Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction Publications (50)


Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction Publications

Visual scene decomposition into semantic entities is one of the major challenges when creating a reliable object grasping system. Recently, we introduced a bottom-up hierarchical clustering approach which is able to segment objects and parts in a scene. In this paper, we introduce a transform from such a segmentation into a corresponding, hierarchical saliency function. Read More

Non-invasive steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems offer high bandwidth compared to other BCI types and require only minimal calibration and training. Virtual reality (VR) has been already validated as effective, safe, affordable and motivating feedback modality for BCI experiments. Augmented reality (AR) enhances the physical world by superimposing informative, context sensitive, computer generated content. Read More

This paper outlines the development and testing of a novel, feedback-enabled attention allocation aid (AAAD), which uses real-time physiological data to improve human performance in a realistic sequential visual search task. Indeed, by optimizing over search duration, the aid improves efficiency, while preserving decision accuracy, as the operator identifies and classifies targets within simulated aerial imagery. Specifically, using experimental eye-tracking data and measurements about target detectability across the human visual field, we develop functional models of detection accuracy as a function of search time, number of eye movements, scan path, and image clutter. Read More

Around-device interaction promises to extend the input space of mobile and wearable devices beyond the common but restricted touchscreen. So far, most around-device interaction approaches rely on instrumenting the device or the environment with additional sensors. We believe, that the full potential of ordinary cameras, specifically user-facing cameras, which are integrated in most mobile devices today, are not used to their full potential, yet. Read More

We model Human-Robot-Interaction (HRI) scenarios as linear dynamical systems and use Model Predictive Control (MPC) with mixed integer constraints to generate human-aware control policies. We motivate the approach by presenting two scenarios. The first involves an assistive robot that aims to maximize productivity while minimizing the human's workload, and the second involves a listening humanoid robot that manages its eye contact behavior to maximize "connection" and minimize social "awkwardness" with the human during the interaction. Read More

Open-domain human-computer conversation has been attracting increasing attention over the past few years. However, there does not exist a standard automatic evaluation metric for open-domain dialog systems; researchers usually resort to human annotation for model evaluation, which is time- and labor-intensive. In this paper, we propose RUBER, a Referenced metric and Unreferenced metric Blended Evaluation Routine, which evaluates a reply by taking into consideration both a groundtruth reply and a query (previous user utterance). Read More

This paper extends recent work in interactive machine learning (IML) focused on effectively incorporating human feedback. We show how control and feedback signals complement each other in systems which model human reward. We demonstrate that simultaneously incorporating human control and feedback signals can improve interactive robotic systems' performance on a self-mirrored movement control task where an RL-agent controlled right arm attempts to match the preprogrammed movement pattern of the left arm. Read More

Cognitive computing systems require human labeled data for evaluation, and often for training. The standard practice used in gathering this data minimizes disagreement between annotators, and we have found this results in data that fails to account for the ambiguity inherent in language. We have proposed the CrowdTruth method for collecting ground truth through crowdsourcing, that reconsiders the role of people in machine learning based on the observation that disagreement between annotators provides a useful signal for phenomena such as ambiguity in the text. Read More

In this paper, we present CrowdTone, a system designed to help people set the appropriate tone in their email communication. CrowdTone utilizes the context and content of an email message to identify and set the appropriate tone through a consensus-building process executed by crowd workers. We evaluated CrowdTone with 22 participants, who provided a total of 29 emails that they had received in the past, and ran them through CrowdTone. Read More

Incentive mechanisms for crowdsourcing have been extensively studied under the framework of all-pay auctions. Along a distinct line, this paper proposes to use Tullock contests as an alternative tool to design incentive mechanisms for crowdsourcing. We are inspired by the conduciveness of Tullock contests to attracting user entry (yet not necessarily a higher revenue) in other domains. Read More

We proposed a probabilistic approach to joint modeling of participants' reliability and humans' regularity in crowdsourced affective studies. Reliability measures how likely a subject will respond to a question seriously; and regularity measures how often a human will agree with other seriously-entered responses coming from a targeted population. Crowdsourcing-based studies or experiments, which rely on human self-reported affect, pose additional challenges as compared with typical crowdsourcing studies that attempt to acquire concrete non-affective labels of objects. Read More

