Computer Science - Computers and Society Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Computers and Society Publications

With the recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI), various organizations and individuals started debating about the progress of AI as a blessing or a curse for the future of the society. This paper conducts an investigation on how the public perceives the progress of AI by utilizing the data shared on Twitter. Specifically, this paper performs a comparative analysis on the understanding of users from two categories -- general AI-Tweeters (AIT) and the expert AI-Tweeters (EAIT) who share posts about AI on Twitter. Read More


2017Apr
Affiliations: 1National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 2National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 3National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 4National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

The paper discusses an advanced level information system to support educational, research and scientific activities of the Department "Electrophysical Facilities" (DEF) of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" (NRNU MEPhI), which is used for training of specialists of the course "Physics of Charged Particle Beams and Accelerator Technology". Read More


We set out to understand the effects of differing language on the ability of cybercriminals to navigate webmail accounts and locate sensitive information in them. To this end, we configured thirty Gmail honeypot accounts with English, Romanian, and Greek language settings. We populated the accounts with email messages in those languages by subscribing them to selected online newsletters. Read More


Financial crime is a rampant but hidden threat. In spite of this, predictive policing systems disproportionately target "street crime" rather than white collar crime. This paper presents the White Collar Crime Early Warning System (WCCEWS), a white collar crime predictive model that uses random forest classifiers to identify high risk zones for incidents of financial crime. Read More


Various methods have been proposed for creating and maintaining lists of potentially filtered URLs to allow for measurement of ongoing internet censorship around the world. Whilst testing a known resource for evidence of filtering can be relatively simple, given appropriate vantage points, discovering previously unknown filtered web resources remains an open challenge. We present a new framework for automating the process of discovering filtered resources through the use of adaptive queries to well-known search engines. Read More


There has been a growing body of study on the relationship between public/political discourse and its moral-emotional foundations. Most of the studies, however, have been confined to a single country's context, lacking cross-cultural perspectives. Taking a comparative perspective, we examined the emotional and moral structures of political and public discussion observed in the U. Read More


Spatial crowdsourcing (SC) is a new platform that engages individuals in collecting and analyzing environmental, social and other spatiotemporal information. With SC, requesters outsource their spatiotemporal tasks to a set of workers, who will perform the tasks by physically traveling to the tasks' locations. This chapter identifies privacy threats toward both workers and requesters during the two main phases of spatial crowdsourcing, tasking and reporting. Read More


The problem of ranking a set of items is fundamental in today's data-driven world. Ranking algorithms lie at the core of applications such as search engines, news feeds, and recommendation systems. However, recent events have pointed to the fact that algorithmic bias in rankings, which results in decreased fairness or diversity in the type of content presented, can promote stereotypes and propagate injustices. Read More


The recent demographic trends indicate towards a rapidly increasing population growth and a significant portion of this increased population now prefer to live mostly in cities. In connection with this, it has become the responsibility of the government to ensure a quality standard of living in the cities and also make sure that these facilities trickle down to the next generation. A program named Smart City Mission has been started for this purpose. Read More


Public bike renting is more and more popular in cities to incentivise a reduction in car journeys and to boost the use of green transportation alternatives. One of the challenges of this application is to effectively plan the resources usage. This paper presents some analysis of Dublin bike renting scheme based on statistics and data mining. Read More


Various motivations exist to move away from the simple assessment of knowledge towards the more complex assessment and development of competence. However, to accommodate such a change, high demands are put on the supporting e-infrastructure in terms of intelligently collecting and analysing data. In this paper, we discuss these challenges and how they are being addressed by LiftUpp, a system that is now used in 70% of UK dental schools, and is finding wider applications in physiotherapy, medicine and veterinary science. Read More


Saffron is the most expensive spice and is significantly valuable in non-oil export. Drying process of saffron is considered as a critical control point with major effects on quality and safety parameters. A suitable drying method covering standards and market requirements while it is costlty benefitial and saves energy is desirable. Read More


Electronic Health Records (EHR) are data generated during routine clinical care. EHR offer researchers unprecedented phenotypic breadth and depth and have the potential to accelerate the pace of precision medicine at scale. A main EHR use-case is creating phenotyping algorithms to define disease status, onset and severity. Read More


This study examines the acceptance of technology and behavioral intention to use learning management systems (LMS). More specifically, the aim of this research is to examine whether students ultimately accept and use educational learning systems such as e-class and the impact of behavioral intention on their decision to use them. An extended version of technology acceptance model has been used by employing the System Usability Scale to measure perceived ease of use and the data analysis was based on partial least squares method. Read More


