# Computer Science - Learning Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Learning Publications

We study the strong duality of non-convex matrix factorization: we show under certain dual conditions, non-convex matrix factorization and its dual have the same optimum. This has been well understood for convex optimization, but little was known for matrix factorization. We formalize the strong duality of matrix factorization through a novel analytical framework, and show that the duality gap is zero for a wide class of matrix factorization problems. Read More

One of the most challenging tasks when adopting Bayesian Networks (BNs) is the one of learning their structure from data. This task is complicated by the huge search space of possible solutions and turned out to be a well-known NP-hard problem and, hence, approximations are required. However, to the best of our knowledge, a quantitative analysis of the performance and characteristics of the different heuristics to solve this problem has never been done before. Read More

Riemannian geometry has been successfully used in many brain-computer interface (BCI) classification problems and demonstrated superior performance. In this paper, for the first time, it is applied to BCI regression problems, an important category of BCI applications. More specifically, we propose a new feature extraction approach for Electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCI regression problems: a spatial filter is first used to increase the signal quality of the EEG trials and also to reduce the dimensionality of the covariance matrices, and then Riemannian tangent space features are extracted. Read More

This paper presents a novel deep neural network (DNN) based speech enhancement method that aims to enhance magnitude and phase components of speech signals simultaneously. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold. First, to avoid the difficulty of direct clean phase estimation, the proposed algorithm adopts real and imaginary (RI) spectrograms to prepare both input and output features. Read More

The process of liquidity provision in financial markets can result in prolonged exposure to illiquid instruments for market makers. In this case, where a proprietary position is not desired, pro-actively targeting the right client who is likely to be interested can be an effective means to offset this position, rather than relying on commensurate interest arising through natural demand. In this paper, we consider the inference of a client profile for the purpose of corporate bond recommendation, based on typical recorded information available to the market maker. Read More

The technique of hiding messages in digital data is called a steganography technique. With improved sequencing techniques, increasing attempts have been conducted to hide hidden messages in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences which have been become a medium for steganography. Many detection schemes have developed for conventional digital data, but these schemes not applicable to DNA sequences because of DNA's complex internal structures. Read More

Chemical-chemical interaction (CCI) plays a key role in predicting candidate drugs, toxicity, therapeutic effects, and biological functions. CCI was created from text mining, experiments, similarities, and databases; to date, no learning-based CCI prediction method exist. In chemical analyses, computational approaches are required. Read More

Word embeddings provide point representations of words containing useful semantic information. We introduce multimodal word distributions formed from Gaussian mixtures, for multiple word meanings, entailment, and rich uncertainty information. To learn these distributions, we propose an energy-based max-margin objective. Read More

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have achieved great success in the genetic study of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Collaborative imaging genetics studies across different research institutions show the effectiveness of detecting genetic risk factors. However, the high dimensionality of GWAS data poses significant challenges in detecting risk SNPs for AD. Read More

In machine learning, the use of an artificial neural network is the mainstream approach. Such a network consists of layers of neurons. These neurons are of the same type characterized by the two features: (1) an inner product of an input vector and a matching weighting vector of trainable parameters and (2) a nonlinear excitation function. Read More

Currently, approximately 30% of epileptic patients treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) remain resistant to treatment (known as refractory patients). This project seeks to understand the underlying similarities in refractory patients vs. other epileptic patients, identify features contributing to drug resistance across underlying phenotypes for refractory patients, and develop predictive models for drug resistance in epileptic patients. Read More

End-to-end learning refers to training a possibly complex learning system by applying gradient-based learning to the system as a whole. End-to-end learning system is specifically designed so that all modules are differentiable. In effect, not only a central learning machine, but also all "peripheral" modules like representation learning and memory formation are covered by a holistic learning process. Read More

In the context of variable selection, ensemble learning has gained increasing interest due to its great potential to improve selection accuracy and to reduce false discovery rate. A novel ordering-based selective ensemble learning strategy is designed in this paper to obtain smaller but more accurate ensembles. In particular, a greedy sorting strategy is proposed to rearrange the order by which the members are included into the integration process. Read More

