Computer Science - Computers and Society Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Computers and Society Publications

In recent years, ethical issues in the networking field are getting moreimportant. In particular, there is a consistent debate about how Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should collect and treat network measurements. This kind of information, such as flow records, carry interesting knowledge from multiple points of view: research, traffic engineering and e-commerce can benefit from measurements retrievable through inspection of network traffic. Read More


In economics and psychology, delay discounting is often used to characterize how individuals choose between a smaller immediate reward and a larger delayed reward. People with higher delay discounting rate (DDR) often choose smaller but more immediate rewards (a "today person"). In contrast, people with a lower discounting rate often choose a larger future rewards (a "tomorrow person"). Read More


Computational Thinking (CT) has been described as an essential skill which everyone should learn and can therefore include in their skill set. Seymour Papert is credited as concretising Computational Thinking in 1980 but since Wing popularised the term in 2006 and brought it to the international community's attention, more and more research has been conducted on CT in education. The aim of this systematic literary review is to give educators and education researchers an overview of what work has been carried out in the domain, as well as potential gaps and opportunities that still exist. Read More


The most critical time for information to spread is in the aftermath of a serious emergency, crisis, or disaster. Individuals affected by such situations can now turn to an array of communication channels, from mobile phone calls and text messages to social media posts, when alerting social ties. These channels drastically improve the speed of information in a time-sensitive event, and provide extant records of human dynamics during and afterward the event. Read More


In online discussion communities, users can interact and share information and opinions on a wide variety of topics. However, some users may create multiple identities, or sockpuppets, and engage in undesired behavior by deceiving others or manipulating discussions. In this work, we study sockpuppetry across nine discussion communities, and show that sockpuppets differ from ordinary users in terms of their posting behavior, linguistic traits, as well as social network structure. Read More


This article treats the issue of remote monitoring and control of greenhouse environment through a distributed system that interconnects several subsystems. Thus, a wireless data acquisition subsystem, a fully automated subsystem made of PLCs and industrial communication networks and an irrigation subsystem consists of two water tanks, sensors and actuators are interconnected. According to data provided by sensors, the automatic control subsystem decides whether the irrigation cycle of plants should be performed. Read More


The paper introduces a real-time monitoring and forecasting system for ecological phenomena. The process yields a collection of ecological parameters viewed as distributed time series, which are measured by means of wireless network of sensors. The acquired data are preliminary processed and modeled by using complex algorithms in view of prediction. Read More


The latest developments in digital have provided large data sets that can increasingly easily be accessed and used. These data sets often contain indirect localisation information, such as historical addresses. Historical geocoding is the process of transforming the indirect localisation information to direct localisation that can be placed on a map, which enables spatial analysis and cross-referencing. Read More


Machine learning has matured to the point to where it is now being considered to automate decisions in loan lending, employee hiring, and predictive policing. In many of these scenarios however, previous decisions have been made that are unfairly biased against certain subpopulations (e.g. Read More


We present in this work an economic analysis of ransomware, with relevant data from Cryptolocker, CryptoWall, TeslaCrypt and other major strands. We include a detailed study of the impact that different price discrimination strategies can have on the success of a ransomware family, examining uniform pricing, optimal price discrimination and bargaining strategies and analysing their advantages and limitations. In addition, we present results of a preliminary survey that can helps in estimating an optimal ransom value. Read More


Being dominant factors driving the human actions, personalities can be excellent indicators in predicting the offline and online behavior of different individuals. However, because of the great expense and inevitable subjectivity in questionnaires and surveys, it is challenging for conventional studies to explore the connection between personality and behavior and gain insights in the context of large amount individuals. Considering the more and more important role of the online social media in daily communications, we argue that the footprint of massive individuals, like tweets in Weibo, can be the inspiring proxy to infer the personality and further understand its functions in shaping the online human behavior. Read More


Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum's lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin's mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. Read More


The friendship paradox states that in a social network, egos tend to have lower degree than their alters, or, "your friends have more friends than you do". Most research has focused on the friendship paradox and its implications for information transmission, but treating the network as static and unweighted. Yet, people can dedicate only a finite fraction of their attention budget to each social interaction: a high-degree individual may have less time to dedicate to individual social links, forcing them to modulate the quantities of contact made to their different social ties. Read More


