# Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory Publications

Fog computing is a promising architecture to provide economic and low latency data services for future Internet of things (IoT)-based network systems. It relies on a set of low-power fog nodes that are close to the end users to offload the services originally targeting at cloud data centers. In this paper, we consider a specific fog computing network consisting of a set of data service operators (DSOs) each of which controls a set of fog nodes to provide the required data service to a set of data service subscribers (DSSs). Read More

Weighted timed games are played by two players on a timed automaton equipped with weights: one player wants to minimise the accumulated weight while reaching a target, while the other has an opposite objective. Used in a reactive synthesis perspective, this quantitative extension of timed games allows one to measure the quality of controllers. Weighted timed games are notoriously difficult and quickly undecidable, even when restricted to non-negative weights. Read More

We consider a firm that sells a large number of products to its customers in an online fashion. Each product is described by a high dimensional feature vector, and the market value of a product is assumed to be linear in the values of its features. Parameters of the valuation model are unknown and can change over time. Read More

A market with asymmetric information can be viewed as a repeated exchange game between the informed sector and the uninformed one. In a market with risk-neutral agents, De Meyer [2010] proves that the price process should be a particular kind of Brownian martingale called CMMV. This type of dynamics is due to the strategic use of their private information by the informed agents. Read More

Reactive power compensation is an important challenge in current and future smart power systems. However, in the context of reactive power compensation, most existing studies assume that customers can assess their compensation value, i.e. Read More

Decidability of the determinization problem for weighted automata over the semiring $(\mathbb{Z} \cup {-\infty}, \max, +)$, WA for short, is a long-standing open question. We propose two ways of approaching it by constraining the search space of deterministic WA: k-delay and r-regret. A WA N is k-delay determinizable if there exists a deterministic automaton D that defines the same function as N and for all words {\alpha} in the language of N, the accepting run of D on {\alpha} is always at most k-away from a maximal accepting run of N on {\alpha}. Read More

The majority of online display ads are served through real-time bidding (RTB) --- each ad display impression is auctioned off in real-time when it is just being generated from a user visit. To place an ad automatically and optimally, it is critical for advertisers to devise a learning algorithm to cleverly bid an ad impression in real-time. Most previous works consider the bid decision as a static optimization problem of either treating the value of each impression independently or setting a bid price to each segment of ad volume. Read More

In this paper, we deal with the uncertainty of bidding for display advertising. Similar to the financial market trading, real-time bidding (RTB) based display advertising employs an auction mechanism to automate the impression level media buying; and running a campaign is no different than an investment of acquiring new customers in return for obtaining additional converted sales. Thus, how to optimally bid on an ad impression to drive the profit and return-on-investment becomes essential. Read More

We introduce several electoral systems for multi-winner elections with approval ballots, generalizing the classical methods of Sainte-Lagu\"{e} and D'Hondt. Our approach is based on the works of Phragm\'{e}n and Thiele. In the last section we discuss possible generalizations to score voting. Read More

Small-cell deployment in licensed and unlicensed spectrum is considered to be one of the key approaches to cope with the ongoing wireless data demand explosion. Compared to traditional cellular base stations with large transmission power, small-cells typically have relatively low transmission power, which makes them attractive for some spectrum bands that have strict power regulations, for example, the 3.5GHz band [1]. Read More

We demonstrate the usefulness of adding delay to infinite games with quantitative winning conditions. In a delay game, one of the players may delay her moves to obtain a lookahead on her opponent's moves. We show that determining the winner of delay games with winning conditions given by parity automata with costs is EXPTIME-complete and that exponential bounded lookahead is both sufficient and in general necessary. Read More

This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on applications of economic and pricing models for resource management in cloud networking. To achieve sustainable profit advantage, cost reduction, and flexibility in provisioning of cloud resources, resource management in cloud networking requires adaptive and robust designs to address many issues, e.g. Read More

The Urban Rail Transit (URT) has been one of the major trip modes in cities worldwide. As the passengers arrive at variable rates in different time slots, e.g. Read More

In this paper the Shapley value of digraph (directed graph) games are considered. Digraph games are transferable utility (TU) games with limited cooperation among players, where players are represented by nodes. A restrictive relation between two adjacent players is established by a directed line segment. Read More

The recent proliferation of increasingly capable mobile devices has given rise to mobile crowd sensing (MCS) systems that outsource the collection of sensory data to a crowd of participating workers that carry various mobile devices. Aware of the paramount importance of effectively incentivizing participation in such systems, the research community has proposed a wide variety of incentive mechanisms. However, different from most of these existing mechanisms which assume the existence of only one data requester, we consider MCS systems with multiple data requesters, which are actually more common in practice. Read More

Existing multi-objective reinforcement learning (MORL) algorithms do not account for objectives that arise from players with differing beliefs. Concretely, consider two players with different beliefs and utility functions who may cooperate to build a machine that takes actions on their behalf. A representation is needed for how much the machine's policy will prioritize each player's interests over time. Read More

Incentive mechanisms for crowdsourcing have been extensively studied under the framework of all-pay auctions. Along a distinct line, this paper proposes to use Tullock contests as an alternative tool to design incentive mechanisms for crowdsourcing. We are inspired by the conduciveness of Tullock contests to attracting user entry (yet not necessarily a higher revenue) in other domains. Read More

