Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science Publications (50)

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Computer Science - Computational Engineering; Finance; and Science Publications

In the present study, a general probabilistic design framework is developed for cyclic fatigue life prediction of metallic hardware using methods that address uncertainty in experimental data and computational model. The methodology involves (i) data from fatigue tests conducted on coupons of Ti6Al4V material; (ii) continuum damage mechanics based material constitutive models to simulate cyclic fatigue behavior of material; (iii) variance-based global sensitivity analysis; (iv) Bayesian framework for model calibration and uncertainty quantification; and (v) computational life prediction and probabilistic design decision making under uncertainty. The outcomes of computational analyses using the experimental data prove the feasibility of the probabilistic design methods for model calibration in presence of incomplete and noisy data. Read More


We present a novel complex number formulation along with tight convex relaxations for the aircraft conflict resolution problem. Our approach combines both speed and heading control and provides global optimality guarantees despite non-convexities in the feasible region. As a side result, we present a new characterization of the conflict separation condition in the form of disjunctive linear constraints. Read More


Cell injection is a technique in the domain of biological cell micro-manipulation for the delivery of small volumes of samples into the suspended or adherent cells. It has been widely applied in various areas, such as gene injection, in-vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ISCI) and drug development. However, the existing manual and semi-automated cell injection systems require lengthy training and suffer from high probability of contamination and low success rate. Read More


With the increasing rate of power consumption, many new distribution systems need to be constructed to accommodate connecting the new consumers to the power grid. On the other hand, the increasing penetration of renewable distributed generation (DG) resources into the distribution systems and the necessity of optimally place them in the network can dramatically change the problem of distribution system planning and design. In this paper, the problem of optimal distribution system planning including conductor sizing, DG placement, alongside with placement and sizing of shunt capacitors is studied. Read More


This paper proposes a novel method to automatically enforce controls and limits for Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based multi-terminal HVDC in the Newton power flow iteration process. A general VSC MT-HVDC model with primary PQ or PV control and secondary voltage control is formulated. Both the dependent and independent variables are included in the propose formulation so that the algebraic variables of the VSC MT-HVDC are adjusted simultaneously. Read More


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely applied non-invasive imaging modality based on non-ionizing radiation which gives excellent images and soft tissue contrast of living tissues. We consider the modified Bloch problem as a model of MRI for flowing spins in an incompressible flow field. After establishing the well-posedness of the corresponding evolution problem, we analyze its spatial semidiscretization using discontinuous Galerkin methods. Read More


Cosimulation methods allow combination of simulation tools of physical systems running in parallel to act as a single simulation environment for a big system. As data is passed across subsystem boundaries instead of solving the system as one single equation system, it is not ensured that systemwide balances are fulfilled. If the exchanged data is a flow of a conserved quantity, approximation errors can accumulate and make simulation results inaccurate. Read More


A numerical method for particle-laden fluids interacting with a deformable solid domain and mobile rigid parts is proposed and implemented in a full engineering system. The fluid domain is modeled with a lattice Boltzmann representation, the particles and rigid parts are modeled with a discrete element representation, and the deformable solid domain is modeled using a Lagrangian mesh. The main issue of this work, since separately each of these methods is a mature tool, is to develop coupling and model-reduction approaches in order to efficiently simulate coupled problems of this nature, as occur in various geological and engineering applications. Read More


Flight delays have a negative effect on airlines, airports and passengers. Their prediction is crucial during the decision-making process for all players of commercial aviation. Moreover, the development of accurate prediction models for flight delays became cumbersome due to the complexity of air transportation system, the amount of methods for prediction, and the deluge of data related to such system. Read More


This volume contains the proceedings of MARS 2017, the second workshop on Models for Formal Analysis of Real Systems, held on April 29, 2017 in Uppala, Sweden, as an affiliated workshop of ETAPS 2017, the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software. The workshop emphasises modelling over verification. It aims at discussing the lessons learned from making formal methods for the verification and analysis of realistic systems. Read More


We present an efficient solver for diffeomorphic image registration problems in the framework of Large Deformations Diffeomorphic Metric Mappings (LDDMM). We use an optimal control formulation, in which the velocity field of a hyperbolic PDE needs to be found such that the distance between the final state of the system (the transformed/transported template image) and the observation (the reference image) is minimized. Our solver supports both stationary and non-stationary (i. Read More


This study presents a meshless-based local reanalysis (MLR) method. The purpose of this study is to extend reanalysis methods to the Kriging interpolation meshless method due to its high efficiency. In this study, two reanalysis methods: combined approximations CA) and indirect factorization updating (IFU) methods are utilized. Read More


