Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction Publications

We are working on a scalable, interactive visualization system, called Carina, for people to explore million-node graphs. By using latest web browser technologies, Carina offers fast graph rendering via WebGL, and works across desktop (via Electron) and mobile platforms. Different from most existing graph visualization tools, Carina does not store the full graph in RAM, enabling it to work with graphs with up to 69M edges. Read More


Modern software developers rely on an extensive set of social media tools and communication channels. The adoption of team communication platforms has led to the emergence of conversation-based tools and integrations, many of which are chatbots. Understanding how software developers manage their complex constellation of collaborators in conjunction with the practices and tools they use can bring valuable insights into socio-technical collaborative work in software development and other knowledge work domains. Read More


Limited annotated data is available for the research of estimating facial expression intensities, which makes the training of deep networks for automated expression assessment very challenging. Fortunately, fine-tuning from a data-extensive pre-trained domain such as face verification can alleviate the problem. In this paper, we propose a transferred network that fine-tunes a state-of-the-art face verification network using expression-intensity labeled data with a regression layer. Read More


Location-based augmented reality games have entered the mainstream with the nearly overnight success of Niantic's Pok\'emon Go. Unlike traditional video games, the fact that players of such games carry out actions in the external, physical world to accomplish in-game objectives means that the large-scale adoption of such games motivate people, en masse, to do things and go places they would not have otherwise done in unprecedented ways. The social implications of such mass-mobilisation of individual players are, in general, difficult to anticipate or characterise, even for the short-term. Read More


Bias is a common problem in today's media, appearing frequently in text and in visual imagery. Users on social media websites such as Twitter need better methods for identifying bias. Additionally, activists --those who are motivated to effect change related to some topic, need better methods to identify and counteract bias that is contrary to their mission. Read More


Social media and user-generated content (UGC) are increasingly important features of journalistic work in a number of different ways. However, their use presents major challenges, not least because information posted on social media is not always reliable and therefore its veracity needs to be checked before it can be considered as fit for use in the reporting of news. We report on the results of a series of in-depth ethnographic studies of journalist work practices undertaken as part of the requirements gathering for a prototype of a social media verification 'dashboard' and its subsequent evaluation. Read More


Successful analysis of player skills in video games has important impacts on the process of enhancing player experience without undermining their continuous skill development. Moreover, player skill analysis becomes more intriguing in team-based video games because such form of study can help discover useful factors in effective team formation. In this paper, we consider the problem of skill decomposition in MOBA (MultiPlayer Online Battle Arena) games, with the goal to understand what player skill factors are essential for the outcome of a game match. Read More


Identification of intended movement type and movement phase of hand grasp shaping are critical features for the control of volitional neuroprosthetics. We demonstrate that neural dynamics during visually-guided imagined grasp shaping can encode intended movement. We apply Procrustes analysis and LASSO regression to achieve 72% accuracy (chance = 25%) in distinguishing between visually-guided imagined grasp trajectories. Read More


Live interactions have the potential to meaningfully engage audiences during musical performances, and modern technologies promise unique ways to facilitate these interactions. This work presents findings from three co-design sessions with children that investigated how audiences might want to interact with live music performances, including design considerations and opportunities. Findings from these sessions also formed a Spectrum of Audience Interactivity in live musical performances, outlining ways to encourage interactivity in music performances from the child perspective. Read More


Researchers often summarize their work in the form of scientific posters. Posters provide a coherent and efficient way to convey core ideas expressed in scientific papers. Generating a good scientific poster, however, is a complex and time consuming cognitive task, since such posters need to be readable, informative, and visually aesthetic. Read More


Recognizing human activities in a sequence is a challenging area of research in ubiquitous computing. Most approaches use a fixed size sliding window over consecutive samples to extract features---either handcrafted or learned features---and predict a single label for all samples in the window. Two key problems emanate from this approach: i) the samples in one window may not always share the same label. Read More


What we eat is one of the most frequent and important health decisions we make in daily life, yet it remains notoriously difficult to capture and understand. Effective food journaling is thus a grand challenge in personal health informatics. In this paper we describe a system for food journaling called I Ate This, which is inspired by the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM). Read More


Multiplayer online battle arena has become a popular game genre. It also received increasing attention from our research community because they provide a wealth of information about human interactions and behaviors. A major problem is extracting meaningful patterns of activity from this type of data, in a way that is also easy to interpret. Read More


Wikipedia is one of the most popular sites on the Web, with millions of users relying on it to satisfy a broad range of information needs every day. Although it is crucial to understand what exactly these needs are in order to be able to meet them, little is currently known about why users visit Wikipedia. The goal of this paper is to fill this gap by combining a survey of Wikipedia readers with a log-based analysis of user activity. Read More


