Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics Publications

A graph is NIC-planar if it admits a drawing in the plane with at most one crossing per edge and such that two pairs of crossing edges share at most one common end vertex. NIC-planarity generalizes IC-planarity, which allows a vertex to be incident to at most one crossing edge, and specializes 1-planarity, which only requires at most one crossing per edge. We characterize embeddings of maximal NIC-planar graphs in terms of generalized planar dual graphs. Read More


Modeling decision-dependent scenario probabilities in stochastic programs is difficult and typically leads to large and highly non-linear MINLPs that are very difficult to solve. In this paper, we develop a new approach to obtain a compact representation of the recourse function using a set of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) that encode a nested cover of the scenario set. The resulting BDDs can then be used to efficiently characterize the decision-dependent scenario probabilities by a set of linear inequalities, which essentially factorizes the probability distribution and thus allows to reformulate the entire problem as a small mixed-integer linear program. Read More


Mahlmann and Schindelhauer (2005) defined a Markov chain which they called $k$-Flipper, and showed that it is irreducible on the set of all connected regular graphs of a given degree (at least 3). We study the 1-Flipper chain, which we call the flip chain, and prove that the flip chain converges rapidly to the uniform distribution over connected $2r$-regular graphs with $n$ vertices, where $n\geq 8$ and $r = r(n)\geq 2$. Formally, we prove that the distribution of the flip chain will be within $\varepsilon$ of uniform in total variation distance after $\text{poly}(n,r,\log(\varepsilon^{-1}))$ steps. Read More


Random key graphs were introduced to study various properties of the Eschenauer-Gligor key predistribution scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Recently this class of random graphs has received much attention in contexts as diverse as recommender systems, social network modeling, and clustering and classification analysis. This paper is devoted to analyzing various properties of random key graphs. Read More


Sums of independent, bounded random variables concentrate around their expectation approximately as well a Gaussian of the same variance. Well known results of this form include the Bernstein, Hoeffding, and Chernoff inequalities and many others. We present an alternative proof of these tail bounds based on what we call a stability argument, which avoids bounding the moment generating function or higher-order moments of the distribution. Read More


In this paper we solve a conjecture regarding the minimum number of inclusion minimal independent sets with positive difference and give a short proof of |Ker| + |Diadem| $\le$ 2{\alpha}. A characterization of unicyclic non-KE graphs is presented which gives a simple proof of a conjecture (by Vadim E. Levit) regarding critical difference of such graphs. Read More


In this paper we propose augmented interval Markov chains (AIMCs): a generalisation of the familiar interval Markov chains (IMCs) where uncertain transition probabilities are in addition allowed to depend on one another. This new model preserves the flexibility afforded by IMCs for describing stochastic systems where the parameters are unclear, for example due to measurement error, but also allows us to specify transitions with probabilities known to be identical, thereby lending further expressivity. The focus of this paper is reachability in AIMCs. Read More


In the work of Peng et al. in 2012, a new measure was proposed for fault diagnosis of systems: namely, g-good-neighbor conditional diagnosability, which requires that any fault-free vertex has at least g fault-free neighbors in the system. In this paper, we establish the g-good-neighbor conditional diagnosability of locally twisted cubes under the PMC model and the MM^* model. Read More


In the Survivable Network Design Problem (SNDP), the input is an edge-weighted (di)graph $G$ and an integer $r_{uv}$ for every pair of vertices $u,v\in V(G)$. The objective is to construct a subgraph $H$ of minimum weight which contains $r_{uv}$ edge-disjoint (or node-disjoint) $u$-$v$ paths. This is a fundamental problem in combinatorial optimization that captures numerous well-studied problems in graph theory and graph algorithms. Read More


Batch codes, first introduced by Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai, mimic a distributed storage of a set of $n$ data items on $m$ servers, in such a way that any batch of $k$ data items can be retrieved by reading at most some $t$ symbols from each server. Combinatorial batch codes, are replication-based batch codes in which each server stores a subset of the data items. In this paper, we propose a generalization of combinatorial batch codes, called multiset combinatorial batch codes (MCBC), in which $n$ data items are stored in $m$ servers, such that any multiset request of $k$ items, where any item is requested at most $r$ times, can be retrieved by reading at most $t$ items from each server. Read More


For any group $G$ and any set $A$, a cellular automaton (CA) is a transformation of the configuration space $A^G$ defined via a finite memory set and a local function. Let $\text{CA}(G;A)$ be the monoid of all CA over $A^G$. In this paper, we investigate a generalisation of the inverse of a CA from the semigroup-theoretic perspective. Read More