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) use peer assessment to grade open ended questions at scale, allowing students to provide feedback. Relative to teacher based grading, peer assessment on MOOCs traditionally delivers lower quality feedback and fewer learner interactions. We present the identified peer review (IPR) framework, which provides non-blind peer assessment and incentives driving high quality feedback. Read More


This paper summarizes selected results of the dissertation "Beobachtungsm\"oglichkeiten im Domain Name System: Angriffe auf die Privatsph\"are und Techniken zum Selbstdatenschutz". The dissertation provides new technical insights to answer the questions "Who can monitor us on the Internet?" and "How do we protect ourselves?". It focuses on the Domain Name System (DNS), the address book of the internet. Read More


Online trust systems are playing an important role in to-days world and face various challenges in building them. Billions of dollars of products and services are traded through electronic commerce, files are shared among large peer-to-peer networks and smart contracts can potentially replace paper contracts with digital contracts. These systems rely on trust mechanisms in peer-to-peer networks like reputation systems or a trustless public ledger. Read More


Existing screening tools for early detection of autism are expensive, cumbersome, time-intensive, and sometimes fall short in predictive value. In this work, we apply Machine Learning (ML) to gold standard clinical data obtained across thousands of children at risk for autism spectrum disorders to create a low-cost, quick, and easy to apply autism screening tool that performs as well or better than most widely used standardized instruments. This new tool combines two screening methods into a single assessment, one based on short, structured parent-report questionnaires and the other on tagging key behaviors from short, semi-structured home videos of children. Read More


Flight delays have a negative effect on airlines, airports and passengers. Their prediction is crucial during the decision-making process for all players of commercial aviation. Moreover, the development of accurate prediction models for flight delays became cumbersome due to the complexity of air transportation system, the amount of methods for prediction, and the deluge of data related to such system. Read More


This research paper proposes a quality framework for higher education that evaluates the performance of institutions on the basis of performance of outgoing students. Literature was surveyed to evaluate existing quality frameworks and develop a framework that provides insights on an unexplored dimension of quality. In order to implement and test the framework, cloud-based big data technology, BigQuery, was used with R to perform analytics. Read More


The happy-productive worker thesis states that happy workers are more productive. Recent research in software engineering supports the thesis, and the ideal of flourishing happiness among software developers is often expressed among industry practitioners. However, the literature suggests that a cost-effective way to foster happiness and productivity among workers could be to limit unhappiness. Read More


The problem addressed in this paper is the challenge arising in enabling collaborative learning in the context distance education models. While research has made quantum leaps in the development of both effective collaborative pedagogical models as well as online learning environments, the research at the intersection of these two areas has been scarce. This paper presents the design for a new collaborative virtual model, named Collaborative Virtual Affinity Group model (CVAG), which is an extension of the successful Affinity Group Research (ARG) model. Read More


There is an increasing interest in learning outside of the traditional classroom setting, especially for instruction of computational tools and practices that are challenging to incorporate in the standard curriculum. These atypical learning environments offer new ways for teaching students skills and concepts, particularly when it comes to combining conceptual knowledge with hands-on methods. Advances in cloud computing and containerized environments provide an attractive opportunity to improve the efficiency and ease with which students can learn. Read More


The history of humanhood has included competitive activities of many different forms. Sports have offered many benefits beyond that of entertainment. At the time of this article, there exists not a competitive ecosystem for cyber security beyond that of conventional capture the flag competitions, and the like. Read More


We study the relationship between performance and practice by analyzing the activity of many players of a casual online game. We find significant heterogeneity in the improvement of player performance, given by score, and address this by dividing players into similar skill levels and segmenting each player's activity into sessions, i.e. Read More


The Bitcoin digital currency appeared in 2009. Since this time, researchers and practitioners have looked under the hood of the open source Bitcoin currency, and discovered that Bitcoins Blockchain software architecture is useful for non-monetary purposes too. By coalescing the research and practice on Blockchains, this work begins to unpack Blockchains as a general phenomenon, therein, arguing that all Blockchain phenomena can be conceived as being comprised of transaction platforms and digital ledgers, and illustrating where public key encryption plays a differential role in facilitating these features of Blockchains. Read More


In this paper, the scientometric evaluation of faculty members of 50 Greek Science and Engineering University Departments is presented. 1978 academics were examined in total. The number of papers, citations, h-index and i10-index have been collected for each academic, department, school and university using Google Scholar and the citations analysis program Publish or Perish. Read More