Multiscale optimization is an attractive research field recently. For the most of optimization tools, design parameters should be updated during a close loop. Therefore, a simple Python code is programmed to obtain effective properties of Representative Volume Element (RVE) under Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBCs). Read More


The eigenvalue of a Hamiltonian, $\mathcal{H}$, can be estimated through the phase estimation algorithm given the matrix exponential of the Hamiltonian, $exp(-i\mathcal{H})$. The difficulty of this exponentiation impedes the applications of the phase estimation algorithm particularly when $\mathcal{H}$ is composed of non-commuting terms. In this paper, we present a method to use the Hamiltonian matrix directly in the phase estimation algorithm by using an ancilla based framework: In this framework, we also show how to find the power of the Hamiltonian matrix-which is necessary in the phase estimation algorithm-through the successive applications. Read More


The most recent financial upheavals have cast doubt on the adequacy of some of the conventional quantitative risk management strategies, such as VaR (Value at Risk), in many common situations. Consequently, there has been an increasing need for verisimilar financial stress testings, namely simulating and analyzing financial portfolios in extreme, albeit rare scenarios. Unlike conventional risk management which exploits statistical correlations among financial instruments, here we focus our analysis on the notion of probabilistic causation, which is embodied by Suppes-Bayes Causal Networks (SBCNs), SBCNs are probabilistic graphical models that have many attractive features in terms of more accurate causal analysis for generating financial stress scenarios. Read More


A conceptual and computational framework is proposed for modelling of human sensorimotor control, and is exemplified for the sensorimotor task of steering a car. The framework emphasises control intermittency, and extends on existing models by suggesting that the nervous system implements intermittent control using a combination of (1) motor primitives, (2) prediction of sensory outcomes of motor actions, and (3) evidence accumulation of prediction errors. It is shown that approximate but useful sensory predictions in the intermittent control context can be constructed without detailed forward models, as a superposition of simple prediction primitives, resembling neurobiologically observed corollary discharges. Read More


We apply two recently formulated mathematical techniques, Slow-Fast Decomposition (SFD) and Spectral Submanifold (SSM) reduction, to a von Karman beam with geometric nonlinearities and viscoelastic damping. SFD identifies a global slow manifold in the full system which attracts solutions at rates faster than typical rates within the manifold. An SSM, the smoothest nonlinear continuation of a linear modal subspace, is then used to further reduce the beam equations within the slow manifold. Read More


Automatic differentiation is involved for long in applied mathematics as an alternative to finite difference to improve the accuracy of numerical computation of derivatives. Each time a numerical minimization is involved, automatic differentiation can be used. In between formal derivation and standard numerical schemes, this approach is based on software solutions applying mechanically the chain rule to obtain an exact value for the desired derivative. Read More


Markov chain model is widely applied in many fields, especially the field of prediction. The classical Discrete-time Markov chain(DTMC) is a widely used method for prediction. However, the classical DTMC model has some limitation when the system is complex with uncertain information or state space is not discrete. Read More


In this paper, we present a parallel numerical algorithm for solving the phase field crystal equation. In the algorithm, a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is derived based on the discrete variational derivative method. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the scheme is unconditionally energy stable and can achieve second-order accuracy in both space and time. Read More


We present a computer-assisted proof of heteroclinic connections in the one-dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki model of diblock copolymers. The model is a fourth-order parabolic partial differential equation subject to homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions, which contains as a special case the celebrated Cahn-Hilliard equation. While the attractor structure of the latter model is completely understood for one-dimensional domains, the diblock copolymer extension exhibits considerably richer long-term dynamical behavior, which includes a high level of multistability. Read More


The development of a system that would ease the diagnosis of heart diseases would also fasten the work of the cardiologic department in hospitals and facilitate the monitoring of patients with portable devices. This paper presents a tool for ECG signal analysis which is designed in Matlab. The Hermite transform domain is exploited for the analysis. Read More


The Landau collision integral is an accurate model for the small-angle dominated Coulomb collisions in fusion plasmas. We investigate a high order accurate, fully conservative, finite element discretization of the nonlinear multi-species Landau integral with adaptive mesh refinement using the PETSc library (www.mcs. Read More


This paper presents a system based on a Two-Way Particle-Tracking Model to analyze possible crash positions of flight MH370. The particle simulator includes a simple flow simulation of the debris based on a Lagrangian approach and a module to extract appropriated ocean current data from netCDF files. The influence of wind, waves, immersion depth and hydrodynamic behavior are not considered in the simulation. Read More


The mathematical models used to represent physical phenomena are generally known to be imperfect representations of reality. Model inadequacies arise for numerous reasons, such as incomplete knowledge of the phenomena or computational intractability of more accurate models. In such situations it is impractical or impossible to improve the model, but necessity requires its use to make predictions. Read More