We study the heavy path decomposition of conditional Galton-Watson trees. In a standard Galton-Watson tree conditional on its size $n$, we order all children by their subtree sizes, from large (heavy) to small. A node is marked if it is among the $k$ heaviest nodes among its siblings. Read More


In this paper, we propose a Quantum variation of combinatorial games, generalizing the Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe proposed by Allan Goff [2006]. A Combinatorial Game is a two-player game with no chance and no hidden information, such as Go or Chess. In this paper, we consider the possibility of playing superpositions of moves in such games. Read More


The energy of a graph G is equal to the sum of absolute values of the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of G, whereas the Laplacian energy of a graph G is equal to the sum of the absolute value of the difference between the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of G and average degree of the vertices of G. Motivated by the work from Sharafdini et al. [R. Read More


A word is closed if it contains a factor that occurs both as a prefix and as a suffix but does not have internal occurrences, otherwise it is open. We are interested in the {\it oc-sequence} of a word, which is the binary sequence whose $n$-th element is $0$ if the prefix of length $n$ of the word is open, or $1$ if it is closed. We exhibit results showing that this sequence is deeply related to the combinatorial and periodical structure of a word. Read More


In data centers, data replication is the primary method used to ensure availability of customer data. To avoid correlated failure, cloud storage infrastructure providers model hierarchical failure domains using a tree, and avoid placing a large number of data replicas within the same failure domain (i.e. Read More


In recent years, several convex programming relaxations have been proposed to estimate the permanent of a non-negative matrix, notably in the works of Gurvits and Samorodnitsky. However, the origins of these relaxations and their relationships to each other have remained somewhat mysterious. We present a conceptual framework, implicit in the belief propagation literature, to systematically arrive at these convex programming relaxations for estimating the permanent -- as approximations to an exponential-sized max-entropy convex program for computing the permanent. Read More


Finding the common structural brain connectivity network for a given population is an open problem, crucial for current neuro-science. Recent evidence suggests there's a tightly connected network shared between humans. Obtaining this network will, among many advantages , allow us to focus cognitive and clinical analyses on common connections, thus increasing their statistical power. Read More


A gambler moves on the vertices $1, \ldots, n$ of a graph using the probability distribution $p_{1}, \ldots, p_{n}$. A cop pursues the gambler on the graph, only being able to move between adjacent vertices. What is the expected number of moves that the gambler can make until the cop catches them? Komarov and Winkler proved an upper bound of approximately $1. Read More


This paper aims to establish theoretical foundations of graph product multilayer networks (GPMNs), a family of multilayer networks that can be obtained as a graph product of two or more factor networks. Cartesian, direct (tensor), and strong product operators are considered, and then generalized. We first describe mathematical relationships between GPMNs and their factor networks regarding their degree/strength, adjacency, and Laplacian spectra, and then show that those relationships can still hold for nonsimple and generalized GPMNs. Read More


An abelian square is the concatenation of two words that are anagrams of one another. A word of length $n$ can contain at most $\Theta(n^2)$ distinct factors, and there exist words of length $n$ containing $\Theta(n^2)$ distinct abelian-square factors, that is, distinct factors that are abelian squares. This motivates us to study infinite words such that the number of distinct abelian-square factors of length $n$ grows quadratically with $n$. Read More


In this paper, we determine the maximum number of distinct Lyndon factors that a word of length $n$ can contain. We also derive formulas for the expected total number of Lyndon factors in a word of length $n$ on an alphabet of size $\sigma$, as well as the expected number of distinct Lyndon factors in such a word. The minimum number of distinct Lyndon factors in a word of length $n$ is $1$ and the minimum total number is $n$, with both bounds being achieved by $x^n$ where $x$ is a letter. Read More


A symmetric matrix is Robinsonian if its rows and columns can be simultaneously reordered in such a way that entries are monotone nondecreasing in rows and columns when moving toward the diagonal. The adjacency matrix of a graph is Robinsonian precisely when the graph is a unit interval graph, so that Robinsonian matrices form a matrix analogue of the class of unit interval graphs. Here we provide a structural characterization for Robinsonian matrices in terms of forbidden substructures, extending the notion of asteroidal triples to weighted graphs. Read More


Let $G=G(n)$ be a graph on $n$ vertices with maximum degree $\Delta=\Delta(n)$. Assign to each vertex $v$ of $G$ a list $L(v)$ of colors by choosing each list independently and uniformly at random from all $k$-subsets of a color set $\mathcal{C}$ of size $\sigma= \sigma(n)$. Such a list assignment is called a \emph{random $(k,\mathcal{C})$-list assignment}. Read More