We review new frontiers in information security technologies in communications and distributed storage technologies with the use of classical, quantum, hybrid classical-quantum, and post-quantum cryptography. We analyze the current state-of-the-art, critical characteristics, development trends, and limitations of these techniques for application in enterprise information protection systems. An approach concerning the selection of practical encryption technologies for enterprises with branched communication networks is introduced. Read More


One of the fundamental applications for a practically useful system of money is remuneration. Information pertaining to the amount of compensation awarded to different individuals is often considered sensitive, commanding a certain degree of privacy. As Bitcoin and similarly designed cryptocurrencies evolve into a recognized medium of exchange for larger swaths of the world economy, an increasing number of people will earn income in the form of blockchain-based payments. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Texas A&M University, 2Texas A&M University, 3Texas A&M University

Structured Peer Learning (SPL) is a form of peer-based supplemental instruction that focuses on mentoring, guidance, and development of technical, communication, and social skills in both the students receiving assistance and the students in teaching roles. This paper explores the methodology, efficacy, and reasoning behind the practical realization of a SPL program designed to increase student knowledge and success in undergraduate Computer Science courses. Students expressed an increased level of comfort when asking for help from student teachers versus traditional educational resources, historically showed an increased average grade in lower-level courses, and felt that the program positively impacted their desire to continue in or switch to a Computer major. Read More


The present paper examines the relationship between the students personality, use of social media and their academic performance and engagement. In specific, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship of students facebook (fb) use and personality characteristics using the Big Five Personality Test with (a) student engagement, (b) time spent preparing for class, (c) time spent in co-curricular activities and (d) academic performance. Results illustrate that fb time was significantly positively correlated to student engagement and time spent preparing for class. Read More


This study presents the results of the introduction of Twitter in the educational process. It examines the relationship of the tool s use with the participants learning outcome through a series of well-organized activities. Three studies were conducted in the context of 2 academic courses. Read More


Fertility choices are linked to the different preferences and constraints of individuals and couples, and vary importantly by socio-economic status, as well by cultural and institutional context. The meaning of childbearing and child-rearing, therefore, differs between individuals and across groups. In this paper, we combine data from Google Correlate and Google Trends for the U. Read More


Wikidata, like Wikipedia, is a knowledge base that anyone can edit. This open collaboration model is powerful in that it reduces barriers to participation and allows a large number of people to contribute. However, it exposes the knowledge base to the risk of vandalism and low-quality contributions. Read More


Mobile games are extremely popular and engage millions of people every day. Even if they are often quite simple, their development features a high degree of difficulty and requires close attention to both achieve a high satisfaction from users and grant a return to the developers. In this paper we propose a model that analyzes users' playing session time in order to evaluate and maximize the longevity of games, even during the first phases of their development. Read More


The Wikipedia is a web portal created by users and its simplicity, references and also the inclusion as insets introductory paragraphs for their pages in Google search results have made it the go-to place to find out about current events or people featured in them. Besides, its open application programming interface (API) allows any user to know about the number of visits some particular page has. In this paper, after certain events that made Copernicus a viral meme in Spain, we study the intensity and duration of the increment of visits to his page and other pages related to the event. Read More


A person's weight status can have profound implications on their life, ranging from mental health, to longevity, to financial income. At the societal level, "fat shaming" and other forms of "sizeism" are a growing concern, while increasing obesity rates are linked to ever raising healthcare costs. For these reasons, researchers from a variety of backgrounds are interested in studying obesity from all angles. Read More


2017Mar
Affiliations: 1Intranet Standard GmbH, Munich, Germany, 2Intranet Standard GmbH, Munich, Germany, 3Università di Firenze, Italy

In this paper we propose applying the crowdsourcing approach to a software platform that uses a modern and state-of-the-art 3D game engine. This platform could facilitate the generation and manipulation of interactive 3D environments by a community of users producing different content such as cultural heritage, scientific virtual labs, games, novel art forms and virtual museums. Read More


Millennials are arriving to university sometimes uncomfortable with the methods of some courses. Ideas that worked with previous generations of students begin to fail when digital natives receive paper and pencil as tools. Courses must update from old paper-based methods to hands-on and computerized versions. Read More