The introduction of robots into our society will also introduce new concerns about personal privacy. In order to study these concerns, we must do human-subject experiments that involve measuring privacy-relevant constructs. This paper presents a taxonomy of privacy constructs based on a review of the privacy literature. Read More

We introduce our explorative historical leveled approach that we use to understand drug debates in the Royal Dutch Library's digital newspaper archive. In this approach we alternate between distant reading and close reading. Furthermore, we use this approach to evaluate two text mining tools: AVResearcherXL and Texcavator. Read More

The current research with EEG devices in the user authentication context has some deficiencies that address expensive equipment, the requirement of laboratory conditions and applicability. In this paper we address this issue by using widely available and inexpensive EEG device to verify its capability for authentication. As a part of this research, we developed two phase authentication that enables users to enhance their password with the mental state by breaking the password into smaller, marry them with mental state, and generate one time pad for a secure session. Read More

We present an end-to-end text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis system that generates audio and synchronized tongue motion directly from text. This is achieved by adapting a 3D model of the tongue surface to an articulatory dataset and training a statistical parametric speech synthesis system directly on the tongue model parameter weights. We evaluate the model at every step by comparing the spatial coordinates of predicted articulatory movements against the reference data. Read More

In this paper we describe and evaluate a mixed reality system that aims to augment users in task guidance applications by combining automated and unsupervised information collection with minimally invasive video guides. The result is a self-contained system that we call GlaciAR (Glass-enabled Contextual Interactions for Augmented Reality), that operates by extracting contextual interactions from observing users performing actions. GlaciAR is able to i) automatically determine moments of relevance based on a head motion attention model, ii) automatically produce video guidance information, iii) trigger these video guides based on an object detection method, iv) learn without supervision from observing multiple users and v) operate fully on-board a current eyewear computer (Google Glass). Read More

This bachelor's thesis describes the conception and implementation of an augmented reality application for the Android platform. The intention is to demonstrate some possibilities of interaction within an augmented reality environment on mobile devices. For that purpose, a 3D-model is displayed on the devices' touchscreen using marker-based tracking. Read More

Algorithms which sort lists of real numbers into ascending order have been studied for decades. They are typically based on a series of pairwise comparisons and run entirely on chip. However people routinely sort lists which depend on subjective or complex judgements that cannot be automated. Read More

Today, social media provide the means by which billions of people experience news and events happening around the world. However, the absence of traditional journalistic gatekeeping allows information to flow unencumbered through these platforms, often raising questions of veracity and credibility of the reported information. Here we ask: How do the dynamics of collective attention directed toward an event reported on social media vary with its perceived credibility? By examining the first large-scale, systematically tracked credibility database of public Twitter messages (47M messages corresponding to 1,138 real-world events over a span of three months), we established a relationship between the temporal dynamics of events reported on social media and their associated level of credibility judgments. Read More

Touch sensing, as a major human/machine interface, is widely used in various commercial products such as smart watches, mobile phones, tablets and TVs. State-of-the-art touch detections are mainly based on mutual capacitive sensing, which requires necessary contact-touch, limiting the mobile user experience. Recently, remote gesture sensing is widely reported in both academy and industry as it can provide additional user-experience for mobile interface. Read More

Advances in machine learning have produced systems that attain human-level performance on certain visual tasks, e.g., object identification. Read More

As more scholarly content is being born digital or digitized, digital libraries are becoming increasingly vital to researchers leveraging scholarly big data for scientific discovery. Given the abundance of scholarly products-especially in environments created by the advent of social networking services-little is known about international scholarly information needs, information-seeking behavior, or information use. This paper aims to address these gaps by conducting an in-depth analysis of researchers in the United States and Qatar; learn about their research attitudes, practices, tactics, strategies, and expectations; and address the obstacles faced during research endeavors. Read More

People learn whenever and wherever possible, and whatever they like or encounter--Mathematics, Drama, Art, Languages, Physics, Philosophy, and so on. With the bursting of knowledge, evaluation of one's possession of knowledge becomes increasingly difficult. There are a lot of demands to evaluate one's understanding of a piece of knowledge. Read More

The use of psychophysiologic signals in human-computer interaction is a growing field with significant potential for future smart personalised systems. Working in this emerging field requires comprehension of different physiological signals and analysis techniques. Cardiovascular signals such as heart rate variability and blood pressure variability are commonly used in psychophysiology in order to investigate phenomena such as mental workload. Read More