We consider relative error low rank approximation of {\it tensors} with respect to the Frobenius norm: given an order-$q$ tensor $A \in \mathbb{R}^{\prod_{i=1}^q n_i}$, output a rank-$k$ tensor $B$ for which $\|A-B\|_F^2 \leq (1+\epsilon)$OPT, where OPT $= \inf_{\textrm{rank-}k~A'} \|A-A'\|_F^2$. Despite the success on obtaining relative error low rank approximations for matrices, no such results were known for tensors. One structural issue is that there may be no rank-$k$ tensor $A_k$ achieving the above infinum. Read More

Visual Question Answering (VQA) has received a lot of attention over the past couple of years. A number of deep learning models have been proposed for this task. However, it has been shown that these models are heavily driven by superficial correlations in the training data and lack compositionality -- the ability to answer questions about unseen compositions of seen concepts. Read More

There is widespread sentiment that it is not possible to effectively utilize fast gradient methods (e.g. Nesterov's acceleration, conjugate gradient, heavy ball) for the purposes of stochastic optimization due to their instability and error accumulation, a notion made precise in d'Aspremont 2008 and Devolder, Glineur, and Nesterov 2014. Read More

This paper introduces a generalization of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) from low-dimensional grid data, such as images, to graph-structured data. We propose a novel spatial convolution utilizing a random walk to uncover the relations within the input, analogous to the way the standard convolution uses the spatial neighborhood of a pixel on the grid. The convolution has an intuitive interpretation, is efficient and scalable and can also be used on data with varying graph structure. Read More

In this paper, we propose a novel learning based method for automated segmenta-tion of brain tumor in multimodal MRI images. The machine learned features from fully convolutional neural network (FCN) and hand-designed texton fea-tures are used to classify the MRI image voxels. The score map with pixel-wise predictions is used as a feature map which is learned from multimodal MRI train-ing dataset using the FCN. Read More

We introduce an attention-based Bi-LSTM for Chinese implicit discourse relations and demonstrate that modeling argument pairs as a joint sequence can outperform word order-agnostic approaches. Our model benefits from a partial sampling scheme and is conceptually simple, yet achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Chinese Discourse Treebank. We also visualize its attention activity to illustrate the model's ability to selectively focus on the relevant parts of an input sequence. Read More

In recent years, deep learning based on artificial neural network (ANN) has achieved great success in pattern recognition. However, there is no clear understanding of such neural computational models. In this paper, we try to unravel "black-box" structure of Ann model from network flow. Read More

**Authors:**Arnaud Joly

Within machine learning, the supervised learning field aims at modeling the input-output relationship of a system, from past observations of its behavior. Decision trees characterize the input-output relationship through a series of nested $if-then-else$ questions, the testing nodes, leading to a set of predictions, the leaf nodes. Several of such trees are often combined together for state-of-the-art performance: random forest ensembles average the predictions of randomized decision trees trained independently in parallel, while tree boosting ensembles train decision trees sequentially to refine the predictions made by the previous ones. Read More

While the optimization problem behind deep neural networks is highly non-convex, it is frequently observed in practice that training deep networks seems possible without getting stuck in suboptimal points. It has been argued that this is the case as all local minima are close to being globally optimal. We show that this is (almost) true, in fact almost all local minima are globally optimal, for a fully connected network with squared loss and analytic activation function given that the number of hidden units of one layer of the network is larger than the number of training points and the network structure from this layer on is pyramidal. Read More

Deep neural networks (DNNs) play a key role in many applications. Current studies focus on crafting adversarial samples against DNN-based image classifiers by introducing some imperceptible perturbations to the input. However, DNNs for natural language processing have not got the attention they deserve. Read More

The $\ell_1$ regularized sparse model has been favourably used in machine learning society. Due to the non-smoothness, fast optimizers like quasi-Newton methods can not be directly applied. In this paper, we propose the first stochastic limited-memory quasi-newton optimizer that specializing in strongly convex loss function with $\ell_1$-regularization. Read More

Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) recently emerged as one of the most competitive approaches for learning in sequential decision making problems with fully observable environments, e.g., computer Go. Read More

Hypothesis testing in the linear regression model is a fundamental statistical problem. We consider linear regression in the high-dimensional regime where the number of parameters exceeds the number of samples ($p> n$) and assume that the high-dimensional parameters vector is $s_0$ sparse. We develop a general and flexible $\ell_\infty$ projection statistic for hypothesis testing in this model. Read More

