# Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory Publications

In this paper, the problem of finding a generalized Nash equilibrium (GNE) of a networked game is studied. Players are only able to choose their decisions from a feasible action set. The feasible set is considered to be a private linear equality constraint that is coupled through decisions of the other players. Read More

Each participant in peer-to-peer network prefers to free-ride on the contribution of other participants. Reputation based resource sharing is a way to control the free riding. Instead of classical game theory we use evolutionary game theory to analyse the reputation based resource sharing in peer to peer system. Read More

We study competitive equilibria in the basic Fisher market model, but with indivisible goods. Such equilibria fail to exist in the simplest possible market of two players with equal budgets and a single good, yet this is a knife's edge instance as equilibria exist once budgets are not precisely equal. Is non-existence of equilibria also a knife-edge phenomenon in complex markets with multiple goods? Our computerized search has indicated that equilibria often exist when budgets are "generic". Read More

We introduce and study the game of Selfish Cops and Adversarial Robber (SCAR) which is an N-player generalization of the classic two-player cops and robbers (CR) game. We prove that SCAR has a Nash equilibrium in deterministic strategies. Read More

We consider a cellular system with multiple Femtocells operating in a Macrocell. They are sharing a set of communication channels. Each Femtocell has multiple users requiring certain minimum rate guarantees. Read More

Outsourcing integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing to offshore foundries has grown exponentially in recent years. Given the critical role of ICs in the control and operation of vehicular systems and other modern engineering designs, such offshore outsourcing has led to serious security threats due to the potential of insertion of hardware trojans - malicious designs that, when activated, can lead to highly detrimental consequences. In this paper, a novel game-theoretic framework is proposed to analyze the interactions between a hardware manufacturer, acting as attacker, and an IC testing facility, acting as defender. Read More

In this paper, energy efficient power control for the uplink two-tier networks where a macrocell tier with a massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) base station is overlaid with a small cell tier is investigated. We propose a distributed energy efficient power control algorithm which allows each user in the two-tier network taking individual decisions to optimize its own energy efficiency (EE) for the multi-user and multi-cell scenario. The distributed power control algorithm is implemented by decoupling the EE optimization problem into two steps. Read More

Decision-makers often learn by acquiring information from distinct sources that possibly provide complementary information. We consider a decision-maker who sequentially samples from a finite set of Gaussian signals, and wants to predict a persistent multi-dimensional state at an unknown final period. What signal should he choose to observe in each period? Related problems about optimal experimentation and dynamic learning tend to have solutions that can only be approximated or implicitly characterized. Read More

The (ultra-)dense deployment of small-cell base stations (SBSs) endowed with cloud-like computing functionalities paves the way for pervasive mobile edge computing (MEC), enabling ultra-low latency and location-awareness for a variety of emerging mobile applications and the Internet of Things. To handle spatially uneven computation workloads in the network, cooperation among SBSs via workload peer offloading is essential to avoid large computation latency at overloaded SBSs and provide high quality of service to end users. However, performing effective peer offloading faces many unique challenges in small cell networks due to limited energy resources committed by self-interested SBS owners, uncertainties in the system dynamics and co-provisioning of radio access and computing services. Read More

By enabling wireless devices to be charged wirelessly and remotely, radio frequency energy harvesting (RFEH) has become a promising technology to power the unattended Internet of Things (IoT) low-power devices. To enable this, in future IoT networks, besides the conventional data access points (DAPs) responsible for collecting data from IoT devices, energy access points (EAPs) should be deployed to transfer radio frequency (RF) energy to IoT devices to maintain their sustainable operations. In practice, the DAPs and EAPs may be operated by different operators and a DAP should provide certain incentives to motivate the surrounding EAPs to charge its associated IoT device(s) to assist its data collection. Read More

In this paper, we consider two common resource allocation problems: sharing $ K $ infinitely divisible resources among strategic agents for their private consumption (private goods problem) and determining the level of a single infinitely divisible common resource which is consumed simultaneously by strategic agents (public goods problem). For each problem, we present a distributed mechanism for a set of agents who communicate through a given network. We prove that the mechanism produces a unique Nash Equilibrium (NE) and it fully implements the social welfare maximizing allocation. Read More

We consider Arrovian aggregation of preferences over lotteries that are represented by skew-symmetric bilinear (SSB) utility functions, a significant generalization of von Neumann-Morgenstern utility functions due to Fishburn, in which utility is assigned to pairs of alternatives. We show that the largest domain of preferences that simultaneously allows for independence of irrelevant alternatives and Pareto optimality when comparing lotteries based on accumulated SSB welfare is a domain in which preferences over lotteries are completely determined by ordinal preferences over pure alternatives. In particular, a lottery is preferred to another lottery if and only if the former is more likely to return a preferred alternative. Read More

