# Computer Science - Computational Complexity Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Computational Complexity Publications

We study the parameterized complexity of several positional games. Our main result is that Short Generalized Hex is W[1]-complete parameterized by the number of moves. This solves an open problem from Downey and Fellows' influential list of open problems from 1999. Read More

Suppose a large scale quantum computer becomes available over the Internet. Could we delegate universal quantum computations to this server, using only classical communication between client and server, in a way that is information-theoretically blind (i.e. Read More

We consider relative error low rank approximation of {\it tensors} with respect to the Frobenius norm: given an order-$q$ tensor $A \in \mathbb{R}^{\prod_{i=1}^q n_i}$, output a rank-$k$ tensor $B$ for which $\|A-B\|_F^2 \leq (1+\epsilon)$OPT, where OPT $= \inf_{\textrm{rank-}k~A'} \|A-A'\|_F^2$. Despite the success on obtaining relative error low rank approximations for matrices, no such results were known for tensors. One structural issue is that there may be no rank-$k$ tensor $A_k$ achieving the above infinum. Read More

String Kernel (SK) techniques, especially those using gapped $k$-mers as features (gk), have obtained great success in classifying sequences like DNA, protein, and text. However, the state-of-the-art gk-SK runs extremely slow when we increase the dictionary size ($\Sigma$) or allow more mismatches ($M$). This is because current gk-SK uses a trie-based algorithm to calculate co-occurrence of mismatched substrings resulting in a time cost proportional to $O(\Sigma^{M})$. Read More

In this paper, we study polynomial norms, i.e. norms that are the $d^{\text{th}}$ root of a degree-$d$ homogeneous polynomial $f$. Read More

Computational notions of entropy have many applications in cryptography and complexity theory. These notions measure how much (min-)entropy a source $X$ has from the eyes of a computationally bounded party who may hold certain "leakage information" $B$ that is correlated with $X$. In this work, we initiate the study of computational entropy in the quantum setting, where $X$ and/or $B$ may become quantum states and the computationally bounded observer is modeled as a small quantum circuit. Read More

The notions of entanglement and nonlocality are among the most striking ingredients found in quantum information theory. One tool to better understand these notions is the model of nonlocal games; a mathematical framework that abstractly models a physical system. The simplest instance of a nonlocal game involves two players, Alice and Bob, who are not allowed to communicate with each other once the game has started and who play cooperatively against an adversary referred to as the referee. Read More

For a fixed collection of graphs ${\cal F}$, the ${\cal F}$-M-DELETION problem consists in, given a graph $G$ and an integer $k$, decide whether there exists $S \subseteq V(G)$ with $|S| \leq k$ such that $G \setminus S$ does not contain any of the graphs in ${\cal F}$ as a minor. We are interested in the parameterized complexity of ${\cal F}$-M-DELETION when the parameter is the treewidth of $G$, denoted by $tw$. Our objective is to determine, for a fixed ${\cal F}$, the smallest function $f_{{\cal F}}$ such that ${\cal F}$-M-DELETION can be solved in time $f_{{\cal F}}(tw) \cdot n^{O(1)}$ on $n$-vertex graphs. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}GRACE

We present quasi-linear time systematic encoding algorithms for multiplicity codes. The algorithms have their origins in the fast multivariate interpolation and evaluation algorithms of van der Hoeven and Schost (2013), which we generalise to address certain Hermite-type interpolation and evaluation problems. By providing fast encoding algorithms for multiplicity codes, we remove an obstruction on the road to the practical application of the private information retrieval protocol of Augot, Levy-dit-Vehel and Shikfa (2014). Read More

We generalize the deterministic simulation theorem of Raz and McKenzie [RM99], to any gadget which satisfies certain hitting property. We prove that inner-product and gap-Hamming satisfy this property, and as a corollary we obtain deterministic simulation theorem for these gadgets, where the gadget's input-size is logarithmic in the input-size of the outer function. This answers an open question posed by G\"{o}\"{o}s, Pitassi and Watson [GPW15]. Read More

