-steps as the same network is run at each time-step. This creates many problems, such as vanishing gradients, that have been well studied. Read More

We propose Edward, a Turing-complete probabilistic programming language. Edward builds on two compositional representations---random variables and inference. By treating inference as a first class citizen, on a par with modeling, we show that probabilistic programming can be as flexible and computationally efficient as traditional deep learning. Read More

Dirichlet process mixture models (DPMM) are a cornerstone of Bayesian non-parametrics. While these models free from choosing the number of components a-priori, computationally attractive variational inference often reintroduces the need to do so, via a truncation on the variational distribution. In this paper we present a truncation-free hybrid inference for DPMM, combining the advantages of sampling-based MCMC and variational methods. Read More

End-to-end (E2E) systems have achieved competitive results compared to conventional hybrid hidden Markov model (HMM)-deep neural network based automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. Such E2E systems are attractive due to the lack of dependence on alignments between input acoustic and output grapheme or HMM state sequence during training. This paper explores the design of an ASR-free end-to-end system for text query-based keyword search (KWS) from speech trained with minimal supervision. Read More

This paper extends the recently proposed and theoretically justified iterative thresholding and $K$ residual means algorithm ITKrM to learning dicionaries from incomplete/masked training data (ITKrMM). It further adapts the algorithm to the presence of a low rank component in the data and provides a strategy for recovering this low rank component again from incomplete data. Several synthetic experiments show the advantages of incorporating information about the corruption into the algorithm. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Senior member, IEEE,

^{2}Senior member, IEEE,

^{3}Senior member, IEEE,

^{4}Senior member, IEEE,

^{5}Senior member, IEEE

**Category:**Computer Science - Learning

Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and their variants are usually trained by contrastive divergence (CD) learning, but the training procedure is an unsupervised learning approach, without any guidances of the background knowledge. To enhance the expression ability of traditional RBMs, in this paper, we propose pairwise constraints restricted Boltzmann machine with Gaussian visible units (pcGRBM) model, in which the learning procedure is guided by pairwise constraints and the process of encoding is conducted under these guidances. The pairwise constraints are encoded in hidden layer features of pcGRBM. Read More

Recently, several algorithms for symbolic regression (SR) emerged which employ a form of multiple linear regression (LR) to produce generalized linear models. The use of LR allows the algorithms to create models with relatively small error right from the beginning of the search; such algorithms are thus claimed to be (sometimes by orders of magnitude) faster than SR algorithms based on vanilla genetic programming. However, a systematic comparison of these algorithms on a common set of problems is still missing. Read More

The goal of predictive maintenance is to forecast the occurrence of faults of an appliance, in order to proactively take the necessary actions to ensure its availability. In many application scenarios, predictive maintenance is applied to a set of homogeneous appliances. In this paper, we firstly review taxonomies and main methodologies currently used for condition-based maintenance; secondly, we argue that the mutual dissimilarities of the behaviours of all appliances of this set (the "cohort") can be exploited to detect upcoming faults. Read More

The problem of information fusion from multiple data-sets acquired by multimodal sensors has drawn significant research attention over the years. In this paper, we focus on a particular problem setting consisting of a physical phenomenon or a system of interest observed by multiple sensors. We assume that all sensors measure some aspects of the system of interest with additional sensor-specific and irrelevant components. Read More

We study large-scale kernel methods for acoustic modeling in speech recognition and compare their performance to deep neural networks (DNNs). We perform experiments on four speech recognition datasets, including the TIMIT and Broadcast News benchmark tasks, and compare these two types of models on frame-level performance metrics (accuracy, cross-entropy), as well as on recognition metrics (word/character error rate). In order to scale kernel methods to these large datasets, we use the random Fourier feature method of Rahimi and Recht (2007). Read More

We consider a firm that sells a large number of products to its customers in an online fashion. Each product is described by a high dimensional feature vector, and the market value of a product is assumed to be linear in the values of its features. Parameters of the valuation model are unknown and can change over time. Read More

We present Manifold Alignment Determination (MAD), an algorithm for learning alignments between data points from multiple views or modalities. The approach is capable of learning correspondences between views as well as correspondences between individual data-points. The proposed method requires only a few aligned examples from which it is capable to recover a global alignment through a probabilistic model. Read More

Binarized neural networks (BNNs) are gaining interest in the deep learning community due to their significantly lower computational and memory cost. They are particularly well suited to reconfigurable logic devices, which contain an abundance of fine-grained compute resources and can result in smaller, lower power implementations, or conversely in higher classification rates. Towards this end, the Finn framework was recently proposed for building fast and flexible field programmable gate array (FPGA) accelerators for BNNs. Read More

In this work we study the problem of network morphism, an effective learning scheme to morph a well-trained neural network to a new one with the network function completely preserved. Different from existing work where basic morphing types on the layer level were addressed, we target at the central problem of network morphism at a higher level, i.e. Read More

Asynchronous parallel computing and sparse recovery are two areas that have received recent interest. Asynchronous algorithms are often studied to solve optimization problems where the cost function takes the form $\sum_{i=1}^M f_i(x)$, with a common assumption that each $f_i$ is sparse; that is, each $f_i$ acts only on a small number of components of $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$. Sparse recovery problems, such as compressed sensing, can be formulated as optimization problems, however, the cost functions $f_i$ are dense with respect to the components of $x$, and instead the signal $x$ is assumed to be sparse, meaning that it has only $s$ non-zeros where $s\ll n$. Read More