In this paper, we propose a distributed primal-dual algorithm for computation of a generalized Nash equilibrium (GNE) in noncooperative games over network systems. In the considered game, not only each player's local objective function depends on other players' decisions, but also the feasible decision sets of all the players are coupled together with a globally shared affine inequality constraint. Adopting the variational GNE, that is the solution of a variational inequality, as a refinement of GNE, we introduce a primal-dual algorithm that players can use to seek it in a distributed manner. Read More

Voting systems typically treat all voters equally. We argue that perhaps they should not: Voters who have supported good choices in the past should be given higher weight than voters who have supported bad ones. To develop a formal framework for desirable weighting schemes, we draw on no-regret learning. Read More

The standard two-sided and one-sided matching problems, and the closely related school choice problem, have been widely studied from an axiomatic viewpoint. A small number of algorithms dominate the literature. For two-sided matching, the Gale-Shapley algorithm; for one-sided matching, (random) Serial Dictatorship and Probabilistic Serial rule; for school choice, Gale-Shapley and the Boston mechanisms. Read More

We provide a polynomial time reduction from Bayesian incentive compatible mechanism design to Bayesian algorithm design for welfare maximization problems. Unlike prior results, our reduction achieves exact incentive compatibility for problems with multi-dimensional and continuous type spaces. The key technical barrier preventing exact incentive compatibility in prior black-box reductions is that repairing violations of incentive constraints requires understanding the distribution of the mechanism's output. Read More

In this paper, we identify and study a fundamental, yet underexplored, phenomenon in security games, which we term the Curse of Correlation (CoC). Specifically, we observe that there is inevitable correlation among the protection status of different targets. Such correlation is a crucial concern, especially in spatio-temporal domains like conservation area patrolling, where attackers can monitor patrollers at certain areas and then infer their patrolling routes using such correlation. Read More

Mining for Bitcoins is a high-risk high-reward activity. Miners, seeking to reduce their variance and earn steadier rewards, collaborate in pooling strategies where they jointly mine for Bitcoins. Whenever some pool participant is successful, the earned rewards are appropriately split among all pool participants. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}LIA,

^{2}LIA

Most people simultaneously belong to several distinct social networks, in which their relations can be different. They have opinions about certain topics, which they share and spread on these networks, and are influenced by the opinions of other persons. In this paper, we build upon this observation to propose a new nodal centrality measure for multiplex networks. Read More

We answer the following question dating back to J.E. Littlewood (1885 - 1977): Can two lions catch a man in a bounded area with rectifiable lakes? The lions and the man are all assumed to be points moving with at most unit speed. Read More

The Single Transferable Vote (STV) is a system of preferential voting employed in multi-seat elections. Each vote cast by a voter is a (potentially partial) ranking over a set of candidates. No techniques currently exist for computing the margin of victory (MOV) in STV elections. Read More

In combinatorial auctions, a designer must decide how to allocate a set of indivisible items amongst a set of bidders. Each bidder has a valuation function which gives the utility they obtain from any subset of the items. Our focus is specifically on welfare maximization, where the objective is to maximize the sum of valuations that the bidders place on the items that they were allocated (the valuation functions are assumed to be reported truthfully). Read More

The most popular stability notion in games should be Nash equilibrium under the rationality of players who maximize their own payoff individually. In contrast, in many scenarios, players can be (partly) irrational with some unpredictable factors. Hence a strategy profile can be more robust if it is resilient against certain irrational behaviors. Read More

We study the cost sharing problem for cooperative games in situations where the cost function $C$ is not available via oracle queries, but must instead be derived from data, represented as tuples $(S, C(S))$, for different subsets $S$ of players. We formalize this approach, which we call statistical cost sharing, and consider the computation of the core and the Shapley value, when the tuples are drawn from some distribution $\mathcal{D}$. Previous work by Balcan et al. Read More

The Nash equilibrium paradigm, and Rational Choice Theory in general, rely on agents acting independently from each other. This note shows how this assumption is crucial in the definition of Rational Choice Theory. It explains how a consistent Alternate Rational Choice Theory, as suggested by Jean-Pierre Dupuy, can be built on the exact opposite assumption, and how it provides a viable account for alternate, actually observed behavior of rational agents that is based on correlations between their decisions. Read More

We study the online learning problem of a bidder who participates in repeated auctions. With the goal of maximizing his total T-period payoff, the bidder wants to determine the optimal allocation of his fixed budget among his bids for $K$ different goods at each period. As a bidding strategy, we propose a polynomial time algorithm, referred to as dynamic programming on discrete set (DPDS), which is inspired by the dynamic programming approach to Knapsack problems. Read More