We study quantum algorithms on search trees of unknown structure, in a model where the tree can be discovered by local exploration. That is, we are given the root of the tree and access to a black box which, given a vertex $v$, outputs the children of $v$. We construct a quantum algorithm which, given such access to a search tree of depth at most $n$, estimates the size of the tree $T$ within a factor of $1\pm \delta$ in $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{nT})$ steps. Read More

We study several problems related to graph modification problems under connectivity constraints from the perspective of parameterized complexity: {\sc (Weighted) Biconnectivity Deletion}, where we are tasked with deleting~$k$ edges while preserving biconnectivity in an undirected graph, {\sc Vertex-deletion Preserving Strong Connectivity}, where we want to maintain strong connectivity of a digraph while deleting exactly~$k$ vertices, and {\sc Path-contraction Preserving Strong Connectivity}, in which the operation of path contraction on arcs is used instead. The parameterized tractability of this last problem was posed by Bang-Jensen and Yeo [DAM 2008] as an open question and we answer it here in the negative: both variants of preserving strong connectivity are $\sf W[1]$-hard. Preserving biconnectivity, on the other hand, turns out to be fixed parameter tractable and we provide a $2^{O(k\log k)} n^{O(1)}$-algorithm that solves {\sc Weighted Biconnectivity Deletion}. Read More

The nonnegative and positive semidefinite (PSD-) ranks are closely connected to the nonnegative and positive semidefinite extension complexities of a polytope, which are the minimal dimensions of linear and SDP programs which represent this polytope. Though some exponential lower bounds on the nonnegative and PSD- ranks has recently been proved for the slack matrices of some particular polytopes, there are still no tight bounds for these quantities. We explore some existing bounds on the PSD-rank and prove that they cannot give exponential lower bounds on the extension complexity. Read More

We study the problem of approximating the partition function of the ferromagnetic Ising model in graphs and hypergraphs. Our first result is a deterministic approximation scheme (an FPTAS) for the partition function in bounded degree graphs that is valid over the entire range of parameters $\beta$ (the interaction) and $\lambda$ (the external field), except for the case $\vert{\lambda}\vert=1$ (the "zero-field" case). A randomized algorithm (FPRAS) for all graphs, and all $\beta,\lambda$, has long been known. Read More

We prove that any non-adaptive algorithm that tests whether an unknown Boolean function $f: \{0, 1\}^n\to \{0, 1\}$ is a $k$-junta or $\epsilon$-far from every $k$-junta must make $\widetilde{\Omega}(k^{3/2} / \epsilon)$ many queries for a wide range of parameters $k$ and $\epsilon$. Our result dramatically improves previous lower bounds from [BGSMdW13, STW15], and is essentially optimal given Blais's non-adaptive junta tester from [Blais08], which makes $\widetilde{O}(k^{3/2})/\epsilon$ queries. Combined with the adaptive tester of [Blais09] which makes $O(k\log k + k /\epsilon)$ queries, our result shows that adaptivity enables polynomial savings in query complexity for junta testing. Read More

The celebrated Time Hierarchy Theorem for Turing machines states, informally, that more problems can be solved given more time. The extent to which a time hierarchy-type theorem holds in the distributed LOCAL model has been open for many years. It is consistent with previous results that all natural problems in the LOCAL model can be classified according to a small constant number of complexities, such as $O(1),O(\log^* n), O(\log n), 2^{O(\sqrt{\log n})}$, etc. Read More

Singleton arc consistency is an important type of local consistency which has been recently shown to solve all constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) over constraint languages of bounded width. We aim to characterise all classes of CSPs defined by a forbidden pattern that are solved by singleton arc consistency and closed under removing constraints. We identify five new patterns whose absence ensures solvability by singleton arc consistency, four of which are provably maximal and three of which generalise 2-SAT. Read More

In this work, we introduce an online model for communication complexity. Analogous to how online algorithms receive their input piece-by-piece, our model presents one of the players Bob his input piece-by-piece, and has the players Alice and Bob cooperate to compute a result it presents Bob with the next piece. This model has a closer and more natural correspondence to dynamic data structures than the classic communication models do and hence presents a new perspective on data structures. Read More