IUIs aim to incorporate intelligent automated capabilities in human computer interaction, where the net impact is a human-computer interaction that improves performance or usability in critical ways. It also involves designing and implementing an artificial intelligence (AI) component that effectively leverages human skills and capabilities, so that human performance with an application excels. IUIs embody capabilities that have traditionally been associated more strongly with humans than with computers: how to perceive, interpret, learn, use language, reason, plan, and decide. Read More


We present BubbleView, a methodology to replace eye-tracking with mouse clicks. Participants are presented with a series of blurred images and click to reveal "bubbles" - small, circular areas of the image at original resolution, similar to having a confined area of focus like the eye fovea. We evaluated BubbleView on a variety of image types: information visualizations, natural images, static webpages, and graphic designs, and compared the clicks to eye fixations collected with eye-trackers in controlled lab settings. Read More


Human-machine networks affect many aspects of our lives: from sharing experiences with family and friends, knowledge creation and distance learning, and managing utility bills or providing feedback on retail items, to more specialised networks providing decision support to human operators and the delivery of health care via a network of clinicians, family, friends, and both physical and virtual social robots. Such networks rely on increasingly sophisticated machine algorithms, e.g. Read More


In this paper we revisit some classic board games like Pachisi or the Game of Gosse. The main contribution of the paper is to design and add some functionalities to the games in order to transform them in serious games, that is, in games with learning and educational purposes. To do that, at the beginning of the game, players choose one or several topics and during the game, players have to anwers questions on these topics in order to move their markers. Read More


The increasing practice of engaging crowds, where organizations use IT to connect with dispersed individuals for explicit resource creation purposes, has precipitated the need to measure the precise processes and benefits of these activities over myriad different implementations. In this work, we seek to address these salient and non-trivial considerations by laying a foundation of theory, measures, and research methods that allow us to test crowd-engagement efficacy across organizations, industries, technologies, and geographies. To do so, we anchor ourselves in the Theory of Crowd Capital, a generalizable framework for studying IT-mediated crowd-engagement phenomena, and put forth an empirical apparatus of testable measures and generalizable methods to begin to unify the field of crowd science. Read More


In this work we seek to understand how differences in location affect participation outcomes in IT-mediated crowds. To do so, we operationalize Crowd Capital Theory with data from a popular international creative crowdsourcing site, to determine whether regional differences exist in crowdsourcing participation outcomes. We present the early results of our investigation from data encompassing 1,858,202 observations from 28,214 crowd members on 94 different projects in 2012. Read More


In this work we use the theory of Crowd Capital as a lens to compare and contrast a number of IS tools currently in use by organizations for crowd-engagement purposes. In doing so, we contribute to both the practitioner and research domains. For the practitioner community we provide decision-makers with a convenient and useful resource, in table-form, outlining in detail some of the differing potentialities of crowd-engaging IS. Read More


Traditionally, the term crowd was used almost exclusively in the context of people who self-organized around a common purpose, emotion or experience. Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing, the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds, can now significantly influence a firms ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Read More


Managing micro-tasks on crowdsourcing marketplaces involves balancing conflicting objectives -- the quality of work, total cost incurred and time to completion. Previous agents have focused on cost-quality, or cost-time tradeoffs, limiting their real-world applicability. As a step towards this goal we present Octopus, the first AI agent that jointly manages all three objectives in tandem. Read More


Micro-task crowdsourcing has become a successful mean to obtain high-quality data from a large crowd of diverse people. In this context, trust between all the involved actors (i.e. Read More


What is the state of the literature in respect to Crowdsourcing for policy making? This work attempts to answer this question by collecting, categorizing, and situating the extant research investigating Crowdsourcing for policy, within the broader Crowdsourcing literature. To do so, the work first extends the Crowdsourcing literature by introducing, defining, explaining, and using seven universal characteristics of all general Crowdsourcing techniques, to vividly draw-out the relative trade-offs of each mode of Crowdsourcing. From this beginning, the work systematically and explicitly weds the three types of Crowdsourcing to the stages of the Policy cycle as a method of situating the extant literature spanning both domains. Read More


Crowdsourcing is beginning to be used for policymaking. The wisdom of crowds [Surowiecki 2005], and crowdsourcing [Brabham 2008], are seen as new avenues that can shape all kinds of policy, from transportation policy [Nash 2009] to urban planning [Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013], to climate policy. In general, many have high expectations for positive outcomes with crowdsourcing, and based on both anecdotal and empirical evidence, some of these expectations seem justified [Majchrzak and Malhotra 2013]. Read More