This paper studies two-player zero-sum repeated Bayesian games in which every player has a private type that is unknown to the other player, and the initial probability of the type of every player is publicly known. The types of players are independently chosen according to the initial probabilities, and are kept the same all through the game. At every stage, players simultaneously choose actions, and announce their actions publicly. Read More

Zero-sum asymmetric games model decision making scenarios involving two competing players who have different information about the game being played. A particular case is that of nested information, where one (informed) player has superior information over the other (uninformed) player. This paper considers the case of nested information in repeated zero-sum games and studies the computation of strategies for both the informed and uninformed players for finite-horizon and discounted infinite-horizon nested information games. Read More

We consider the problem of dividing indivisible goods fairly among $n$ agents who have additive and submodular valuations for the goods. Our fairness guarantees are in terms of the maximin share, that is defined to be the maximum value that an agent can ensure for herself, if she were to partition the goods into $n$ bundles, and then receive a minimum valued bundle. Since maximin fair allocations (i. Read More

We study fair allocation of indivisible goods to agents with unequal entitlements. Fair allocation has been the subject of many studies in both divisible and indivisible settings. Our emphasis is on the case where the goods are indivisible and agents have unequal entitlements. Read More

Routing games are one of the most successful domains of application of game theory. It is well understood that simple dynamics converge to equilibria, whose performance is nearly optimal regardless of the size of the network or the number of agents. These strong theoretical assertions prompt a natural question: How well do these pen-and-paper calculations agree with the reality of everyday traffic routing? We focus on a semantically rich dataset from Singapore's National Science Experiment that captures detailed information about the daily behavior of thousands of Singaporean students. Read More

In this paper, energy efficient power control for small cells underlaying a macro cellular network is investigated. We formulate the power control problem in self-organizing small cell networks as a non-cooperative game, and propose a distributed energy efficient power control scheme, which allows the small base stations (SBSs) to take individual decisions for attaining the Nash equilibrium (NE) with minimum information exchange. Specially, in the non-cooperative power control game, a non-convex optimization problem is formulated for each SBS to maximize their energy efficiency (EE). Read More

With increasing connectivity among comprising agents or (sub-)systems in large, complex systems, there is a growing interest in understanding interdependent security and dealing with inefficiency in security investments. Making use of a population game model and the well-known Chung-Lu random graph model, we study how one could encourage selfish agents to invest more in security by internalizing the externalities produced by their security investments. To this end, we first establish an interesting relation between the local minimizers of social cost and the Nash equilibria of a population game with slightly altered costs. Read More

The Multiplicative Weights Update (MWU) method is a ubiquitous meta-algorithm that works as follows: A distribution is maintained on a certain set, and at each step the probability assigned to element $\gamma$ is multiplied by $(1 -\epsilon C(\gamma))>0$ where $C(\gamma)$ is the "cost" of element $\gamma$ and then rescaled to ensure that the new values form a distribution. We analyze MWU in congestion games where agents use \textit{arbitrary admissible constants} as learning rates $\epsilon$ and prove convergence to \textit{exact Nash equilibria}. Our proof leverages a novel connection between MWU and the Baum-Welch algorithm, the standard instantiation of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for hidden Markov models (HMM). Read More

In Group Activity Selection Problem (GASP), players form coalitions to participate in activities and have preferences over pairs of the form (activity, group size). Recently, Igarashi et al. have initiated the study of group activity selection problems on social networks (gGASP): a group of players can engage in the same activity if the members of the group form a connected subset of the underlying communication structure. Read More

Residential Demand Response has emerged as a viable tool to alleviate supply and demand imbalances of electricity, particularly during times when the electric grid is strained due a shortage of supply. Demand Response providers bid reduction capacity into the wholesale electricity market by asking their customers under contract to temporarily reduce their consumption in exchange for a monetary incentive. To contribute to the analysis of consumer behavior in response to such incentives, this paper formulates Demand Response as a Mechanism Design problem, where a Demand Response Provider elicits private information of its rational, profit-maximizing customers who derive positive expected utility by participating in reduction events. Read More

This paper examines the asymptotic behavior of the price of anarchy as a function of the total traffic inflow in nonatomic congestion games with multiple origin-destination pairs. We first show that the price of anarchy may remain bounded away from 1, even in simple three-link parallel networks with convex cost functions. On the other hand, empirical studies show that the price of anarchy is close to 1 in highly congested real-world networks, thus begging the question: under what assumptions can this behavior be justified analytically? To that end, we prove a general result showing that for a large class of cost functions (defined in terms of regular variation and including all polynomials), the price of anarchy converges to 1 in the high congestion limit. Read More