Let $BQP(n)$ be a boolean quadric polytope, $LOP(m)$ be a linear ordering polytope. It is shown that $BQP(n)$ is linearly isomorphic to a face of $LOP(2n)$. Read More

Subspace designs are a (large) collection of high-dimensional subspaces $\{H_i\}$ of $\F_q^m$ such that for any low-dimensional subspace $W$, only a small number of subspaces from the collection have non-trivial intersection with $W$; more precisely, the sum of dimensions of $W \cap H_i$ is at most some parameter $L$. The notion was put forth by Guruswami and Xing (STOC'13) with applications to list decoding variants of Reed-Solomon and algebraic-geometric codes, and later also used for explicit rank-metric codes with optimal list decoding radius. Guruswami and Kopparty (FOCS'13, Combinatorica'16) gave an explicit construction of subspace designs with near-optimal parameters. Read More

In this paper we investigate the computational complexity of deciding if a given finite algebraic structure satisfies a fixed (strong) Maltsev condition $\Sigma$. Our goal in this paper is to show that $\Sigma$-testing can be accomplished in polynomial time when the algebras tested are idempotent and the Maltsev condition $\Sigma$ can be described using paths. Examples of such path conditions are having a Maltsev term, having a majority operation, and having a chain of J\'onsson (or Gumm) terms of fixed length. Read More

Given a tree $T$ on $n$ vertices, and $k, b, s_1, \ldots, s_b \in N$, the Tree Partitioning problem asks if at most $k$ edges can be removed from $T$ so that the resulting components can be grouped into $b$ groups such that the number of vertices in group $i$ is $s_i$, for $i =1, \ldots, b$. The case when $s_1=\cdots =s_b =n/b$, referred to as the Balanced Tree Partitioning problem, was shown to be NP-complete for trees of maximum degree at most 5, and the complexity of the problem for trees of maximum degree 4 and 3 was posed as an open question. The parameterized complexity of Balanced Tree Partitioning was also posed as an open question in another work. Read More

Holant problems are a family of counting problems on graphs, parametrised by sets of complex-valued functions of Boolean inputs. Holant^c denotes a subfamily of those problems, where any function set considered must contain the two unary functions pinning inputs to values 0 or 1. The complexity classification of Holant problems usually takes the form of dichotomy theorems, showing that for any set of functions in the family, the problem is either #P-hard or it can be solved in polynomial time. Read More

Recently, [Bra17] showed that the single-swap heuristic for weighted metric uncapacitated facility location and $K$-Means is tightly PLS-complete. We build upon this work and present a stronger reduction, which proves tight PLS-completeness for the unweighted version of both problems. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}University of Copenhagen,

^{2}University of Copenhagen

We investigate computability in the lattice of equivalence relations on the natural numbers. We mostly investigate whether the subsets of appropriately defined subrecursive equivalence relations -for example the set of all polynomial-time decidable equivalence relations- form sublattices of the lattice. Read More

This paper serves as a review and discussion of the recent works on memcomputing. In particular, the $\textit{universal memcomputing machine}$ (UMM) and the $\textit{digital memcomputing machine}$ (DMM) are discussed. We review the memcomputing concept in the dynamical systems framework and assess the algorithms offered for computing $NP$ problems in the UMM and DMM paradigms. Read More

We propose a new model for formalizing reward collection problems on graphs with dynamically generated rewards which may appear and disappear based on a stochastic model. The robot routing problem is modeled as a graph whose nodes are stochastic processes generating potential rewards over discrete time. The rewards are generated according to the stochastic process, but at each step, an existing reward may disappear with a given probability. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}Université de Lorraine, France,

^{2}Universität Innsbruck, Austria

The DICE workshop explores the area of Implicit Computational Complexity (ICC), which grew out from several proposals to use logic and formal methods to provide languages for complexity-bounded computation (e.g. Ptime, Logspace computation). Read More