To begin to understand the implications of the implementation of IT-mediated Crowds for Politics and Policy purposes, this research builds the first-known dataset of IT-mediated Crowd applications currently in use in the governance context. Using Crowd Capital theory and governance theory as frameworks to organize our data collection, we undertake an exploratory data analysis of some fundamental factors defining this emerging field. Specific factors outlined and discussed include the type of actors implementing IT-mediated Crowds in the governance context, the global geographic distribution of the applications, and the nature of the Crowd-derived resources being generated for governance purposes. Read More


Premised upon the observation that MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena share several important characteristics, including IT mediation, large-scale human participation, and varying levels of openness to participants, this work systematizes a comparison of MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena along these salient dimensions. In doing so, we learn that both domains share further common traits, including similarities in IT structures, knowledge generating capabilities, presence of intermediary service providers, and techniques designed to attract and maintain participant activity. Stemming directly from this analysis, we discuss new directions for future research in both fields and draw out actionable implications for practitioners and researchers in both domains. Read More


Can Crowds serve as useful allies in policy design? How do non-expert Crowds perform relative to experts in the assessment of policy measures? Does the geographic location of non-expert Crowds, with relevance to the policy context, alter the performance of non-experts Crowds in the assessment of policy measures? In this work, we investigate these questions by undertaking experiments designed to replicate expert policy assessments with non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We use a set of ninety-six climate change adaptation policy measures previously evaluated by experts in the Netherlands as our control condition to conduct experiments using two discrete sets of non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We vary the composition of our non-expert Crowds along two conditions: participants recruited from a geographical location directly relevant to the policy context and participants recruited at-large. Read More


For what purposes are crowds being implemented in health care? Which crowdsourcing methods are being used? This work begins to answer these questions by reporting the early results of a systematic literature review of 110 pieces of relevant research. The results of this exploratory research in progress reveals that collective intelligence outcomes are being generated in three broad categories of public health care; health promotion, health research, and health maintenance, using all three known forms of crowdsourcing. Stemming from this fundamental analysis, some potential implications of the research are discussed and useful future research is outlined. Read More


New techniques leveraging IT-mediated crowds such as Crowdsensing, Situated Crowdsourcing, Spatial Crowdsourcing, and Wearables Crowdsourcing have now materially emerged. These techniques, here termed next generation Crowdsourcing, serve to extend Crowdsourcing efforts beyond the heretofore dominant desktop computing paradigm. Employing new configurations of hardware, software, and people, these techniques represent new forms of organization for IT-mediated crowds. Read More


Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are frequently used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), but they are easily contaminated by artifacts and noises, so preprocessing must be done before they are fed into a machine learning algorithm for classification or regression. Spatial filters have been widely used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of EEG for BCI classification problems, but their applications in BCI regression problems have been very limited. This paper proposes two common spatial pattern (CSP) filters for EEG-based regression problems in BCI, which are extended from the CSP filter for classification, by making use of fuzzy sets. Read More


Electroencephalography (EEG) headsets are the most commonly used sensing devices for Brain-Computer Interface. In real-world applications, there are advantages to extrapolating data from one user session to another. However, these advantages are limited if the data arise from different hardware systems, which often vary between application spaces. Read More


One big challenge that hinders the transition of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) from laboratory settings to real-life applications is the availability of high-performance and robust learning algorithms that can effectively handle individual differences, i.e., algorithms that can be applied to a new subject with zero or very little subject-specific calibration data. Read More


Many real-world brain-computer interface (BCI) applications rely on single-trial classification of event-related potentials (ERPs) in EEG signals. However, because different subjects have different neural responses to even the same stimulus, it is very difficult to build a generic ERP classifier whose parameters fit all subjects. The classifier needs to be calibrated for each individual subject, using some labeled subject-specific data. Read More


Instant messaging is one of the major channels of computer mediated communication. However, humans are known to be very limited in understanding others' emotions via text-based communication. Aiming on introducing emotion sensing technologies to instant messaging, we developed EmotionPush, a system that automatically detects the emotions of the messages end-users received on Facebook Messenger and provides colored cues on their smartphones accordingly. Read More


StreamBED is an embodied VR training for citizen scientists to make qualitative stream assessments. Early findings garnered positive feedback about training qualitative assessment using a virtual representation of different stream spaces, but presented field-specific challenges; novice biologists had trouble interpreting qualitative protocols, and needed substantive guidance to look for and interpret environment cues. In order to address these issues in the redesign, this work uses research through design (RTD) methods to consider feedback from expert stream biologists, firsthand stream monitoring experience, discussions with education and game designers, and feedback from a low fidelity prototype. Read More


