Computer Science - Computers and Society Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Computers and Society Publications

Creating a graduate-level software engineering breadth course is challenging. The scope is wide. Students prefer hands-on work over theory. Read More


Over the past few years, bullying and aggression of Internet users have grown on social media platforms, prompting serious consequences to victims of all ages. Recent cyberbullying incidents have even led to teenage suicides, prompted by prolonged and/or coordinated digital harassment. Although this issue affects as many as half of young social media users, tools and technologies for understanding and mitigating it are scarce and mostly ineffective. Read More


Studies of online social influence have demonstrated that friends have important effects on many types of behavior in a wide variety of settings. However, we know much less about how influence works among relative strangers in digital public squares, despite important conversations happening in such spaces. We present the results of a study on large public Facebook pages where we randomly used two different methods--most recent and social feedback--to order comments on posts. Read More


Location-based augmented reality games have entered the mainstream with the nearly overnight success of Niantic's Pok\'emon Go. Unlike traditional video games, the fact that players of such games carry out actions in the external, physical world to accomplish in-game objectives means that the large-scale adoption of such games motivate people, en masse, to do things and go places they would not have otherwise done in unprecedented ways. The social implications of such mass-mobilisation of individual players are, in general, difficult to anticipate or characterise, even for the short-term. Read More


In order to obtain reliable accuracy estimates for automatic MOOC dropout predictors, it is important to train and test them in a manner consistent with how they will be used in practice. Yet most prior research on MOOC dropout prediction has measured test accuracy on the same course used for training the classifier, which can lead to overly optimistic accuracy estimates. In order to understand better how accuracy is affected by the training+testing regime, we compared the accuracy of a standard dropout prediction architecture (clickstream features + logistic regression) across 4 different training paradigms. Read More


Our century has unprecedented new challenges, which need creative solutions and deep thinking. Contemplative, deep thinking became an "endangered species" in our rushing world of Tweets, elevator pitches and fast decisions. Here we describe that important aspects of both creativity and deep thinking can be understood as network phenomena of conceptual and social networks. Read More


Food is an integral part of our life and what and how much we eat crucially affects our health. Our food choices largely depend on how we perceive certain characteristics of food, such as whether it is healthy, delicious or if it qualifies as a salad. But these perceptions differ from person to person and one person's "single lettuce leaf" might be another person's "side salad". Read More


Human mobility data has been ubiquitously collected through cellular networks and mobile applications, and publicly released for academic research and commercial purposes for the last decade. Since releasing individual's mobility records usually gives rise to privacy issues, datasets owners tend to only publish aggregated mobility data, such as the number of users covered by a cellular tower at a specific timestamp, which is believed to be sufficient for preserving users' privacy. However, in this paper, we argue and prove that even publishing aggregated mobility data could lead to privacy breach in individuals' trajectories. Read More


In this paper we explore city-level traffic and parking data to determine how much cruising for curbside parking contributes to overall traffic congestion. To this end, we describe a new kind of queueing network and present a data-informed model based on this new queuing network. We leverage the data-informed model in developing and validating a simulation tool. Read More


We introduce random directed acyclic graph and use it to model the information diffusion network. Subsequently, we analyze the cascade generation model (CGM) introduced by Leskovec et al. [19]. Read More


While smart living based on the controls of voices, gestures, mobile phones or the Web has gained momentum from both academia and industries, most of existing methods are not effective in helping the elderly or people with muscle disordered or motor disabilities. Recently, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal based mind control has attracted much attentions, due to the fact that it enables users to control devices and to communicate to outer world with little participation of their muscle systems. However, the use of EEG signals face challenges such as low accuracy, arduous and time-consuming feature extraction. Read More


The adoption of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in educational institutions is increasing day by day. Many countries are insisting the use of FOSS in their government sectors and few are in the process of adopting FOSS strategies. The reasons for adopting FOSS are: total cost ownership, free to make copies and distribution, software legality, reliability, availability, performance, security and other pedagogical and administrative benefits. Read More


In a previous paper a web service called Projekt Tomo intended to ease the process of learning programming for teachers and students has been described. Since the service received a very warm welcome from teachers and students alike we decided to collect additional information on the students' view of the service in order to improve it even further. In the paper we briefly present our web service and a detailed analysis of the questionnaire handed out to the students of the highschool level programming course in Python. Read More