In the study of extensions of polytopes of combinatorial optimization problems, a notorious open question is that for the size of the smallest extended formulation of the Minimum Spanning Tree problem on a complete graph with $n$ nodes. The best known lower bound is $\Omega(n^2)$, the best known upper bound is $O(n^3)$. In this note we show that the venerable fooling set method cannot be used to improve the lower bound: every fooling set for the Spanning Tree polytope has size $O(n^2)$. Read More


A fundamental characteristic of computer networks is their topological structure. The question of the description of the structural characteristics of computer networks represents a problem that is not completely solved. Search methods for structures of computer networks, for which the values of the selected parameters of their operation quality are extreme, have not been completely developed. Read More


We present two efficient algorithms that compute the optimal strategy for cop in the game of Cop v.s. Gambler where the gambler's strategy is not optimal but known to the cop. Read More


We prove that counting copies of any graph $F$ in another graph $G$ can be achieved using basic matrix operations on the adjacency matrix of $G$. Moreover, the resulting algorithm is competitive for medium-sized $F$: our algorithm recovers the best known complexity for rooted 6-clique counting and improves on the best known for 9-cycle counting. Underpinning our proofs is the new result that, for a general class of graph operators, matrix operations are homomorphisms for operations on rooted graphs. Read More


We present a simple proof of the fact that the base (and independence) polytope of a rank $n$ regular matroid over $m$ elements has an extension complexity $O(mn)$. Read More


Let $ex(n, P)$ be the maximum possible number of ones in any 0-1 matrix of dimensions $n \times n$ that avoids $P$. Matrix $P$ is called minimally non-linear if $ex(n, P) = \omega(n)$ but $ex(n, P') = O(n)$ for every strict subpattern $P'$ of $P$. We prove that the ratio between the length and width of any minimally non-linear 0-1 matrix is at most $4$, and that a minimally non-linear 0-1 matrix with $k$ rows has at most $5k-3$ ones. Read More


A pair of non-adjacent edges is said to be separated in a circular ordering of vertices, if the endpoints of the two edges do not alternate in the ordering. The circular separation dimension of a graph $G$, denoted by $\pi^\circ(G)$, is the minimum number of circular orderings of the vertices of $G$ such that every pair of non-adjacent edges is separated in at least one of the circular orderings. This notion is introduced by Loeb and West in their recent paper. Read More


We introduce the notion of information ratio $\text{Ir}(H/G)$ between two (simple, undirected) graphs $G$ and $H$, defined as the supremum of ratios $k/n$ such that there exists a mapping between the strong products $G^k$ to $H^n$ that preserves non-adjacency. Operationally speaking, the information ratio is the maximal number of source symbols per channel use that can be reliably sent over a channel with a confusion graph $H$, where reliability is measured w.r. Read More


Rare events have played an increasing role in molecular phylogenetics as potentially homoplasy-poor characters. In this contribution we analyze the phylogenetic information content from a combinatorial point of view by considering the binary relation on the set of taxa defined by the existence of single event separating two taxa. We show that the graph-representation of this relation must be a tree. Read More


This paper is motivated by the error-control problem in communication channels in which the transmitted sequences are subjected to random permutations, in addition to being impaired with insertions, deletions, substitutions, and erasures of symbols. Bounds on the size of optimal codes in this setting are derived, and their asymptotic behavior examined in the fixed-minimum-distance regime. A family of codes correcting these types of errors is described and is shown to be asymptotically optimal for some sets of parameters. Read More


The Dulmage--Mendelsohn decomposition (or the DM-decomposition) gives a unique partition of the vertex set of a bipartite graph reflecting the structure of all the maximum matchings therein. A bipartite graph is said to be DM-irreducible if its DM-decomposition consists of a single component. For connected bipartite graphs, this is equivalent to the condition that every edge is contained in some maximum matching. Read More


Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks---at the level of small network subgraphs---remains largely unknown. Read More


Let $G$ be a simple undirected graph.A broadcast on $G$ isa function $f : V(G)\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ such that $f(v)\le e\_G(v)$ holds for every vertex $v$ of $G$, where $e\_G(v)$ denotes the eccentricity of $v$ in $G$, that is, the maximum distance from $v$ to any other vertex of $G$.The cost of $f$ is the value ${\rm cost}(f)=\sum\_{v\in V(G)}f(v)$. Read More