We analyze a dataset providing the complete information on the effective plays of thousands of music listeners during several months. Our analysis confirms a number of properties previously highlighted by research based on interviews and questionnaires, but also uncover new statistical patterns, both at the individual and collective levels. In particular, we show that individuals follow common listening rhythms characterized by the same fluctuations, alternating heavy and light listening periods, and can be classified in four groups of similar sizes according to their temporal habits --- 'early birds', 'working hours listeners', 'evening listeners' and 'night owls'. Read More


Bias in online information has recently become a pressing issue, with search engines, social networks and recommendation services being accused of exhibiting some form of bias. In this vision paper, we make the case for a systematic approach towards measuring bias. To this end, we discuss formal measures for quantifying the various types of bias, we outline the system components necessary for realizing them, and we highlight the related research challenges and open problems. Read More


In this paper, we propose a vital data analysis platform which resolves existing problems to utilize vital data for real-time actions. Recently, IoT technologies have been progressed but in the healthcare area, real-time actions based on analyzed vital data are not considered sufficiently yet. The causes are proper use of analyzing methods of stream / micro batch processing and network cost. Read More


An earlier study of a collaborative chat intervention in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) identified negative effects on attrition stemming from a requirement for students to be matched with exactly one partner prior to beginning the activity. That study raised questions about how to orchestrate a collaborative chat intervention in a MOOC context in order to provide the benefit of synchronous social engagement without the coordination difficulties. In this paper we present a careful analysis of an intervention designed to overcome coordination difficulties by welcoming students into the chat on a rolling basis as they arrive rather than requiring them to be matched with a partner before beginning. Read More


In recent years, citizen science has grown in popularity due to a number of reasons, including the emphasis on informal learning and creativity potential associated with these initiatives. Citizen science projects address research questions from various domains, ranging from Ecology to Astronomy. Due to the advancement of communication technologies, which makes outreach and engagement of wider communities easier, scientists are keen to turn their own research into citizen science projects. Read More


In this work-in-progress paper, we introduce the PerspectivesX tool which aims to scaffold collaborative learning activities within MOOCs. The PerspectivesX tool has been designed to promote learner knowledge construction and curation for a range of multi-perspective elaboration techniques (e.g. Read More


Businesses, tourism attractions, public transportation hubs and other points of interest are not isolated but part of a collaborative system. Making such collaborative network surface is not always an easy task. The existence of data-rich environments can assist in the reconstruction of collaborative networks. Read More


Human societies around the world interact with each other by developing and maintaining social norms, and it is critically important to understand how such norms emerge and change. In this work, we define an evolutionary game-theoretic model to study how norms change in a society, based on the idea that different strength of norms in societies translate to different game-theoretic interaction structures and incentives. We use this model to study, both analytically and with extensive agent-based simulations, the evolutionary relationships of the need for coordination in a society (which is related to its norm strength) with two key aspects of norm change: cultural inertia (whether or how quickly the population responds when faced with conditions that make a norm change desirable), and exploration rate (the willingness of agents to try out new strategies). Read More


Chatbots are one class of intelligent, conversational software agents activated by natural language input (which can be in the form of text, voice, or both). They provide conversational output in response, and if commanded, can sometimes also execute tasks. Although chatbot technologies have existed since the 1960s and have influenced user interface development in games since the early 1980s, chatbots are now easier to train and implement. Read More


The fashion industry is establishing its presence on a number of visual-centric social media like Instagram. This creates an interesting clash as fashion brands that have traditionally practiced highly creative and editorialized image marketing now have to engage with people on the platform that epitomizes impromptu, realtime conversation. What kinds of fashion images do brands and individuals share and what are the types of visual features that attract likes and comments? In this research, we take both quantitative and qualitative approaches to answer these questions. Read More


The concept of the augmented coaching ecosystem for non-obtrusive adaptive personalized elderly care is proposed on the basis of the integration of new and available ICT approaches. They include the multimodal user interface (MMUI), augmented reality (AR), machine learning (ML), Internet of Things (IoT), and machine-to-machine (M2M) interactions. The ecosystem is based on the Cloud-Fog-Dew computing paradigm services, providing a full symbiosis by integrating the whole range from low-level sensors up to high-level services using integration efficiency inherent in synergistic use of applied technologies. Read More