Human-machine networks affect many aspects of our lives: from sharing experiences with family and friends, knowledge creation and distance learning, and managing utility bills or providing feedback on retail items, to more specialised networks providing decision support to human operators and the delivery of health care via a network of clinicians, family, friends, and both physical and virtual social robots. Such networks rely on increasingly sophisticated machine algorithms, e.g. Read More


In this work, we have designed and implemented, based on traditional board games such as the game of the Goose or Parchis, an educational software that aim to reinforce the learning of children. The idea that we are going to develop to do this is very simple: the children play with the same rules as in the traditional game but we add the functionality that after throwing the dice the system asks a question randomly chosen from a predefined database that can be easily modified, and the game piece only moves in the case the question is answered correctly. Read More


In recent past, big data opportunities have gained much momentum to enhance knowledge management in organizations. However, big data due to its various properties like high volume, variety, and velocity can no longer be effectively stored and analyzed with traditional data management techniques to generate values for knowledge development. Hence, new technologies and architectures are required to store and analyze this big data through advanced data analytics and in turn generate vital real-time knowledge for effective decision making by organizations. Read More


In this paper we revisit some classic board games like Pachisi or the Game of Gosse. The main contribution of the paper is to design and add some functionalities to the games in order to transform them in serious games, that is, in games with learning and educational purposes. To do that, at the beginning of the game, players choose one or several topics and during the game, players have to anwers questions on these topics in order to move their markers. Read More


Readmission rates in the hospitals are increasingly being used as a benchmark to determine the quality of healthcare delivery to hospitalized patients. Around three-fourths of all hospital re-admissions can be avoided, saving billions of dollars. Many hospitals have now deployed electronic health record (EHR) systems that can be used to study issues that trigger readmission. Read More


The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) and knowledge management processes (KM process) in Indian milk co-operatives and non-government organizations. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have been adopted in this study. Data were collected using questionnaires from 275 members working in both milk co-operatives and non-profit organizations (NGOs). Read More


The increasing practice of engaging crowds, where organizations use IT to connect with dispersed individuals for explicit resource creation purposes, has precipitated the need to measure the precise processes and benefits of these activities over myriad different implementations. In this work, we seek to address these salient and non-trivial considerations by laying a foundation of theory, measures, and research methods that allow us to test crowd-engagement efficacy across organizations, industries, technologies, and geographies. To do so, we anchor ourselves in the Theory of Crowd Capital, a generalizable framework for studying IT-mediated crowd-engagement phenomena, and put forth an empirical apparatus of testable measures and generalizable methods to begin to unify the field of crowd science. Read More


In this work we seek to understand how differences in location affect participation outcomes in IT-mediated crowds. To do so, we operationalize Crowd Capital Theory with data from a popular international creative crowdsourcing site, to determine whether regional differences exist in crowdsourcing participation outcomes. We present the early results of our investigation from data encompassing 1,858,202 observations from 28,214 crowd members on 94 different projects in 2012. Read More


In this work we use the theory of Crowd Capital as a lens to compare and contrast a number of IS tools currently in use by organizations for crowd-engagement purposes. In doing so, we contribute to both the practitioner and research domains. For the practitioner community we provide decision-makers with a convenient and useful resource, in table-form, outlining in detail some of the differing potentialities of crowd-engaging IS. Read More


Traditionally, the term crowd was used almost exclusively in the context of people who self-organized around a common purpose, emotion or experience. Today, however, firms often refer to crowds in discussions of how collections of individuals can be engaged for organizational purposes. Crowdsourcing, the use of information technologies to outsource business responsibilities to crowds, can now significantly influence a firms ability to leverage previously unattainable resources to build competitive advantage. Read More


What is the state of the literature in respect to Crowdsourcing for policy making? This work attempts to answer this question by collecting, categorizing, and situating the extant research investigating Crowdsourcing for policy, within the broader Crowdsourcing literature. To do so, the work first extends the Crowdsourcing literature by introducing, defining, explaining, and using seven universal characteristics of all general Crowdsourcing techniques, to vividly draw-out the relative trade-offs of each mode of Crowdsourcing. From this beginning, the work systematically and explicitly weds the three types of Crowdsourcing to the stages of the Policy cycle as a method of situating the extant literature spanning both domains. Read More