Technology has become an essential part in every aspect of our lives. However the key to a successful implementation of a technology depends on the acceptance by the general public. In order to increase the acceptance various approaches can be applied. Read More

Affiliations: 1St. Poelten University of Applied Sciences, Austria, 2St. Poelten University of Applied Sciences, Austria, 3St. Poelten University of Applied Sciences, Austria, 4St. Poelten University of Applied Sciences, Austria

IT-security experts engage in behavior-based malware analysis in order to learn about previously unknown samples of malicious software (malware) or malware families. For this, they need to find and categorize suspicious patterns from large collections of execution traces. Currently available systems do not meet the analysts' needs described as: visual access suitable for complex data structures, visual representations appropriate for IT-security experts, provide work flow-specific interaction techniques, and the ability to externalize knowledge in the form of rules to ease analysis and for sharing with colleagues. Read More

We present RFexpress! the first-ever network-edge based system to recognize emotion from movement, gesture and pose via Device-Free Activity Recognition (DFAR). With the proliferation of the IoT, also wireless access points are deployed at increasingly dense scale. in particular, this includes vehicular nodes (in-car WiFi or Bluetooth), office (Wlan APs, WiFi printer or projector) and private indoor domains (home WiFi mesh, Wireless media access), as well as public spaces (City/open WiFi, Cafes, shopping spaces). Read More

We present a novel open-source framework for visualizing electromagnetic articulography (EMA) data in real-time, with a modular framework and anatomically accurate tongue and palate models derived by multilinear subspace learning. Read More

Buildings form an essential part of modern life; people spend a significant amount of their time in them, and they consume large amounts of energy. A variety of systems provide services such as lighting, air conditioning and security which are managed using Building Management Systems (BMS) by building operators. To better understand the capability of current BMS and characterize common practices of building operators, we investigated their use across five institutions in the US. Read More

This article presents a new proposal design of GUI and new technology in programming Namely "Super Technology" which can be applied for supporting the proposal design of GUI Read More

Authors: Ladislav Peska1
Affiliations: 1Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

Our work is generally focused on recommending for small or medium-sized e-commerce portals, where explicit feedback is absent and thus the usage of implicit feedback is necessary. Nonetheless, for some implicit feedback features, the presentation context may be of high importance. In this paper, we present a model of relevant contextual features affecting user feedback, propose methods leveraging those features, publish a dataset of real e-commerce users containing multiple user feedback indicators as well as its context and finally present results of purchase prediction and recommendation experiments. Read More

Driving under the influence of alcohol is a widespread phenomenon in the US where it is considered a major cause of fatal accidents. In this research we present a novel approach and concept for detecting intoxication from motion differences obtained by the sensors of wearable devices. We formalize the problem of drunkenness detection as a supervised machine learning task, both as a binary classification problem (drunk or sober) and a regression problem (the breath alcohol content level). Read More

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), particularly Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) RNNs, are a popular and very successful method for learning and generating sequences. However, current generative RNN techniques do not allow real-time interactive control of the sequence generation process, thus aren't well suited for live creative expression. We propose a method of real-time continuous control and 'steering' of sequence generation using an ensemble of RNNs and dynamically altering the mixture weights of the models. Read More

Usability is a key quality attribute of successful software systems. Unfortunately, there is no common understanding of the factors influencing usability and their interrelations. Hence, the lack of a comprehensive basis for designing, analyzing, and improving user interfaces. Read More

Despite the growing importance of multilingual aspect of web search, no appropriate offline metrics to evaluate its quality are proposed so far. At the same time, personal language preferences can be regarded as intents of a query. This approach translates the multilingual search problem into a particular task of search diversification. Read More

The design and evaluation of a robotic prosthesis for a drummer with a transradial amputation is presented. The principal objective of the prosthesis is to simulate the role fingers play in drumming. This primarily includes controlling the manner in which the drum stick rebounds after initial impact. Read More

Despite the enormous interest in emotion classification from speech, the impact of noise on emotion classification is not well understood. This is important because, due to the tremendous advancement of the smartphone technology, it can be a powerful medium for speech emotion recognition in the outside laboratory natural environment, which is likely to incorporate background noise in the speech. We capitalize on the current breakthrough of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and seek to investigate its performance for emotion classification from noisy speech. Read More