A class of methods based on multichannel linear prediction (MCLP) can achieve effective blind dereverberation of a source, when the source is observed with a microphone array. We propose an inventive use of MCLP as a pre-processing step for blind source separation with a microphone array. We show theoretically that, under certain assumptions, such pre-processing reduces the original blind reverberant source separation problem to a non-reverberant one, which in turn can be effectively tackled using existing methods. Read More


Transmission lines are vital components in power systems. Tripping of transmission lines caused by over-temperature is a major threat to the security of system operations, so it is necessary to efficiently simulate line temperature under both normal operation conditions and foreseen fault conditions. Existing methods based on thermal-steady-state analyses cannot reflect transient temperature evolution, and thus cannot provide timing information needed for taking remedial actions. Read More


A finite element method simulation of a carbon fibre reinforced polymer block is used to analyse the nonlinearities arising from a contacting delamination gap inside the material. The ultrasonic signal is amplified and nonlinearities are analysed by delayed Time Reversal -- Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy signal processing method. This signal processing method allows to focus the wave energy onto the receiving transducer and to modify the focused wave shape, allowing to use several different methods, including pulse inversion, for detecting the nonlinear signature of the damage. Read More


In simulation of fluid injection in fractured geothermal reservoirs, the characteristics of the physical processes are severely affected by the local occurence of connected fractures. To resolve these structurally dominated processes, there is a need to develop discretization strategies that also limit computational effort. In this paper we present an upscaling methodology for geothermal heat transport with fractures represented explicitly in the computational grid. Read More


Computations have helped elucidate the dynamics of Earth's mantle for several decades already. The numerical methods that underlie these simulations have greatly evolved within this time span, and today include dynamically changing and adaptively refined meshes, sophisticated and efficient solvers, and parallelization to large clusters of computers. At the same time, many of these methods -- discussed in detail in a previous paper in this series -- were developed and tested primarily using model problems that lack many of the complexities that are common to the realistic models our community wants to solve today. Read More


The direct numerical simulation of particulate systems offers a unique approach to study the dynamics of fluid-solid suspensions by fully resolving the submerged particles and without introducing empirical models. For the lattice Boltzmann method, different variants exist to incorporate the fluid-particle interaction into the simulation. This paper provides a detailed and systematic comparison of two different methods, namely the momentum exchange method and the partially saturated cells method by Noble and Torczynski. Read More


This paper proposes a new convex model predictive control strategy for dynamic optimal power flow between battery energy storage systems distributed in an AC microgrid. The proposed control strategy uses a new problem formulation, based on a linear d-q reference frame voltage-current model and linearised power flow approximations. This allows the optimal power flows to be solved as a convex optimisation problem, for which fast and robust solvers exist. Read More


Groups of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) back each other and form guarantee network to obtain loan from banks. The risk over the networked enterprises may cause significant contagious damage. To dissolve such risks, we propose a hybrid feature representation, which is feeded into a gradient boosting model for credit risk assessment of guarantee network. Read More


Molecular Dynamics is an important tool for computational biologists, chemists, and materials scientists, consuming a sizable amount of supercomputing resources. Many of the investigated systems contain charged particles, which can only be simulated accurately using a long-range solver, such as PPPM. We extend the popular LAMMPS molecular dynamics code with an implementation of PPPM particularly suitable for the second generation Intel Xeon Phi. Read More


We adapt and extend a formulation for soluble surfactant transport in multiphase flows recently presented by Muradoglu & Tryggvason (JCP 274 (2014) 737-757) to the context of the Level Contour Reconstruction Method (Shin et al. IJNMF 60 (2009) 753-778) which is a hybrid method that combines the advantages of the Front-tracking and Level Set methods. Particularly close attention is paid to the formulation and numerical implementation of the surface gradients of surfactant concentration and surface tension. Read More


Three complementary methods have been implemented in the code Denovo that accelerate neutral particle transport calculations with methods that use leadership-class computers fully and effectively: a multigroup block (MG) Krylov solver, a Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) eigenvalue solver, and a multigrid in energy preconditioner. The multigroup Krylov solver converges more quickly than Gauss Seidel and enables energy decomposition such that Denovo can scale to hundreds of thousands of cores. The new multigrid in energy preconditioner reduces iteration count for many problem types and takes advantage of the new energy decomposition such that it can scale efficiently. Read More


Volatility prediction--an essential concept in financial markets--has recently been addressed using sentiment analysis methods. We investigate the sentiment of annual disclosures of companies in stock markets to forecast volatility. We specifically explore the use of recent Information Retrieval (IR) term weighting models that are effectively extended by related terms using word embeddings. Read More