Crowdsourcing is beginning to be used for policymaking. The wisdom of crowds [Surowiecki 2005], and crowdsourcing [Brabham 2008], are seen as new avenues that can shape all kinds of policy, from transportation policy [Nash 2009] to urban planning [Seltzer and Mahmoudi 2013], to climate policy. In general, many have high expectations for positive outcomes with crowdsourcing, and based on both anecdotal and empirical evidence, some of these expectations seem justified [Majchrzak and Malhotra 2013]. Read More


To begin to understand the implications of the implementation of IT-mediated Crowds for Politics and Policy purposes, this research builds the first-known dataset of IT-mediated Crowd applications currently in use in the governance context. Using Crowd Capital theory and governance theory as frameworks to organize our data collection, we undertake an exploratory data analysis of some fundamental factors defining this emerging field. Specific factors outlined and discussed include the type of actors implementing IT-mediated Crowds in the governance context, the global geographic distribution of the applications, and the nature of the Crowd-derived resources being generated for governance purposes. Read More


Premised upon the observation that MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena share several important characteristics, including IT mediation, large-scale human participation, and varying levels of openness to participants, this work systematizes a comparison of MOOC and crowdsourcing phenomena along these salient dimensions. In doing so, we learn that both domains share further common traits, including similarities in IT structures, knowledge generating capabilities, presence of intermediary service providers, and techniques designed to attract and maintain participant activity. Stemming directly from this analysis, we discuss new directions for future research in both fields and draw out actionable implications for practitioners and researchers in both domains. Read More


Can Crowds serve as useful allies in policy design? How do non-expert Crowds perform relative to experts in the assessment of policy measures? Does the geographic location of non-expert Crowds, with relevance to the policy context, alter the performance of non-experts Crowds in the assessment of policy measures? In this work, we investigate these questions by undertaking experiments designed to replicate expert policy assessments with non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We use a set of ninety-six climate change adaptation policy measures previously evaluated by experts in the Netherlands as our control condition to conduct experiments using two discrete sets of non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We vary the composition of our non-expert Crowds along two conditions: participants recruited from a geographical location directly relevant to the policy context and participants recruited at-large. Read More


For what purposes are crowds being implemented in health care? Which crowdsourcing methods are being used? This work begins to answer these questions by reporting the early results of a systematic literature review of 110 pieces of relevant research. The results of this exploratory research in progress reveals that collective intelligence outcomes are being generated in three broad categories of public health care; health promotion, health research, and health maintenance, using all three known forms of crowdsourcing. Stemming from this fundamental analysis, some potential implications of the research are discussed and useful future research is outlined. Read More


New techniques leveraging IT-mediated crowds such as Crowdsensing, Situated Crowdsourcing, Spatial Crowdsourcing, and Wearables Crowdsourcing have now materially emerged. These techniques, here termed next generation Crowdsourcing, serve to extend Crowdsourcing efforts beyond the heretofore dominant desktop computing paradigm. Employing new configurations of hardware, software, and people, these techniques represent new forms of organization for IT-mediated crowds. Read More


Science education is a crucial issue with long-term impacts for Europe as the low enrolment rates in the STEM-fields, including (natural) science, technology, engineering and mathematics, will lead to a workforce problem in research and development. In order to address this challenge, the EU-funded research project SciChallenge (project.scichallenge. Read More


Electronic and remote voting has become a large field of research and brought forth a multiplicity of schemes, systems, cryptographic primitives as well as formal definitions and requirements for electronic elections. In this survey we try to give a brief and precise overview and summary of the current situation. Read More


Interpersonal relationships are necessary for successful daily functioning and wellbeing. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of social connectivity for mental health, both through direct peer-to-peer influence and by the location of individuals within their social network. Passive monitoring using smartphones provides an advanced tool to map social networks based on the proximity between individuals. Read More


The Internet of Things (IoT) [1] envisions the creation of an environment where everyday objects (e.g. microwaves, fridges, cars, coffee machines, etc. Read More


In this paper, we present a set of measures to quantify certain properties of threaded discussions, which are ubiquitous in online learn-ing platforms. In particular, we address how to measure the redundancy of posts, the compactness of topics, and the degree of hierarchy in sub-threads. This preliminary work would very much benefit from discussion and serves as a starting point for ultimately creating optimal structures of threaded discussions depending on the context. Read More


Researchers in fields such as sociology, demography and public health, have used data from social media to explore a diversity of questions. In public health, researchers use data from social media to monitor disease spread, assess population attitudes toward health-related issues, and to better understand the relationship between behavioral changes and population health. However, a major limitation of the use of these data for population health research is a lack of key demographic indicators such as, age, race and gender. Read More