**Authors:**Jacob Steinhardt

We consider a robust analog of the planted clique problem. In this analog, a set $S$ of vertices is chosen and all edges in $S$ are included; then, edges between $S$ and the rest of the graph are included with probability $\frac{1}{2}$, while edges not touching $S$ are allowed to vary arbitrarily. For this semi-random model, we show that the information-theoretic threshold for recovery is $\tilde{\Theta}(\sqrt{n})$, in sharp contrast to the classical information-theoretic threshold of $\Theta(\log(n))$. Read More

Monoidal computer is a categorical model of intensional computation, where many different programs correspond to the same input-output behavior. The upshot of yet another model of computation is that a categorical formalism should provide a much needed high level language for theory of computation, flexible enough to allow abstracting away the low level implementation details when they are irrelevant, or taking them into account when they are genuinely needed. A salient feature of the approach through monoidal categories is the formal graphical language of string diagrams, which supports visual reasoning about programs and computations. Read More

A weight-$t$ halfspace is a Boolean function $f(x)=$sign$(w_1 x_1 + \cdots + w_n x_n - \theta)$ where each $w_i$ is an integer in $\{-t,\dots,t\}.$ We give an explicit pseudorandom generator that $\delta$-fools any intersection of $k$ weight-$t$ halfspaces with seed length poly$(\log n, \log k,t,1/\delta)$. In particular, our result gives an explicit PRG that fools any intersection of any quasipoly$(n)$ number of halfspaces of any poly$\log(n)$ weight to any $1/$poly$\log(n)$ accuracy using seed length poly$\log(n). Read More

Subset-Sum and k-SAT are two of the most extensively studied problems in computer science, and conjectures about their hardness are among the cornerstones of fine-grained complexity. One of the most intriguing open problems in this area is to base the hardness of one of these problems on the other. Our main result is a tight reduction from k-SAT to Subset-Sum on dense instances, proving that Bellman's 1962 pseudo-polynomial $O^{*}(T)$-time algorithm for Subset-Sum on $n$ numbers and target $T$ cannot be improved to time $T^{1-\varepsilon}\cdot 2^{o(n)}$ for any $\varepsilon>0$, unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH) fails. Read More

A directed odd cycle transversal of a directed graph (digraph) $D$ is a vertex set $S$ that intersects every odd directed cycle of $D$. In the Directed Odd Cycle Transversal (DOCT) problem, the input consists of a digraph $D$ and an integer $k$. The objective is to determine whether there exists a directed odd cycle transversal of $D$ of size at most $k$. Read More

$ \newcommand{\eps}{\varepsilon} \newcommand{\problem}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathrm{#1}} } \newcommand{\CVP}{\problem{CVP}} \newcommand{\SVP}{\problem{SVP}} \newcommand{\CVPP}{\problem{CVPP}} \newcommand{\ensuremath}[1]{#1} $For odd integers $p \geq 1$ (and $p = \infty$), we show that the Closest Vector Problem in the $\ell_p$ norm ($\CVP_p$) over rank $n$ lattices cannot be solved in $2^{(1-\eps) n}$ time for any constant $\eps > 0$ unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH) fails. We then extend this result to "almost all" values of $p \geq 1$, not including the even integers. This comes tantalizingly close to settling the quantitative time complexity of the important special case of $\CVP_2$ (i. Read More

We prove a Chernoff-type bound for sums of matrix-valued random variables sampled via a random walk on an expander, confirming a conjecture of Wigderson and Xiao up to logarithmic factors in the deviation parameter. Our proof is based on a recent multi-matrix extension of the Golden-Thompson inequality due to Sutter et al. \cite{Sutter2017}, as well as an adaptation of an argument for the scalar case due to Healy \cite{healy08}. Read More

Given a linear equation $\mathcal{L}$, a set $A$ of integers is $\mathcal{L}$-free if $A$ does not contain any `non-trivial' solutions to $\mathcal{L}$. This notion incorporates many central topics in combinatorial number theory such as sum-free and progression-free sets. In this paper we initiate the study of (parameterised) complexity questions involving $\mathcal{L}$-free sets of integers. Read More

We consider a computational model which is known as set automata. A set automaton is a one-way finite automata with an additional storage - the set. There are two kind of set automata - the deterministic and the nondeterministic ones. Read More