We address the problem of solving parity games with imperfect information on finite graphs of bounded structural complexity. It is a major open problem whether parity games with perfect information can be solved in PTIME. Restricting the structural complexity of the game arenas, however, often leads to efficient algorithms for parity games. Read More

Stochastic multi-armed bandit (MAB) mechanisms are widely used in sponsored search auctions, crowdsourcing, online procurement, etc. Existing stochastic MAB mechanisms with a deterministic payment rule, proposed in the literature, necessarily suffer a regret of $\Omega(T^{2/3})$, where $T$ is the number of time steps. This happens because the existing mechanisms consider the worst case scenario where the means of the agents' stochastic rewards are separated by a very small amount that depends on $T$. Read More

We consider a scheduling problem where a cloud service provider has multiple units of a resource available over time. Selfish clients submit jobs, each with an arrival time, deadline, length, and value. The service provider's goal is to implement a truthful online mechanism for scheduling jobs so as to maximize the social welfare of the schedule. Read More

One-sided matching mechanisms are fundamental for assigning a set of indivisible objects to a set of self-interested agents when monetary transfers are not allowed. Two widely-studied randomized mechanisms in multiagent settings are the Random Serial Dictatorship (RSD) and the Probabilistic Serial Rule (PS). Both mechanisms require only that agents specify ordinal preferences and have a number of desirable economic and computational properties. Read More

Intelligent network selection plays an important role in achieving an effective data offloading in the integrated cellular and Wi-Fi networks. However, previously proposed network selection schemes mainly focused on offloading as much data traffic to Wi-Fi as possible, without systematically considering the Wi-Fi network congestion and the ping-pong effect, both of which may lead to a poor overall user quality of experience. Thus, in this paper, we study a more practical network selection problem by considering both the impacts of the network congestion and switching penalties. Read More

We consider elections where the voters come one at a time, in a streaming fashion, and devise space-efficient algorithms which identify an approximate winning committee with respect to common multiwinner proportional representation voting rules; specifically, we consider the Approval-based and the Borda-based variants of both the Chamberlin-- ourant rule and the Monroe rule. We complement our algorithms with lower bounds. Somewhat surprisingly, our results imply that, using space which does not depend on the number of voters it is possible to efficiently identify an approximate representative committee of fixed size over vote streams with huge number of voters. Read More

The recent online platforms propose multiple items for bidding. The state of the art, however, is limited to the analysis of one item auction without resubmission. In this paper we study multi-item lowest unique bid auctions (LUBA) with resubmission in discrete bid spaces under budget constraints. Read More

We consider the framework of aggregative games, in which the cost function of each agent depends on his own strategy and on the average population strategy. As first contribution, we investigate the relations between the concepts of Nash and Wardrop equilibrium. By exploiting a characterization of the two equilibria as solutions of variational inequalities, we bound their distance with a decreasing function of the population size. Read More

Most modern systems strive to learn from interactions with users, and many engage in \emph{exploration}: making potentially suboptimal choices for the sake of acquiring new information. We initiate a study of the interplay between \emph{exploration and competition}---how such systems balance the exploration for learning and the competition for users. Here the users play three distinct roles: they are customers that generate revenue, they are sources of data for learning, and they are self-interested agents which choose among the competing systems. Read More

We develop game-theoretic semantics (GTS) for the fragment ATL+ of the full Alternating-time Temporal Logic ATL*, essentially extending a recently introduced GTS for ATL. We first show that the new game-theoretic semantics is equivalent to the standard semantics of ATL+ (based on perfect recall strategies). We then provide an analysis, based on the new semantics, of the memory and time resources needed for model checking ATL+. Read More

This paper considers a class of reinforcement-learning that belongs to the family of Learning Automata and provides a stochastic-stability analysis in strategic-form games. For this class of dynamics, convergence to pure Nash equilibria has been demonstrated only for the fine class of potential games. Prior work primarily provides convergence properties of the dynamics through stochastic approximations, where the asymptotic behavior can be associated with the limit points of an ordinary-differential equation (ODE). Read More

Balancing fairness and efficiency in resource allocation is a classical economic and computational problem. The price of fairness measures the worst-case loss of economic efficiency when using an inefficient but fair allocation rule; for indivisible goods in many settings, this price is unacceptably high. In this work, we propose a hybrid fairness rule that balances a strict lexicographic preference ordering over classes of agents and a utilitarian objective that maximizes economic efficiency. Read More

Taobao, as the largest online retail platform in the world, provides billions of online display advertising impressions for millions of advertisers every day. For commercial purposes, the advertisers bid for specific spots and target crowds to compete for business traffic. The platform chooses the most suitable ads to display in tens of milliseconds. Read More