We describe the Customer Life Time Value (CLTV) prediction system deployed at ASOS.com, a global online fashion retailer. CLTV prediction is an important problem in e-commerce where an accurate estimate of future value allows retailers to effectively allocate marketing spend, identify and nurture high value customers and mitigate exposure to losses. Read More


Despite being popularly referred to as the ultimate solution for all problems of our current electric power system, smart grid is still a growing and unstable concept. It is usually considered as a set of advanced features powered by promising technological solutions. In this paper, we describe smart grid as a socio-technical transition and illustrate the evolutionary path on which a smart grid can be realized. Read More


In the last few years, we have witnessed an explosion of interest in Big Data in both academic and industry arenas. Big Data is about the capture, storage, analysis and visualization of huge volumes of data in both structured and unstructured forms generated from a myriad of applications and devices in a wide set of scenarios. Focusing on the need of academia to develop professional posing the competencies that industry demands, the paper presents the approach adopted by the Faculty of Computer Sciences at {\O}stfold University College, Norway to deploy Big Data related contents throughout its studies in the computing field. Read More


This paper defines a new domain for collaborative systems and technologies research: inter-organizational lean-interactive systems engineering. It departs from the problems pertaining to large-scale, technically demanding one-off construction projects, such as in our case studies, the building of specialized offshore service vessels. The requirements are unique, as are the explicit ambitions to be "lean", in other words, avoid waste and re-engineering by making sure that the process is customer-driven and rational. Read More


The great success of wearables and smartphone apps for provision of extensive physical workout instructions boosts a whole industry dealing with consumer oriented sensors and sports equipment. But with these opportunities there are also new challenges emerging. The unregulated distribution of instructions about ambitious exercises enables unexperienced users to undertake demanding workouts without professional supervision which may lead to suboptimal training success or even serious injuries. Read More


Time spent in leisure is not a minor research question as it is acknowledged as a key aspect of one's quality of life. The primary aim of this article is to qualify time and Internet use of Italian Generation Y beyond media hype and assumptions. To this aim, we apply a multidimensional extension of Item Response Theory models to the Italian "Multipurpose survey on households: aspects of daily life" to ascertain the relevant dimensions of Generation Y time-use. Read More


In the modern era, each Internet user leaves enormous amounts of auxiliary digital residuals (footprints) by using a variety of on-line services. All this data is already collected and stored for many years. In recent works, it was demonstrated that it's possible to apply simple machine learning methods to analyze collected digital footprints and to create psychological profiles of individuals. Read More


Visually impaired people face numerous challenges when it comes to transportation. Not only must they circumvent obstacles while navigating, but they also need access to essential information related to available public transport, up-to-date weather forecast, and convenient method for booking private taxis. In this paper we introduce Transport Assistant - a voice based assistive technology prototype, built with a goal of leveling the playing field for the visually impaired to solve these problems that they face in their day to day life. Read More


Fraudulent behaviors in Google Android app market fuel search rank abuse and malware proliferation. We present FairPlay, a novel system that uncovers both malware and search rank fraud apps, by picking out trails that fraudsters leave behind. To identify suspicious apps, FairPlay PCF algorithm correlates review activities and uniquely combines detected review relations with linguistic and behavioral signals gleaned from longitudinal Google Play app data. Read More


The globalization of trade and the organization of work are currently causing a large migratory flow towards the cities. This growth of cities requires new urban planning where digital tools take a preponderant place to capture data and understand and decide in face of changes. These tools however hardly resist to natural disasters, terrorism, accidents, etc. Read More


The "reproducibility crisis" has been a highly visible source of scientific controversy and dispute. Here, I propose and review several avenues for identifying and prioritizing research studies for the purpose of targeted validation. Of the various proposals discussed, I identify scientific data science as being a strategy that merits greater attention among those interested in reproducibility. Read More


In this work, we use player behavior during the closed beta test of the MMORPG ArcheAge as a proxy for an extreme situation: at the end of the closed beta test, all user data is deleted, and thus, the outcome (or penalty) of players' in-game behaviors in the last few days loses its meaning. We analyzed 270 million records of player behavior in the 4th closed beta test of ArcheAge. Our findings show that there are no apparent pandemic behavior changes, but some outliers were more likely to exhibit anti-social behavior (e. Read More