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) models trained without stopword removal often produce topics with high posterior probabilities on uninformative words, obscuring the underlying corpus content. Even when canonical stopwords are manually removed, uninformative words common in that corpus will still dominate the most probable words in a topic. We propose a simple strategy for automatically promoting terms with domain relevance and demoting these domain-specific stop words. Read More

Topological data analysis (TDA) has emerged as one of the most promising techniques to reconstruct the unknown shapes of high-dimensional spaces from observed data samples. TDA, thus, yields key shape descriptors in the form of persistent topological features that can be used for any supervised or unsupervised learning task, including multi-way classification. Sparse sampling, on the other hand, provides a highly efficient technique to reconstruct signals in the spatial-temporal domain from just a few carefully-chosen samples. Read More

Behavioral annotation using signal processing and machine learning is highly dependent on training data and manual annotations of behavioral labels. Previous studies have shown that speech information encodes significant behavioral information and be used in a variety of automated behavior recognition tasks. However, extracting behavior information from speech is still a difficult task due to the sparseness of training data coupled with the complex, high-dimensionality of speech, and the complex and multiple information streams it encodes. Read More

We present a loss function which can be viewed as a generalization of many popular loss functions used in robust statistics: the Cauchy/Lorentzian, Welsch, and generalized Charbonnier loss functions (and by transitivity the L2, L1, L1-L2, and pseudo-Huber/Charbonnier loss functions). We describe and visualize this loss, and document several of its useful properties. Read More

Limited annotated data available for the recognition of facial expression and action units embarrasses the training of deep networks, which can learn disentangled invariant features. However, a linear model with just several parameters normally is not demanding in terms of training data. In this paper, we propose an elegant linear model to untangle confounding factors in challenging realistic multichannel signals such as 2D face videos. Read More

We solve the compressive sensing problem via convolutional factor analysis, where the convolutional dictionaries are learned {\em in situ} from the compressed measurements. An alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) paradigm for compressive sensing inversion based on convolutional factor analysis is developed. The proposed algorithm provides reconstructed images as well as features, which can be directly used for recognition ($e. Read More

Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are ubiquitous in probability theory in general and in machine learning in particular. A Markov chain is devised so that its stationary distribution is some probability distribution of interest. Then one samples from the given distribution by running the Markov chain for a "long time" until it appears to be stationary and then collects the sample. Read More

This paper studies the problem of multivariate linear regression where a portion of the observations is grossly corrupted or is missing, and the magnitudes and locations of such occurrences are unknown in priori. To deal with this problem, we propose a new approach by explicitly consider the error source as well as its sparseness nature. An interesting property of our approach lies in its ability of allowing individual regression output elements or tasks to possess their unique noise levels. Read More

We illustrate the potential in statistics and machine learning of the Christoffel function, or more precisely, its empirical counterpart associated with a counting measure uniformly supported on a finite set of points. Firstly, we provide a thresholding scheme which allows to approximate the support of a measure from a finite subset of its moments with strong asymptotic guaranties. Secondly, we provide a consistency result which relates the empirical Christoffel function and its population counterpart in the limit of large samples. Read More

Learning to hash plays a fundamentally important role in the efficient image and video retrieval and many other computer vision problems. However, due to the binary outputs of the hash functions, the learning of hash functions is very challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to learn stochastic hash functions such that the learned hashing codes can be used to regenerate the inputs. Read More

Motivated by applications in computational advertising and systems biology, we consider the problem of identifying the best out of several possible soft interventions at a source node $V$ in a causal DAG, to maximize the expected value of a target node $Y$ (downstream of $V$). There is a fixed total budget for sampling under various interventions. Also, there are cost constraints on different types of interventions. Read More

In this paper, a novel architecture for a deep recurrent neural network, residual LSTM is introduced. A plain LSTM has an internal memory cell that can learn long term dependencies of sequential data. It also provides a temporal shortcut path to avoid vanishing or exploding gradients in the temporal domain. Read More

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are effective models for reducing spectral variations and modeling spectral correlations in acoustic features for automatic speech recognition (ASR). Hybrid speech recognition systems incorporating CNNs with Hidden Markov Models/Gaussian Mixture Models (HMMs/GMMs) have achieved the state-of-the-art in various benchmarks. Meanwhile, Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), which is proposed for labeling unsegmented sequences, makes it feasible to train an end-to-end speech recognition system instead of hybrid settings. Read More

It's useful to automatically transform an image from its original form to some synthetic form (style, partial contents, etc.), while keeping the original structure or semantics. We define this requirement as the "image-to-image translation" problem, and propose a general approach to achieve it, based on deep convolutional and conditional generative adversarial networks (GANs), which has gained a phenomenal success to learn mapping images from noise input since 2014. Read More

Transfer learning addresses the problem of how to leverage previously acquired knowledge (a source domain) to improve the efficiency of learning in a new domain (the target domain). Although transfer learning has been widely researched in the last decade, existing research still has two restrictions: 1) the feature spaces of the domains must be homogeneous; and 2) the target domain must have at least a few labelled instances. These restrictions significantly limit transfer learning models when transferring knowledge across domains, especially in the big data era. Read More

The majority of online display ads are served through real-time bidding (RTB) --- each ad display impression is auctioned off in real-time when it is just being generated from a user visit. To place an ad automatically and optimally, it is critical for advertisers to devise a learning algorithm to cleverly bid an ad impression in real-time. Most previous works consider the bid decision as a static optimization problem of either treating the value of each impression independently or setting a bid price to each segment of ad volume. Read More

In this paper, we implicitly incorporate morpheme information into word embedding. Based on the strategy we utilize the morpheme information, three models are proposed. To test the performances of our models, we conduct the word similarity and syntactic analogy. Read More