This dissertation is based on five empirical research articles investigating the different latent factors that motivate and hinder the process of digital-photo interaction in computer-mediated platforms. Study I examine the current practices surrounding digital photos in the context of personal photo repositories (N=15). Study II investigates the gratifications and impeding factors associated with photo-tagging activity on Facebook (N=67). Read More


Crowd employment is a new form of short term and flexible employment which has emerged during the past decade. For understanding this new form of employment, it is crucial to understand the underlying motivations of the workforce involved in it. This paper presents the Multidimensional Crowdworker Motivation Scale (MCMS), a scale for measuring the motivation of crowdworkers on micro-task platforms. Read More


There is a widely-accepted need to revise current forms of health-care provision, with particular interest in sensing systems in the home. Given a multiple-modality sensor platform with heterogeneous network connectivity, as is under development in the Sensor Platform for HEalthcare in Residential Environment (SPHERE) Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration (IRC), we face specific challenges relating to the fusion of the heterogeneous sensor modalities. We introduce Bayesian models for sensor fusion, which aims to address the challenges of fusion of heterogeneous sensor modalities. Read More


Scratch is a programming environment and an online community where young people can create, share, learn, and communicate. In collaboration with the Scratch Team at MIT, we created a longitudinal dataset of public activity in the Scratch online community during its first five years (2007-2012). The dataset comprises 32 tables with information on more than 1 million Scratch users, nearly 2 million Scratch projects, more than 10 million comments, more than 30 million visits to Scratch projects, and more. Read More


In online communities, antisocial behavior such as trolling disrupts constructive discussion. While prior work suggests that trolling behavior is confined to a vocal and antisocial minority, we demonstrate that ordinary people can engage in such behavior as well. We propose two primary trigger mechanisms: the individual's mood, and the surrounding context of a discussion (e. Read More


Ancient Chinese texts present an area of enormous challenge and opportunity for humanities scholars interested in exploiting computational methods to assist in the development of new insights and interpretations of culturally significant materials. In this paper we describe a collaborative effort between Indiana University and Xi'an Jiaotong University to support exploration and interpretation of a digital corpus of over 18,000 ancient Chinese documents, which we refer to as the "Handian" ancient classics corpus (H\`an di\u{a}n g\u{u} j\'i, i.e, the "Han canon" or "Chinese classics"). Read More


We present a database for research on affect, personality traits and mood by means of neuro-physiological signals. Different to other databases, we elicited affect using both short and long videos in two settings, one with individual viewers and one with groups of viewers. The database allows the multimodal study of the affective responses of individuals in relation to their personality and mood, and the analysis of how these responses are affected by (i) the individual/group setting, and (ii) the duration of the videos (short vs long). Read More


The number and quality of user reviews greatly affects consumer purchasing decisions. While reviews in all languages are increasing, it is still often the case (especially for non-English speakers) that there are only a few reviews in a person's first language. Using an online experiment, we examine the value that potential purchasers receive from interfaces showing additional reviews in a second language. Read More


In this paper, we present Scratch Community Blocks, a new system that enables children to programmatically access, analyze, and visualize data about their participation in Scratch, an online community for learning computer programming. At its core, our approach involves a shift in who analyzes data: from adult data scientists to young learners themselves. We first introduce the goals and design of the system and then demonstrate it by describing example projects that illustrate its functionality. Read More


We propose a new approach for interaction in Virtual Reality (VR) using mobile robots as proxies for haptic feedback. This approach allows VR users to have the experience of sharing and manipulating tangible physical objects with remote collaborators. Because participants do not directly observe the robotic proxies, the mapping between them and the virtual objects is not required to be direct. Read More


Natural Language (NL) for transferring knowledge from a human to a robot. Recently, research on using NL to support human-robot cooperation (HRC) has received increasing attention in several domains such as robotic daily assistance, robotic health caregiving, intelligent manufacturing, autonomous navigation and robot social accompany. However, a high-level review that can reveal the realization process and the latest methodologies of using NL to facilitate HRC is missing. Read More


The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a widely used general purpose modeling language. Together with the Object Constraint Language (OCL), formal models can be described by defining the structure and behavior with UML and additional OCL constraints. In the development process for formal models, it is important to make sure that these models are (a) correct, i. Read More


The application of automatic theorem provers to discharge proof obligations is necessary to apply formal methods in an efficient manner. Tools supporting formal methods, such as Atelier~B, generate proof obligations fully automatically. Consequently, such proof obligations are often cluttered with information that is irrelevant to establish their validity. Read More