In addition to being environment-friendly, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems can help the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) users in reducing their energy costs and can also help stabilizing energy demand in the power grid. In V2G systems, since the PEV users need to obtain system information (e.g. Read More

We study the outcome of deferred acceptance when prospective medical residents can only apply to a limited set of hospitals. This limitation requires residents to make a strategic choice about the quality of hospitals they apply to. Through a mix of theoretical and experimental results, we study the effect of this strategic choice on the preferences submitted by participants, as well as on the overall welfare. Read More

We address the problem of locating facilities on the $[0,1]$ interval based on reports from strategic agents. The cost of each agent is her distance to the closest facility, and the global objective is to minimize either the maximum cost of an agent or the social cost. As opposed to the extensive literature on facility location which considers the multiplicative error, we focus on minimizing the worst-case additive error. Read More

Proper incentive mechanisms are critical for mobile crowdsensing systems to motivate people to actively and persistently participate. This article provides an exposition of design principles of six incentive mechanisms, drawing special attention to the sustainability issue. We cover three primary classes of incentive mechanisms, namely auctions, lotteries, and trust and reputation systems, as well as three other frameworks of promising potential, namely bargaining games, contract theory, and market-driven mechanisms. Read More

Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is offering smart phone users a choice to share files with each other without communicating with the cellular network. In this paper, we discuss the behaviors of two characters in the D2D data transaction model from an economic point of view: the data buyers who wish to buy a certain quantity of data, as well as the data sellers who wish to sell data through the D2D network. The optimal price and purchasing strategies are analyzed and deduced based on game theory. Read More

Aggregating statistically diverse renewable power producers (RPPs) is an effective way to reduce the uncertainty of the RPPs. The key question in aggregation of RPPs is how to allocate payoffs among the RPPs. In this paper, a payoff allocation mechanism (PAM) with a simple closed-form expression is proposed: It achieves stability (in the core) and fairness both in the "ex-post" sense, i. Read More

This paper concerns asynchrony in iterative processes, focusing on gradient descent and tatonnement, a fundamental price dynamic. Gradient descent is an important class of iterative algorithms for minimizing convex functions. Classically, gradient descent has been a sequential and synchronous process, although distributed and asynchronous variants have been studied since the 1980s. Read More

In many matching markets, one side "applies" to the other, and these applications are often expensive and time-consuming (e.g. students applying to college). Read More

Given a bimatrix game, the associated leadership or commitment games are defined as the games at which one player, the leader, commits to a (possibly mixed) strategy and the other player, the follower, chooses his strategy after having observed the irrevocable commitment of the leader. Based on a result by von Stengel and Zamir [2010], the notions of commitment value and commitment optimal strategies for each player are discussed as a possible solution concept. It is shown that in non-degenerate bimatrix games (a) pure commitment optimal strategies together with the follower's best response constitute Nash equilibria, and (b) strategies that participate in a completely mixed Nash equilibrium are strictly worse than commitment optimal strategies, provided they are not matrix game optimal. Read More

A seminal result of Bulow and Klemperer [1989] demonstrates the power of competition for extracting revenue: when selling a single item to $n$ bidders whose values are drawn i.i.d. Read More

Network slicing to enable resource sharing among multiple tenants --network operators and/or services-- is considered a key functionality for next generation mobile networks. This paper provides an analysis of a well-known model for resource sharing, the 'share-constrained proportional allocation' mechanism, to realize network slicing. This mechanism enables tenants to reap the performance benefits of sharing, while retaining the ability to customize their own users' allocation. Read More

In studies of social dynamics, cohesion refers to a group's tendency to stay in unity, which -- as argued in sociometry -- arises from the network topology of interpersonal ties between members of the group. We follow this idea and propose a game-based model of cohesion that not only relies on the social network, but also reflects individuals' social needs. In particular, our model is a type of cooperative games where players may gain popularity by strategically forming groups. Read More

A well known result states that stability criterion for matchings in two-sided markets doesn't ensure uniqueness. This opens the door for a moral question with regard to the optimal stable matching from a social point of view. Here, a new notion of social optimality is proposed. Read More

We consider joint optimization of artificial noise (AN) and information signals in a MIMO wiretap interference network, wherein the transmission of each link may be overheard by several MIMO-capable eavesdroppers. Each information signal is accompanied with AN, generated by the same user to confuse nearby eavesdroppers. Using a noncooperative game, a distributed optimization mechanism is proposed to maximize the secrecy rate of each link. Read More

Approximating a Nash equilibrium is currently the best performing approach for creating poker-playing programs. While for the simplest variants of the game, it is possible to evaluate the quality of the approximation by computing the value of the best response strategy, this is currently not computationally feasible for larger variants of the game, such as heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em. In this paper, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive Local Best Response method for computing an approximate lower bound on the value of the best response strategy. Read More

The current mainstream approach to train natural language systems is to expose them to large amounts of text. This passive learning is problematic if we are interested in developing interactive machines, such as conversational agents. We propose a framework for language learning that relies on multi-agent communication. Read More