This dissertation is based on five empirical research articles investigating the different latent factors that motivate and hinder the process of digital-photo interaction in computer-mediated platforms. Study I examine the current practices surrounding digital photos in the context of personal photo repositories (N=15). Study II investigates the gratifications and impeding factors associated with photo-tagging activity on Facebook (N=67). Read More


Crowd employment is a new form of short term and flexible employment which has emerged during the past decade. For understanding this new form of employment, it is crucial to understand the underlying motivations of the workforce involved in it. This paper presents the Multidimensional Crowdworker Motivation Scale (MCMS), a scale for measuring the motivation of crowdworkers on micro-task platforms. Read More


Currently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has won unprecedented attention and is becoming the increasingly popular focus in China. This change can be judged by the impressive record of academic publications, the amount of state-level investment and the presence of nation-wide participation and devotion. In this paper, we place emphasis on discussing the progress of artificial intelligence engineerings in China. Read More


In urban transportation systems, mobility flows in the subway system reflect the spatial and temporal dynamics of working days. To investigate the variability of mobility flows, we analyse the spatial community through a series of snapshots of subway stations over sequential periods. Using Shanghai as a case study, we find that the spatial community snapshots reveal dynamic passenger activities. Read More


Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods which have well-known systematic biases that lead to limitations on conclusions and generalizability. Read More


Scratch is a programming environment and an online community where young people can create, share, learn, and communicate. In collaboration with the Scratch Team at MIT, we created a longitudinal dataset of public activity in the Scratch online community during its first five years (2007-2012). The dataset comprises 32 tables with information on more than 1 million Scratch users, nearly 2 million Scratch projects, more than 10 million comments, more than 30 million visits to Scratch projects, and more. Read More


In the past years we have witnessed the emergence of the new discipline of computational social science, which promotes a new data-driven and computation-based approach to social sciences. In this article we discuss how the availability of new technologies such as online social media and mobile smartphones has allowed researchers to passively collect human behavioral data at a scale and a level of granularity that were just unthinkable some years ago. We also discuss how these digital traces can then be used to prove (or disprove) existing theories and develop new models of human behavior. Read More


In online communities, antisocial behavior such as trolling disrupts constructive discussion. While prior work suggests that trolling behavior is confined to a vocal and antisocial minority, we demonstrate that ordinary people can engage in such behavior as well. We propose two primary trigger mechanisms: the individual's mood, and the surrounding context of a discussion (e. Read More


Ancient Chinese texts present an area of enormous challenge and opportunity for humanities scholars interested in exploiting computational methods to assist in the development of new insights and interpretations of culturally significant materials. In this paper we describe a collaborative effort between Indiana University and Xi'an Jiaotong University to support exploration and interpretation of a digital corpus of over 18,000 ancient Chinese documents, which we refer to as the "Handian" ancient classics corpus (H\`an di\u{a}n g\u{u} j\'i, i.e, the "Han canon" or "Chinese classics"). Read More


Wikipedia is a community-created online encyclopedia; arguably, it is the most popular and largest knowledge resource on the Internet. Thus, reliability and neutrality are of high importance for Wikipedia. Previous research [3] reveals gender bias in Google search results for many professions and occupations. Read More


Biosensed information represent an emerging class of data with the potential for massive, systematic, and remote or casual collection of intimate information about people. Biosensors capture physiological signals pulse, galvanic skin responses, "brain waves" (i.e. Read More


The number and quality of user reviews greatly affects consumer purchasing decisions. While reviews in all languages are increasing, it is still often the case (especially for non-English speakers) that there are only a few reviews in a person's first language. Using an online experiment, we examine the value that potential purchasers receive from interfaces showing additional reviews in a second language. Read More


The 7th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence (EAAI'17, co-chaired by Sven Koenig and Eric Eaton) launched the EAAI New and Future AI Educator Program to support the training of early-career university faculty, secondary school faculty, and future educators (PhD candidates or postdocs who intend a career in academia). As part of the program, awardees were asked to address one of the following "blue sky" questions: * How could/should Artificial Intelligence (AI) courses incorporate ethics into the curriculum? * How could we teach AI topics at an early undergraduate or a secondary school level? * AI has the potential for broad impact to numerous disciplines. How could we make AI education more interdisciplinary, specifically to benefit non-engineering fields? This paper is a collection of their responses, intended to help motivate discussion around these issues in AI education. Read More