Information System (IS) Security threats is still a major concern for many organisations. However, most organisations fall short in achieving a successful adoption and implementation of IS security measures. In this paper, we developed a theoretical model for the adoption process of IS Security innovations in organisations. Read More


This paper presents the risks and opportunities of big data and the potential social benefits it can bring. The research is based on an analysis of the societal impacts observed in a set of six case studies across different European sectors. These impacts are divided into economic, social and ethical, legal and political impacts, and affect areas such as improved efficiency, innovation and decision making, changing business models, dependency on public funding, participation, equality, discrimination and trust, data protection and intellectual property rights, private and public tensions and losing control to actors abroad. Read More


Non-discrimination is a recognized objective in algorithmic decision making. In this paper, we introduce a novel probabilistic formulation of data pre-processing for reducing discrimination. We propose a convex optimization for learning a data transformation with three goals: controlling discrimination, limiting distortion in individual data samples, and preserving utility. Read More


This review paper fits in the context of the adequate matching of training to employment, which is one of the main challenges that universities around the world strive to meet. In higher education, the revision of curricula necessitates a return to the skills required by the labor market to train skilled labors. In this research, we started with the presentation of the conceptual framework. Read More


The extensive use of social media platforms, especially during disasters, creates unique opportunities for humanitarian organizations to gain situational awareness and launch relief operations accordingly. In addition to the textual content, people post overwhelming amounts of imagery data on social networks within minutes of a disaster hit. Studies point to the importance of this online imagery content for emergency response. Read More


In this manuscript we propose, analyse, and discuss a possible new principle behind traditional cuisine: the Food-bridging hypothesis and its comparison with the food-pairing hypothesis using the same dataset and graphical models employed in the food-pairing study by Ahn et al. [Scientific Reports, 1:196 (2011)]. The Food-bridging hypothesis assumes that if two ingredients do not share a strong molecular or empirical affinity, they may become affine through a chain of pairwise affinities. Read More


With the increased interest in computational sciences, machine learning (ML), pattern recognition (PR) and big data, governmental agencies, academia and manufacturers are overwhelmed by the constant influx of new algorithms and techniques promising improved performance, generalization and robustness. Sadly, result reproducibility is often an overlooked feature accompanying original research publications, competitions and benchmark evaluations. The main reasons behind such a gap arise from natural complications in research and development in this area: the distribution of data may be a sensitive issue; software frameworks are difficult to install and maintain; Test protocols may involve a potentially large set of intricate steps which are difficult to handle. Read More


In the context of Smart Cities, indicator definitions have been used to calculate values that enable the comparison among different cities. The calculation of an indicator values has challenges as the calculation may need to combine some aspects of quality while addressing different levels of abstraction. Knowledge graphs (KGs) have been used successfully to support flexible representation, which can support improved understanding and data analysis in similar settings. Read More


Although there are increasingly more initiatives for the generation of semantic knowledge based on user participation, there is still a shortage of platforms for regular users to create applications on which semantic data can be exploited and generated automatically. We propose an architecture, called Semantic Maps (SeMaps), for assisting the authoring and hosting of applications in which the maps combine the aggregation of a Geographic Information System and crowd-generated content (called here crowd maps). In these systems, the digital map works as a blackboard for accommodating stories told by people about events they want to share with others typically participating in their social networks. Read More


Significant efforts have been made to understand and document knowledge related to scientific measurements. Many of those efforts resulted in one or more high-quality ontologies that describe some aspects of scientific measurements, but not in a comprehensive and coherently integrated manner. For instance, we note that many of these high-quality ontologies are not properly aligned, and more challenging, that they have different and often conflicting concepts and approaches for encoding knowledge about empirical measurements. Read More


As part of Smart Cities initiatives, national, regional and local governments all over the globe are under the mandate of being more open regarding how they share their data. Under this mandate, many of these governments are publishing data under the umbrella of open government data, which includes measurement data from city-wide sensor networks. Furthermore, many of these data are published in so-called data portals as documents that may be spreadsheets, comma-separated value (CSV) data files, or plain documents in PDF or Word documents. Read More


With the widespread adoption of social media sites like Twitter and Facebook, there has been a shift in the way information is produced and consumed. Earlier, the only producers of information were traditional news organizations, which broadcast the same carefully-edited information to all consumers over mass media channels. Whereas, now, in online social media, any user can be a producer of information, and every user selects which other users she connects to, thereby choosing the information she consumes. Read More