In this paper, we study the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) method for the nonconvex nonsmooth optimization, and propose an accelerated SGD method by combining the variance reduction technique with Nesterov's extrapolation technique. Moreover, based on the local error bound condition, we establish the linear convergence of our method to obtain a stationary point of the nonconvex optimization. In particular, we prove that not only the sequence generated linearly converges to a stationary point of the problem, but also the corresponding sequence of objective values is linearly convergent. Read More

We study the stochastic multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem in the presence of side-observations across actions that occur as a result of an underlying network structure. In our model, a bipartite graph captures the relationship between actions and a common set of unknowns such that choosing an action reveals observations for the unknowns that it is connected to. This models a common scenario in online social networks where users respond to their friends' activity, thus providing side information about each other's preferences. Read More

In this study, we introduce an ensemble-based approach for online machine learning. The ensemble of base classifiers in our approach is obtained by learning Naive Bayes classifiers on different training sets which are generated by projecting the original training set to lower dimensional space. We propose a mechanism to learn sequences of data using data chunks paradigm. Read More

Our goal is to learn a semantic parser that maps natural language utterances into executable programs when only indirect supervision is available: examples are labeled with the correct execution result, but not the program itself. Consequently, we must search the space of programs for those that output the correct result, while not being misled by spurious programs: incorrect programs that coincidentally output the correct result. We connect two common learning paradigms, reinforcement learning (RL) and maximum marginal likelihood (MML), and then present a new learning algorithm that combines the strengths of both. Read More

As part of a complete software stack for autonomous driving, NVIDIA has created a neural-network-based system, known as PilotNet, which outputs steering angles given images of the road ahead. PilotNet is trained using road images paired with the steering angles generated by a human driving a data-collection car. It derives the necessary domain knowledge by observing human drivers. Read More

Motivated by machine learning applications in networks of sensors, internet-of-things (IoT) devices, and autonomous agents, we propose techniques for distributed stochastic convex learning from high-rate data streams. The setup involves a network of nodes---each one of which has a stream of data arriving at a constant rate---that solve a stochastic convex optimization problem by collaborating with each other over rate-limited communication links. To this end, we present and analyze two algorithms---termed distributed stochastic approximation mirror descent (D-SAMD) and {\em accelerated} distributed stochastic approximation mirror descent (AD-SAMD)---that are based on two stochastic variants of mirror descent. Read More

Liquids exhibit highly complex, non-linear behavior under changing simulation conditions such as user interactions. We propose a method to map this complex behavior over a parameter range onto a reduced representation based on space-time deformations. In order to represent the complexity of the full space of inputs, we use aligned deformations from optical flow solves, and we leverage the power of generative neural networks to synthesize additional deformations for refinement. Read More

We study unsupervised learning by developing introspective generative modeling (IGM) that attains a generator using progressively learned deep convolutional neural networks. The generator is itself a discriminator, capable of introspection: being able to self-evaluate the difference between its generated samples and the given training data. When followed by repeated discriminative learning, desirable properties of modern discriminative classifiers are directly inherited by the generator. Read More

In this paper we propose introspective classifier learning (ICL) that emphasizes the importance of having a discriminative classifier empowered with generative capabilities. We develop a reclassification-by-synthesis algorithm to perform training using a formulation stemmed from the Bayes theory. Our classifier is able to iteratively: (1) synthesize pseudo-negative samples in the synthesis step; and (2) enhance itself by improving the classification in the reclassification step. Read More

This paper considers the problem of decentralized optimization with a composite objective containing smooth and non-smooth terms. To solve the problem, a proximal-gradient scheme is studied. Specifically, the smooth and nonsmooth terms are dealt with by gradient update and proximal update, respectively. Read More

Using random matrix ensembles, mimicking weight matrices from deep and recurrent neural networks, we investigate how increasing connectivity leads to higher accuracy in learning with a related measure on eigenvalue spectra. For this purpose, we quantify spectral ergodicity based on the Thirumalai-Mountain (TM) metric and Kullbach-Leibler (KL) divergence. As a case study, differ- ent size circular random matrix ensembles, i. Read More

Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) on Electronic Health Records (EHR) data is widely-used for early detection of diseases. Classical LDA for EHR data classification, however, suffers from two handicaps: the ill-posed estimation of LDA parameters (e.g. Read More

As entity type systems become richer and more fine-grained, we expect the number of types assigned to a given entity to increase. However, most fine-grained typing work has focused on datasets that exhibit a low degree of type multiplicity. In this paper, we consider the high-multiplicity regime inherent in data sources such as Wikipedia that have semi-open type systems. Read More

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a fundamental dimension reduction tool in statistics and machine learning. For large and high-dimensional data, computing the PCA (i.e. Read More

In this paper we have discussed a quantum approach for the all-pair multiclass classification problem. We have shown that the multiclass support vector machine for big data classification with a quantum all-pair approach can be implemented in logarithm time complexity on a quantum computer. In an all-pair approach, there is one binary classification problem for each pair of classes, and so there are k (k-1)/2 classifiers for a k-class problem. Read More

Various modifications of decision trees have been extensively used during the past years due to their high efficiency and interpretability. Selection of relevant features for spitting the tree nodes is a key property of their architecture, at the same time being their major shortcoming: the recursive nodes partitioning leads to geometric reduction of data quantity in the leaf nodes, which causes an excessive model complexity and data overfitting. In this paper, we present a novel architecture - a Decision Stream, - aimed to overcome this problem. Read More

Black-Scholes (BS) is the standard mathematical model for option pricing in financial markets. Option prices are calculated using an analytical formula whose main inputs are strike (at which price to exercise) and volatility. The BS framework assumes that volatility remains constant across all strikes, however, in practice it varies. Read More

In emotion recognition, it is difficult to recognize human's emotional states using just a single modality. Besides, the annotation of physiological emotional data is particularly expensive. These two aspects make the building of effective emotion recognition model challenging. Read More

Tasks like code generation and semantic parsing require mapping unstructured (or partially structured) inputs to well-formed, executable outputs. We introduce abstract syntax networks, a modeling framework for these problems. The outputs are represented as abstract syntax trees (ASTs) and constructed by a decoder with a dynamically-determined modular structure paralleling the structure of the output tree. Read More

Class imbalance is a challenging issue in practical classification problems for deep learning models as well as traditional models. Traditionally successful countermeasures such as synthetic over-sampling have had limited success with complex, structured data handled by deep learning models. In this paper, we propose Deep Over-sampling (DOS), a framework for extending the synthetic over-sampling method to exploit the deep feature space acquired by a convolutional neural network (CNN). Read More

Given recent deep learning results that demonstrate the ability to effectively optimize high-dimensional non-convex functions with gradient descent optimization on GPUs, we ask in this paper whether symbolic gradient optimization tools such as Tensorflow can be effective for planning in hybrid (mixed discrete and continuous) nonlinear domains with high dimensional state and action spaces? To this end, we demonstrate that hybrid planning with Tensorflow and RMSProp gradient descent is competitive with mixed integer linear program (MILP) based optimization on piecewise linear planning domains (where we can compute optimal solutions) and substantially outperforms state-of-the-art interior point methods for nonlinear planning domains. Furthermore, we remark that Tensorflow is highly scalable, converging to a strong policy on a large-scale concurrent domain with a total of 576,000 continuous actions over a horizon of 96 time steps in only 4 minutes. We provide a number of insights that clarify such strong performance including observations that despite long horizons, RMSProp avoids both the vanishing and exploding gradients problem. Read More

In recent years, the reliability of information on the Internet has emerged as a crucial issue of modern society. Social network sites (SNSs) have revolutionized the way in which information is spread by allowing users to freely share content. As a consequence, SNSs are also increasingly used as vectors for the diffusion of misinformation and hoaxes. Read More

We present a dynamic model selection approach for resource-constrained prediction. Given an input instance at test-time, a gating function identifies a prediction model for the input among a collection of models. Our objective is to minimize overall average cost without sacrificing accuracy. Read More

There is a wide gap between symbolic reasoning and deep learning. In this research, we explore the possibility of using deep learning to improve symbolic reasoning. Briefly, in a reasoning system, a deep feedforward neural network is used to guide rewriting processes after learning from algebraic reasoning examples produced by humans. Read More