Breathing signal monitoring can provide important clues for human's physical health problems. Comparing to existing techniques that require wearable devices and special equipment, a more desirable approach is to provide contact-free and long-term breathing rate monitoring by exploiting wireless signals. In this paper, we propose TensorBeat, a system to employ channel state information (CSI) phase difference data to intelligently estimate breathing rates for multiple persons with commodity WiFi devices. Read More


This paper proposes a method of real-time voltage stability assessment for load areas, in which the proximity to voltage collapse point at each bus can be accurately evaluated. Based on the non-iterative holomorphic embedding method (HEM), the voltage of each bus for different loading levels in the load area is quickly screened out by only performing one-time power flow calculation. A power series derived by the HEM with a physical germ solution makes sure that the P-V curve is in conformity with that from conventional continuous power flow. Read More


In this paper, we propose an optimized field/circuit coupling approach for the simulation of magnetothermal transients in superconducting magnets. The approach improves the convergence of the iterative coupling scheme between a magnetothermal partial differential model and an electrical lumped-element circuit. Such a multi-physics, multi-rate and multi-scale problem requires a consistent formulation and a dedicated framework to tackle the challenging transient effects occurring at both circuit and magnet level during normal operation and in case of faults. Read More


In this paper we propose an anisotropic extension of the isotropic exponentiated Hencky en- ergy, based on logarithmic strain invariants. Unlike other elastic formulations, the isotropic exponentiated Hencky elastic energy has been derived solely on differential geometric grounds, involving the geodesic distance of the deformation gradient F to the group of rotations. We formally extend this approach towards anisotropy by defining additional anisotropic logarith- mic strain invariants with the help of suitable structural tensors and consider our findings for biomechanical applications. Read More


This paper presents a new adaptive multiscale homogenization scheme for the simulation of damage and fracture in concrete structures. A two-scale homogenization method, coupling meso-scale discrete particle models to macro- scale finite element models, is formulated into an adaptive framework. A continuum multiaxial failure criterion for concrete is calibrated on the basis of fine-scale simulations, and it serves as the adaptive criterion in the multiscale framework. Read More


In this paper, several rigorous numerical simulations were conducted to examine the relevance of mean-field micromechanical models compared to the Fast Fourier Transform full-field computation by considering spherical or ellipsoidal inclusions. To be more general, the numerical study was extended to a mixture of different kind of microstructures consisting of spheroidal shapes within the same RVE. Although the Fast Fourier Transform full field calculation is sensitive to high contrasts, calculation time, for a combination of complex microstructures, remains reasonable compared with those obtained with mean-field micromechanical models. Read More


A novel adaptive local surface refinement technique based on Locally Refined Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (LR NURBS) is presented. LR NURBS can model complex geometries exactly and are the rational extension of LR B-splines. The local representation of the parameter space overcomes the drawback of non-existent local refinement in standard NURBS-based isogeometric analysis. Read More


Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a fast-emerging water desalination technology in which a small cell voltage of ~1 V across porous carbon electrodes removes salt from feedwaters via electrosorption. In flow-through electrode (FTE) CDI cell architecture, feedwater is pumped through macropores or laser perforated channels in porous electrodes, enabling highly compact cells with parallel flow and electric field, as well as rapid salt removal. We here present a one-dimensional model describing water desalination by FTE CDI, and a comparison to data from a custom-built experimental cell. Read More


This paper presents our work on developing parallel computational methods for two-phase flow on modern parallel computers, where techniques for linear solvers and nonlinear methods are studied and the standard and inexact Newton methods are investigated. A multi-stage preconditioner for two-phase flow is applied and advanced matrix processing strategies are studied. A local reordering method is developed to speed the solution of linear systems. Read More


Classical Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a statistical-mechanical framework to analyze fluids, which accounts for nanoscale fluid inhomogeneities and non-local intermolecular interactions. DFT can be applied to a wide range of interfacial phenomena, as well as problems in adsorption, colloidal science and phase transitions in fluids. Typical DFT equations are highly non-linear, stiff and contain several convolution terms. Read More


Implicit schemes have been extensively used in building physics to compute the solution of moisture diffusion problems in porous materials for improving stability conditions. Nevertheless, these schemes require important sub-iterations when treating non-linear problems. To overcome this disadvantage, this paper explores the use of improved explicit schemes, such as Dufort-Frankel, Crank-Nicolson and hyperbolisation approaches. Read More


Recent results on supercomputers show that beyond 65K cores, the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations of interfacial systems decreases significantly. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic cutoff method (DCM) for interfacial systems of arbitrarily large size. The idea consists in adopting a cutoff-based method in which the cutoff is cho- sen on a particle-by-particle basis, according to the distance from the interface. Read More