It is known that news topics, covered more frequently and over longer periods of time, are considered to be important to the public. Hence, what gets media attention and how media attention evolves over time has been studied for decades in communication study. However, previous studies are confined to a few countries or a few topics, mainly due to lack of longitudinal global data. Read More


Published by Reporters Without Borders every year, the Press Freedom Index (PFI) reflects the fear and tension in the newsroom pushed by the government and private sectors. While the PFI is invaluable in monitoring media environments worldwide, the current survey-based method has inherent limitations to updates in terms of cost and time. In this work, we introduce an alternative way to measure the level of press freedom using media attention diversity compiled from Unfiltered News. Read More


We investigate Bitcoin network monitoring the dynamics of blocks and transactions. We unveil that 43\% of the transactions are still not included in the Blockchain after 1h from the first time they were seen in the network and 20\% of the transactions are still not included in the Blockchain after 30 days, revealing therefore great inefficiency in the Bitcoin system. However, we observe that most of these `forgotten' transactions have low values and in terms of transferred value the system is less inefficient with 93\% of the transactions value being included into the Blockchain within 3h. Read More


Search systems in online social media sites are frequently used to find information about ongoing events and people. For topics with multiple competing perspectives, such as political events or political candidates, bias in the top ranked results significantly shapes public opinion. However, bias does not emerge from an algorithm alone. Read More


Outdoor shopping complexes (OSC) are extremely difficult for people with visual impairment to navigate. Existing GPS devices are mostly designed for roadside navigation and seldom transition well into an OSC-like setting. We report our study on the challenges faced by a blind person in navigating OSC through developing a new mobile application named iExplore. Read More


We study methods to estimate drivers' posture in vehicles using acceleration data of wearable sensor and conduct field tests. To prevent fatal accidents, demands for safety management of bus and taxi are high. However, acceleration of vehicles is added to wearable sensor in vehicles. Read More


Our study investigates the role of infrastructures in shaping online news usage by contrasting use patterns of two social groups,millennials and boomers,that are specifically located in news infrastructures. Typically based on self reported data, popular press and academics tend to highlight the generational gap in news usage and link it to divergence in values and preferences of the two age cohorts. In contrast, we conduct relational analyses of shared usage obtained from passively metered usage data across a vast range of online news outlets for millennials and boomers. Read More


The aim of this study is to introduce an application that enables information sharing and communication between visually-impaired individuals and able-bodied. For the purposes of the study, web-based audio library automation was designed and the usability of the system was analyzed regarding the volunteers who record audio books and the visually-impaired individuals. The visually-impaired individuals who took part in the test procedures in order to make a general evaluation of the system reported that the system was theoretically necessary and successful. Read More


If spreadsheets are not erroneous then who, or what, is? Research has found that end-users are. If end-users are erroneous then why are they? Research has found that responsibility lies with human beings' fast and slow thinking modes and the inappropriate way they use them. If we are aware of this peculiarity of human thinking, then why do we not teach students how to train their brains? This is the main problem, this is the weakest link in the process: teaching. Read More


The deep financial and economic crisis, which still characterizes these years, requires searching for tools in order to enhance knowledge sharing, creativity and innovation. The Internet is one of these tools that represents a practically infinite source of resources. In this perspective, the KnowInG project, funded by the STC programme MED, is aimed at developing the KnowInG Resource Centre (KRC), a sociotechnical system that works as a multiplier of innovation. Read More


This paper presents a design of a non-player character (AI) for promoting balancedness in use of body segments when engaging in full-body motion gaming. In our experiment, we settle a battle between the proposed AI and a player by using FightingICE, a fighting game platform for AI development. A middleware called UKI is used to allow the player to control the game by using body motion instead of the keyboard and mouse. Read More


In this paper, we describe a methodology to infer Bullish or Bearish sentiment towards companies/brands. More specifically, our approach leverages affective lexica and word embeddings in combination with convolutional neural networks to infer the sentiment of financial news headlines towards a target company. Such architecture was used and evaluated in the context of the SemEval 2017 challenge (task 5, subtask 2), in which it obtained the best performance. Read More


It is impossible to separate the human factors from software engineering expertise during software development, because software is developed by people and for people. The intangible nature of software has made it a difficult product to successfully create, and an examination of the many reasons for major software system failures show that the reasons for failures eventually come down to human issues. Software developers, immersed as they are in the technological aspect of the product, can quickly learn lessons from technological failures and readily come up with solutions to avoid them in the future, yet they do not learn lessons from human aspects in software engineering. Read More