# Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics Publications

Let G be a simple connected molecular graph with vertex set $V(G)$ and edge set $E(G)$. One important modification of classical Zagreb index, called hyper Zagreb index $HM(G)$ is defined as the sum of squares of the degree sum of the adjacent vertices, that is, sum of the terms $[{d_G}(u)+{d_G}(v)]^2$ over all the edges of $G$, where ${d_G}(u)$ denote the degree of the vertex $u$ of $G$. In this paper, the hyper Zagreb index of certain bridge and chain graphs are computed and hence using the derived results we compute the hyper Zagreb index of several classes of chemical graphs and nanostructures. Read More

A common task in phylogenetics is to find an evolutionary tree representing proximity relationships between species. This motivates the notion of leaf powers: a graph G = (V, E) is a leaf power if there exist a tree T on leafset V and a threshold k such that uv is an edge if and only if the distance between u and v in T is at most k. Characterizing leaf powers is a challenging open problem, along with determining the complexity of their recognition. Read More

We introduce and study the game of Selfish Cops and Adversarial Robber (SCAR) which is an N-player generalization of the classic two-player cops and robbers (CR) game. We prove that SCAR has a Nash equilibrium in deterministic strategies. Read More

These lecture notes are on automorphism groups of Cayley graphs and their applications to optimal fault-tolerance of some interconnection networks. We first give an introduction to automorphisms of graphs and an introduction to Cayley graphs. We then discuss automorphism groups of Cayley graphs. Read More

We define a special case of tree decompositions for planar graphs that respect a given embedding of the graph. We study the analogous width of the resulting decomposition we call the embedded-width of a plane graph. We show both upper bounds and lower bounds for the embedded-width of a graph in terms of its treewidth and describe a fixed parameter tractable algorithm to calculate the embedded-width of a plane graph. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}IRIF,

^{2}I2M,

^{3}I2M

Abelian cellular automata (CA) are CA which are group endomorphisms of the full group shift when endowing the alphabet with an abelian group structure. A CA randomizes an initial probability measure if its iterated images weak *-converge towards the uniform Bernoulli measure (the Haar measure in this setting). We are interested in structural phenomena, i. Read More

Gottschalk and Vygen proved that every solution of the well-known subtour elimination linear program for traveling salesman paths is a convex combination of a set of more and more restrictive "generalized Gao trees" of the underlying graph. In this paper we give a short proof of this, as a {\em layered} convex combination of bases of a sequence of more and more restrictive matroids. Our proof implies (via the matroid partition theorem) a strongly-polynomial combinatorial algorithm for finding this convex combination. Read More

In a graph, a Clique-Stable Set separator (CS-separator) is a family $\mathcal{C}$ of cuts (bipartitions of the vertex set) such that for every clique $K$ and every stable set $S$ with $K \cap S = \emptyset$, there exists a cut $( W,W')$ in $\mathcal{C}$ such that $K \subseteq W$ and $S \subseteq W'$. Starting from a question concerning extended formulations of the Stable Set polytope and a related complexity communication problem, Yannakakis [17] asked in 1991 the following questions: does every graph admit a polynomial-size CS-separator? If not, does every perfect graph do? Several positive and negative results related to this question were given recently. Here we show how graph decomposition can be used to prove that a class of graphs admits a polynomial CS-separator. Read More

We consider the modeling approach introduced by R. Thomas for the qualitative study of gene regulatory networks. Tools and results on regulatory networks are often concerned only with the Boolean case of this formalism. Read More

We prove a Gauss-Bonnet formula X(G) = sum_x K(x), where K(x)=(-1)^dim(x) (1-X(S(x))) is a curvature of a vertex x with unit sphere S(x) in the Barycentric refinement G1 of a simplicial complex G. K(x) is dual to (-1)^dim(x) for which Gauss-Bonnet is the definition of Euler characteristic X. Because the connection Laplacian L'=1+A' of G is unimodular, where A' is the adjacency matrix of of the connection graph G', the Green function values g(x,y) = (1+A')^-1_xy are integers and 1-X(S(x))=g(x,x). Read More

In this work we investigate the problem of order batching and picker routing in storage areas. These are labour and capital intensive problems, often responsible for a substantial share of warehouse operating costs. In particular, we consider the case of online grocery shopping in which orders may be composed of dozens of items. Read More