The $k$-th symmetric product of a graph $G$ with vertex set $V$ with edge set $E$ is a graph with vertices as $k$-sets of $V$, where two $k$-sets are connected by an edge if and only if their symmetric difference is an edge in $E$. Using the isoperimetric properties of the vertex-induced subgraphs of $G$ and Sobolev inequalities on graphs, we obtain various edge-isoperimetric inequalities pertaining to the symmetric product of certain families of finite and infinite graphs. Read More


A mixed dominating set for a graph $G = (V,E)$ is a set $S\subseteq V \cup E$ such that every element $x \in (V \cup E) \backslash S$ is either adjacent or incident to an element of $S$. The mixed domination number of a graph $G$, denoted by $\gamma_m(G)$, is the minimum cardinality of mixed dominating sets of $G$ and any mixed dominating set with cardinality of $\gamma_m(G)$ is called a minimum mixed dominating set. The mixed domination problem is to find a minimum mixed dominating set for graph $G$ and is known to be an NP-complete problem. Read More


Given an abstract simplicial complex G, the connection graph G' of G has as vertex set the faces of the complex and connects two if they intersect. If A is the adjacency matrix of that connection graph, we prove that the Fredholm characteristic det(1+A) takes values in {-1,1} and is equal to the Fermi characteristic, which is the product of the w(x), where w(x)=(-1)^dim(x). The Fredholm characteristic is a special value of the Bowen-Lanford zeta function and has various combinatorial interpretations. Read More


We prove that whenever $G$ is a graph from a nowhere dense graph class $\mathcal{C}$, and $A$ is a subset of vertices of $G$, then the number of subsets of $A$ that are realized as intersections of $A$ with $r$-neighborhoods of vertices of $G$ is at most $f(r,\epsilon)\cdot |A|^{1+\epsilon}$, where $r$ is any positive integer, $\epsilon$ is any positive real, and $f$ is a function that depends only on the class $\mathcal{C}$. This yields a characterization of nowhere dense classes of graphs in terms of neighborhood complexity, which answers a question posed by Reidl et al. As an algorithmic application of the above result, we show that for every fixed $r$, the parameterized Distance-$r$ Dominating Set problem admits an almost linear kernel on any nowhere dense graph class. Read More


A complete graph is the graph in which every two vertices are adjacent. For a graph $G=(V,E)$, the complete width of $G$ is the minimum $k$ such that there exist $k$ independent sets $\mathtt{N}_i\subseteq V$, $1\le i\le k$, such that the graph $G'$ obtained from $G$ by adding some new edges between certain vertices inside the sets $\mathtt{N}_i$, $1\le i\le k$, is a complete graph. The complete width problem is to decide whether the complete width of a given graph is at most $k$ or not. Read More


We extend the Barvinok-Woods algorithm for enumeration of integer points in projections of polytopes to unbounded polyhedra. For this, we obtain a new structural result on projections of semilinear subsets of the integer lattice. We extend the results to general formulas in Presburger Arithmetic. Read More


We prove that every planar poset $P$ of height $h$ has dimension at most $192h + 96$. This improves on previous exponential bounds and is best possible up to a constant factor. Read More


We show that there are CNF formulas which can be refuted in resolution in both small space and small width, but for which any small-width proof must have space exceeding by far the linear worst-case upper bound. This significantly strengthens the space-width trade-offs in [Ben-Sasson '09]}, and provides one more example of trade-offs in the "supercritical" regime above worst case recently identified by [Razborov '16]. We obtain our results by using Razborov's new hardness condensation technique and combining it with the space lower bounds in [Ben-Sasson and Nordstrom '08]. Read More


In the final project paper we consider a graph parameter called readability. Motivation for readability comes from bioinformatics applications. Graphs arising in problems related to genome sequencing are of small readability, which motivates the study of graphs of small readability. Read More


This article examines the application of a popular measure of sparsity, Gini Index, on network graphs. A wide variety of network graphs happen to be sparse. But the index with which sparsity is commonly measured in network graphs is edge density, reflecting the proportion of the sum of the degrees of all nodes in the graph compared to the total possible degrees in the corresponding fully connected graph. Read More


Given a sparse undirected graph G with weights on the edges, a k-plex partition of G is a partition of its set of nodes such that each component is a k-plex. A subset of nodes S is a k-plex if the degree of every node in the associated induced subgraph is at least |S|-k. The maximum edge-weight k-plex partitioning (Max-EkPP) problem is to find a k-plex partition with maximum total weight, where the partition's weight is the sum of the weights on the edges in the solution. Read More