A distributed Nash equilibrium seeking algorithm is presented for networked games. We assume an incomplete information available to each player about the other players' actions. The players communicate over a strongly connected digraph to send/receive the estimates of the other players' actions to/from the other local players according to a gossip communication protocol. Read More

We consider a committee voting setting in which each voter approves of a subset of candidates and based on the approvals, a target number of candidates are selected. Aziz et al. (2015) proposed two representation axioms called justified representation and extended justified representation. Read More

In Amazon EC2, cloud resources are sold through a combination of an on-demand market, in which customers buy resources at a fixed price, and a spot market, in which customers bid for an uncertain supply of excess resources. Standard market environments suggest that an optimal design uses just one type of market. We show the prevalence of a dual market system can be explained by heterogeneous risk attitudes of customers. Read More

Algorithms for equilibrium computation generally make no attempt to ensure that the computed strategies are understandable by humans. For instance the strategies for the strongest poker agents are represented as massive binary files. In many situations, we would like to compute strategies that can actually be implemented by humans, who may have computational limitations and may only be able to remember a small number of features or components of the strategies that have been computed. Read More

In this paper, we consider a realistic scenario in the context of smart grids where an electricity retailer serves three different types of customers, i.e., customers with home energy management system embedded in their smart meters (C-HEMS), customers with only smart meters (C-SM), and customers without smart meters (C-NONE). Read More

This paper studies dynamic spectrum leasing in a cognitive radio network. There are two spectrum sellers, who are two primary networks, each with an amount of licensed spectrum bandwidth. When a seller has some unused spectrum, it would like to lease the unused spectrum to secondary users. Read More

Recently Cole and Gkatzelis gave the first constant factor approximation algorithm for the problem of allocating indivisible items to agents, under additive valuations, so as to maximize the Nash Social Welfare. We give constant factor algorithms for a substantial generalization of their problem -- to the case of separable, piecewise-linear concave utility functions. We give two such algorithms, the first using market equilibria and the second using the theory of stable polynomials. Read More

A prediction market is a useful means of aggregating information about a future event. To function, the market needs a trusted entity who will verify the true outcome in the end. Motivated by the recent introduction of decentralized prediction markets, we introduce a mechanism that allows for the outcome to be determined by the votes of a group of arbiters who may themselves hold stakes in the market. Read More

We consider a revenue-maximizing seller with $m$ heterogeneous items and a single buyer whose valuation $v$ for the items may exhibit both substitutes (i.e., for some $S, T$, $v(S \cup T) < v(S) + v(T)$) and complements (i. Read More

An essential primitive for an efficient research ecosystem is \emph{partial-progress sharing} (PPS) -- whereby a researcher shares information immediately upon making a breakthrough. This helps prevent duplication of work; however there is evidence that existing reward structures in research discourage partial-progress sharing. Ensuring PPS is especially important for new online collaborative-research platforms, which involve many researchers working on large, multi-stage problems. Read More

Recently millimeter-wave bands have been postulated as a means to accommodate the foreseen extreme bandwidth demands in vehicular communications, which result from the dissemination of sensory data to nearby vehicles for enhanced environmental awareness and improved safety level. However, the literature is particularly scarce in regards to principled resource allocation schemes that deal with the challenging radio conditions posed by the high mobility of vehicular scenarios. In this work we propose a novel framework that blends together Matching Theory and Swarm Intelligence to dynamically and efficiently pair vehicles and optimize both transmission and reception beamwidths. Read More

In the Colonel Blotto game, which was initially introduced by Borel in 1921, two colonels simultaneously distribute their troops across different battlefields. The winner of each battlefield is determined independently by a winner-take-all rule. The ultimate payoff of each colonel is the number of battlefields he wins. Read More

The paper uses a non-cooperative simultaneous game for coalition structure formation (Levando, 2016) to demonstrate some applications of the introduced game: a cooperation, a Bayesian game within a coalition with intra-coalition externalities, a stochastic game, where states are coalition structures; self-enforcement properties of a non-cooperative equilibrium and a construction of a non-cooperative stability criterion. Read More

We present a general framework for proving combinatorial prophet inequalities and constructing posted-price mechanisms. Our framework applies to stochastic welfare optimization problems, in which buyers arrive sequentially and make utility-maximizing purchases. Our analysis takes the form of an extension theorem: we derive sufficient conditions for achieving welfare bounds in the special case of deterministic valuations, then prove that these bounds extend directly to stochastic settings. Read More

Motivated by many practical applications, in this paper we study {\em budget feasible mechanisms} where the goal is to procure independent sets from matroids. More specifically, we are given a matroid $\mathcal{M}=(E,\mathcal{I})$ where each ground (indivisible) element is a selfish agent. The cost of each element (i. Read More

The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time and low transaction throughput. Another challenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. Read More

We study social choice rules under the utilitarian distortion framework, with an additional metric assumption on the agents' costs over the alternatives. In this approach, these costs are given by an underlying metric on the set of all agents plus alternatives. Social choice rules have access to only the ordinal preferences of agents but not the latent cardinal costs that induce them. Read More