A graph is $k$-planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that no edge is crossed more than $k$ times. While for $k=1$, optimal $1$-planar graphs, i.e. Read More

This paper addresses the problem of finding minimum forcing sets in origami. The origami material folds flat along straight lines called creases that can be labeled as mountains or valleys. A forcing set is a subset of creases that force all the other creases to fold according to their labels. Read More

We study extremal and algorithmic questions of subset synchronization in monotonic automata. We show that several synchronization problems that are hard in general automata can be solved in polynomial time in monotonic automata, even without knowing a linear order of the states preserved by the transitions. We provide asymptotically tight lower and upper bounds on the length of a shortest word synchronizing a subset of states in a monotonic automaton. Read More

We present two fully mechanized proofs of Dilworths and Mirskys theorems in the Coq proof assistant. Dilworths Theorem states that in any finite partially ordered set (poset), the size of a smallest chain cover and a largest antichain are the same. Mirskys Theorem is a dual of Dilworths Theorem. Read More

Various real-life planning problems require making upfront decisions before all parameters of the problem have been disclosed. An important special case of such problem especially arises in scheduling and staff rostering problems, where a set of tasks needs to be assigned to an available set of resources (personnel or machines), in a way that each task is assigned to one resource, while no task is allowed to share a resource with another task. In its nominal form, the resulting computational problem reduces to the well-known assignment problem that can be modeled as matching problems on bipartite graphs. Read More

Ortho-Radial drawings are a generalization of orthogonal drawings to grids that are formed by concentric circles and straight-line spokes emanating from the circles' center. Such drawings have applications in schematic graph layouts, e.g. Read More

Correspondence homomorphisms are both a generalization of standard homomorphisms and a generalization of correspondence colourings. For a fixed target graph $H$, the problem is to decide whether an input graph $G$, with each edge labeled by a pair of permutations of $V(H)$, admits a homomorphism to $H$ 'corresponding' to the labels, in a sense explained below. We classify the complexity of this problem as a function of the fixed graph $H$. Read More

We characterize all graphs $H$ for which there are only finitely many $H$-free 4-vertex-critical graphs. Such a characterization was known only in the case when $H$ is connected. This solves a problem posed by Golovach et al. Read More

In the infinite configuration network the links between nodes are assigned randomly with the only restriction that the degree distribution has to match a predefined function. This work presents a simple equation linking an arbitrary degree distribution to the corresponding size distribution of connected components. This equation is suitable for fast and stable numerical computations up to the machine precision. Read More

In combinatorial group testing problems Questioner needs to find a special element $x \in [n]$ by testing subsets of $[n]$. Tapolcai et al. introduced a new model, where each element knows the answer for those queries that contain it and each element should be able to identify the special one. Read More

We introduce a variant of the well-studied sum choice number of graphs, which we call the interactive sum choice number. In this variant, we request colours to be added to the vertices' colour-lists one at a time, and so we are able to make use of information about the colours assigned so far to determine our future choices. The interactive sum choice number cannot exceed the sum choice number and we conjecture that, except in the case of complete graphs, the interactive sum choice number is always strictly smaller than the sum choice number. Read More

We study the problem of testing unateness of functions $f:\{0,1\}^d \to \mathbb{R}.$ We give a $O(\frac{d}{\epsilon} \cdot \log\frac{d}{\epsilon})$-query nonadaptive tester and a $O(\frac{d}{\epsilon})$-query adaptive tester and show that both testers are optimal for a fixed distance parameter $\epsilon$. Previously known unateness testers worked only for Boolean functions, and their query complexity had worse dependence on the dimension both for the adaptive and the nonadaptive case. Read More

We study the problem of constructing a (near) uniform random proper $q$-coloring of a simple $k$-uniform hypergraph with $n$ vertices and maximum degree $\Delta$. (Proper in that no edge is mono-colored and simple in that two edges have maximum intersection of size one). We show that if $q\geq \max\{C_k\log n,500k^3\Delta^{1/(k-1)}\}$ then the Glauber Dynamics will become close to uniform in $O(n\log n)$ time, given a random (improper) start. Read More