The one clean qubit model (or the DQC1 model) is a restricted model of quantum computing where only a single input qubit is pure and all other input qubits are maximally mixed. In spite of the severe restriction, the model can solve several problems (such as calculating Jones polynomials) whose classical efficient solutions are not known. Furthermore, it was shown that if the output probability distribution of the one clean qubit model can be classically efficiently sampled with a constant multiplicative error, then the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the second level. Read More

In this paper, we aim to initiate the study of enumeration complexity in the field of dependence logics. Consequently, as a first step, we investigate the problem of enumerating all satisfying teams of a given propositional dependence logic formula without the split junction operator. We distinguish between restricting the team size by arbitrary functions and the parametrised version where the parameter is the team size. Read More

**Affiliations:**

^{1}CMU,

^{2}LIP

We characterize the approximate monomial complexity, sign monomial complexity , and the approximate L 1 norm of symmetric functions in terms of simple combinatorial measures of the functions. Our characterization of the approximate L 1 norm solves the main conjecture in [AFH12]. As an application of the characterization of the sign monomial complexity, we prove a conjecture in [ZS09] and provide a characterization for the unbounded-error communication complexity of symmetric-xor functions. Read More

Empirical risk minimization (ERM) is ubiquitous in machine learning and underlies most supervised learning methods. While there has been a large body of work on algorithms for various ERM problems, the exact computational complexity of ERM is still not understood. We address this issue for multiple popular ERM problems including kernel SVMs, kernel ridge regression, and training the final layer of a neural network. Read More

We present a formulation of the Boolean Satisfiability Problem in spinor language that allows to give a necessary and sufficient condition for unsatisfiability. With this result we outline an algorithm to test for unsatisfiability with possibly interesting theoretical properties. Read More

We show a new duality between the polynomial margin complexity of $f$ and the discrepancy of the function $f \circ \textsf{XOR}$, called an $\textsf{XOR}$ function. Using this duality, we develop polynomial based techniques for understanding the bounded error ($\textsf{BPP}$) and the weakly-unbounded error ($\textsf{PP}$) communication complexities of $\textsf{XOR}$ functions. We show the following. Read More

We consider properties of edge-colored vertex-ordered graphs, i.e., graphs with a totally ordered vertex set and a finite set of possible edge colors. Read More

Given a graph $F$, let $I(F)$ be the class of graphs containing $F$ as an induced subgraph. Let $W[F]$ denote the minimum $k$ such that $I(F)$ is definable in $k$-variable first-order logic. The recognition problem of $I(F)$, known as Induced Subgraph Isomorphism (for the pattern graph $F$), is solvable in time $O(n^{W[F]})$. Read More

We characterise finite axiomatisability and intractability of deciding membership for universal Horn classes generated by finite loop-free hypergraphs. Read More

Many seminal results in Interactive Proofs (IPs) use algebraic techniques based on low-degree polynomials, the study of which is pervasive in theoretical computer science. Unfortunately, known methods for endowing such proofs with zero knowledge guarantees do not retain this rich algebraic structure. In this work, we develop algebraic techniques for obtaining zero knowledge variants of proof protocols in a way that leverages and preserves their algebraic structure. Read More

A classic result due to Schaefer (1978) classifies all constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) over the Boolean domain as being either in $\mathsf{P}$ or $\mathsf{NP}$-hard. This paper considers a promise-problem variant of CSPs called PCSPs. A PCSP over a finite set of pairs of constraints $\Gamma$ consists of a pair $(\Psi_P, \Psi_Q)$ of CSPs with the same set of variables such that for every $(P, Q) \in \Gamma$, $P(x_{i_1}, . Read More

We show that the perfect matching problem in general graphs is in Quasi-NC. That is, we give a deterministic parallel algorithm which runs in $O(\log^3 n)$ time on $n^{O(\log^2 n)}$ processors. The result is obtained by a derandomization of the Isolation Lemma for perfect matchings, which was introduced in the classic paper by Mulmuley, Vazirani and Vazirani [1987] to obtain a Randomized NC algorithm. Read More