The P300 speller is a well known Brain-Computer Interface paradigm that has been used for over two decades. A new P300 speller paradigm (XP300) is proposed. It includes several characteristics: (i) the items are not intensified by using rows and columns, (ii) the order of the visual stimuli is pseudo-random, (iii) a visual feedback is added on each item to increase the stimulus meaning, which is the main novelty. Read More

Prediction in a small-sized sample with a large number of covariates, the "small n, large p" problem, is challenging. This setting is encountered in multiple applications, such as precision medicine, where obtaining additional samples can be extremely costly or even impossible, and extensive research effort has recently been dedicated to finding principled solutions for accurate prediction. However, a valuable source of additional information, domain experts, has not yet been efficiently exploited. Read More

Many of today's most widely used computing applications utilize social networking features and allow users to connect, follow each other, share content, and comment on others' posts. However, despite the widespread adoption of these features, there is little understanding of the consequences that social networking has on user retention, engagement, and online as well as offline behavior. Here, we study how social networks influence user behavior in a physical activity tracking application. Read More

Regression under the "small $n$, large $p$" conditions, of small sample size $n$ and large number of features $p$ in the learning data set, is a recurring setting in which learning from data is difficult. With prior knowledge about relationships of the features, $p$ can effectively be reduced, but explicating such prior knowledge is difficult for experts. In this paper we introduce a new method for eliciting expert prior knowledge about the similarity of the roles of features in the prediction task. Read More

Missing data is universal and methods to deal with it far ranging from simply ignoring it to using complex modelling strategies such as multiple imputation and maximum likelihood estimation.Missing data has only been effectively imputed by machines via statistical/machine learning models. In this paper we set to answer an important question "Can humans perform reasonably well to fill in missing data, given information about the dataset?". Read More

We report from the Do Not Disturb Challenge, where 30 volunteers disabled notification alerts for 24 hours across all devices. We isolated the effect of the absence of notifications on the participants through an experimental study design: we compared self-reported feedback from the day without notifications against a baseline day. The evidence indicates that notifications have locked us in a dilemma: without notifications, participants felt less distracted and more productive. Read More

Social gaming is today a pervasive phenomenon. Driven by the advent of social networks and the digitization of game distribution. In this paper the impact of digitization and so-cial networks such as Facebook on digital games is de-scribed and evaluated. Read More

Text CAPTCHA has been an effective means to protect online systems from spams and abuses caused by automatic scripts which pretend to be human beings. However, nearly all the Text CAPTCHA designs in nowadays are based on English characters, which may not be the most user-friendly option for non-English speakers. Therefore, under the background of globalization, there is an increasing interest in designing local-language CAPTCHA, which is expected to be more usable for native speakers. Read More

Image CAPTCHA, aiming at effectively distinguishing human users from malicious script attacks, has been an important mechanism to protect online systems from spams and abuses. Despite the increasing interests in developing and deploying image CAPTCHAs, the usability aspect of those CAPTCHAs has hardly been explored systematically. In this paper, the universal design factors of image CAPTCHAs, such as image layouts, quantities, sizes, tilting angles and colors were experimentally evaluated through the following four dimensions: eye-tracking, efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction. Read More

Wikipedia articles about the same topic in different language editions are built around different sources of information. For example, one can find very different news articles linked as references in the English Wikipedia article titled "Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation" than in its German counterpart (determined via Wikipedia's language links). Some of this difference can of course be attributed to the different language proficiencies of readers and editors in separate language editions, yet, although including English-language news sources seems to be no issue in the German edition, English references that are listed do not overlap highly with the ones in the article's English version. Read More

An important problem for HCI researchers is to estimate the parameter values of a cognitive model from behavioral data. This is a difficult problem, because of the substantial complexity and variety in human behavioral strategies. We report an investigation into a new approach using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to condition model parameters to data and prior knowledge. Read More

Knowledge of patients affective state could prove to be crucial for health-care professionals in both diagnosis and treatment, however, this requires patients to report how they feel. In practice the sampling rate of affective states needs to be kept low, in order to ensure that the patients can rest. Furthermore using traditional methods of measuring affective states, is not always possible, e. Read More