Vertex Descent is a local search algorithm which forms the basis of a wide spectrum of tabu search, simulated annealing and hybrid evolutionary algorithms for graph colouring. These algorithms are usually treated as experimental and provide strong results on established benchmarks. As a step towards studying these heuristics analytically, an analysis of the behaviour of Vertex Descent is provided. Read More

Deciding whether a given graph has a square root is a classical problem that has been studied extensively both from graph theoretic and from algorithmic perspectives. The problem is NP-complete in general, and consequently substantial effort has been dedicated to deciding whether a given graph has a square root that belongs to a particular graph class. There are both polynomial-time solvable and NP-complete cases, depending on the graph class. Read More

In evolutionary biology, phylogenetic networks are constructed to represent the evolution of species in which reticulate events are thought to have occurred, such as recombination and hybridization. It is therefore useful to have efficiently computable metrics with which to systematically compare such networks. Through developing an optimal algorithm to enumerate all trinets displayed by a level-1 network (a type of network that is slightly more general than an evolutionary tree), here we propose a cubic-time algorithm to compute the trinet distance between two level-1 networks. Read More

We present a simple distributed algorithm that, given a regular graph consisting of two communities (or clusters), each inducing a good expander and such that the cut between them has sparsity $1/\mbox{polylog}(n)$, recovers the two communities. More precisely, upon running the protocol, every node assigns itself a binary label of $m = \Theta(\log n)$ bits, so that with high probability, for all but a small number of outliers, nodes within the same community are assigned labels with Hamming distance $o(m)$, while nodes belonging to different communities receive labels with Hamming distance at least $m/2 - o(m)$. We refer to such an outcome as a "community sensitive labeling" of the graph. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LAMSADE,

^{2}Le2i,

^{3}Le2i

The question of whether subcubic graphs have finite packing chromatic number or not is still open although positive responses are known for some subclasses, including subcubic trees, base-3 Sierpiski graphs and hexagonal lattices. In this paper, we answer positively to the question for some subcubic outerplanar graphs. We provide asymptotic bounds depending on structural properties of the weak dual of the outerplanar graphs and determine sharper bounds on some classes of subcubic outerplanar graphs. Read More

In this paper, we propose a polynomial-time algorithm to test whether a given graph contains a subdivision of $K_4$ as an induced subgraph. Read More

In the densest subgraph problem, given an edge-weighted undirected graph $G=(V,E,w)$, we are asked to find $S\subseteq V$ that maximizes the density, i.e., $w(S)/|S|$, where $w(S)$ is the sum of weights of the edges in the subgraph induced by $S$. Read More

Determinantal point processes (DPPs) are popular probabilistic models that arise in many machine learning tasks, where distributions of diverse sets are characterized by matrix determinants. In this paper, we develop fast algorithms to find the most likely configuration (MAP) of large-scale DPPs, which is NP-hard in general. Due to the submodular nature of the MAP objective, greedy algorithms have been used with empirical success. Read More

We consider several examples of probabilistic existence proofs using compressibility arguments, including some results that involve Lov\'asz local lemma. Read More

We investigate a special case of hereditary property that we refer to as {\em robustness}. A property is {\em robust} in a given graph if it is inherited by all connected spanning subgraphs of this graph. We motivate this definition in different contexts, showing that it plays a central role in highly dynamic networks, although the problem is defined in terms of classical (static) graph theory. Read More

A Group Labeled Graph is a pair $(G,\Lambda)$ where $G$ is an oriented graph and $\Lambda$ is a mapping from the arcs of $G$ to elements of a group. A (not necessarily directed) cycle $C$ is called non-null if for any cyclic ordering of the arcs in $C$, the group element obtained by `adding' the labels on forward arcs and `subtracting' the labels on reverse arcs is not the identity element of the group. Non-null cycles in group labeled graphs generalize several well-known graph structures, including odd cycles. Read More

**Authors:**Dmitry I. Ignatov

This paper is a tutorial on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) and its applications. FCA is an applied branch of Lattice Theory, a mathematical discipline which enables formalisation of concepts as basic units of human thinking and analysing data in the object-attribute form. Originated in early 80s, during the last three decades, it became a popular human-centred tool for knowledge representation and data analysis with numerous applications. Read More

We investigate the performance of the Greedy algorithm for cardinality constrained maximization of non-submodular nondecreasing set functions. While there are strong theoretical guarantees on the performance of Greedy for maximizing submodular functions, there are few guarantees for non-submodular ones. However, Greedy enjoys strong empirical performance for many important non-submodular functions, e. Read More

A (convex) polytope $P$ is said to be $2$-level if for every direction of hyperplanes which is facet-defining for $P$, the vertices of $P$ can be covered with two hyperplanes of that direction. The study of these polytopes is motivated by questions in combinatorial optimization and communication complexity, among others. In this paper, we present the first algorithm for enumerating all combinatorial types of $2$-level polytopes of a given dimension $d$, and provide complete experimental results for $d \leqslant 7$. Read More

This paper gives an algebraic proof of the correctness of Von Schelling formula for the probability of the coupon collector problem waiting time for non-uniform distributions and partial collections. It introduces a theorem on sums of powers of subset probabilities which to our knowledge is new. A set of binomial coefficients is used as a basis for decomposition of these sums of powers. Read More

The hyperbolic Pascal triangle ${\cal HPT}_{4,q}$ $(q\ge5)$ is a new mathematical construction, which is a geometrical generalization of Pascal's arithmetical triangle. In the present study we show that a natural pattern of rows of ${\cal HPT}_{4,5}$ is almost the same as the sequence consisting of every second term of the well-known Fibonacci words. Further, we give a generalization of the Fibonacci words using the hyperbolic Pascal triangles. Read More

A novel matching based heuristic algorithm designed to detect specially formulated infeasible zero-one IPs is presented. The algorithm input is a set of nested doubly stochastic subsystems and a set E of instance defining variables set at zero level. The algorithm deduces additional variables at zero level until either a constraint is violated (the IP is infeasible), or no more variables can be deduced zero (the IP is undecided). Read More

A linear arrangement is a labeling or a numbering or a linear ordering of the vertices of a graph. In this paper we solve the minimum linear arrangement problem for bijective connection graphs (for short BC graphs) which include hypercubes, M\"{o}bius cubes, crossed cubes, twisted cubes, locally twisted cube, spined cube, $Z$-cubes, etc. as the subfamilies. Read More

Controlling complex networks is of great importance in many application regions. Recent works found that the minimum number of input nodes (MIS) used to control a network can be obtained by the maximum matching. However, the maximum matchings of a network are not unique, and there may exist numerous MISs. Read More

We show that every ($P_6$, diamond, $K_4$)-free graph is $6$-colorable. Moreover, we give an example of a ($P_6$, diamond, $K_4$)-free graph $G$ with $\chi(G) = 6$. This generalizes some known results in the literature. Read More

No. We prove that Erdos- Renyi Random Graphs are not topologically random. This begins to provide mathematical explanation as to why random graphs fail to explain topological characteristics of real world networks. Read More

We describe a family of new algorithms for finding the canonical image of a set of points under the action of a permutation group. This family of algorithms makes use of the orbit structure of the group, and a chain of subgroups of the group, to efficiently reduce the amount of search which must be performed to find a canonical image. We present both a formal proof of correctness of our algorithms and experiments on different permutation groups, which compare our algorithms with the previous state of the art. Read More

We present a generalization of a known fact from combinatorics on words related to periodicity into quasiperiodicity. A string is called periodic if it has a period which is at most half of its length. A string $w$ is called quasiperiodic if it has a non-trivial cover, that is, there exists a string $c$ that is shorter than $w$ and such that every position in $w$ is inside one of the occurrences of $c$ in $w$. Read More

The extension complexity $\mathsf{xc}(P)$ of a polytope $P$ is the minimum number of facets of a polytope that affinely projects to $P$. Let $G$ be a bipartite graph with $n$ vertices, $m$ edges, and no isolated vertices. Let $\mathsf{stab}(G)$ be the convex hull of the stable sets of $G$. Read More

We prove that integer programming with three quantifier alternations is $NP$-complete, even for a fixed number of variables. This complements earlier results by Lenstra and Kannan, which together say that integer programming with at most two quantifier alternations can be done in polynomial time for a fixed number of variables. As a byproduct of the proof, we show that for two polytopes $P,Q \subset \mathbb{R}^4$ , counting the projection of integer points in $Q \backslash P$ is $\#P$-complete. Read More