Computer Science - Computation and Language Publications (50)

Search

Computer Science - Computation and Language Publications

For argumentation mining, there are several sub-tasks such as argumentation component type classification, relation classification. Existing research tends to solve such sub-tasks separately, but ignore the close relation between them. In this paper, we present a joint framework incorporating logical relation between sub-tasks to improve the performance of argumentation structure generation. Read More


Traffic congestion is rapidly increasing in urban areas, particularly in mega cities. To date, there exist a few sensor network based systems to address this problem. However, these techniques are not suitable enough in terms of monitoring an entire transportation system and delivering emergency services when needed. Read More


In this work several semantic approaches to concept-based query expansion and reranking schemes are studied and compared with different ontology-based expansion methods in web document search and retrieval. In particular, we focus on concept-based query expansion schemes, where, in order to effectively increase the precision of web document retrieval and to decrease the users browsing time, the main goal is to quickly provide users with the most suitable query expansion. Two key tasks for query expansion in web document retrieval are to find the expansion candidates, as the closest concepts in web document domain, and to rank the expanded queries properly. Read More


Identifying the level of expertise of its users is important for a system since it can lead to a better interaction through adaptation techniques. Furthermore, this information can be used in offline processes of root cause analysis. However, not much effort has been put into automatically identifying the level of expertise of an user, especially in dialog-based interactions. Read More


In this paper, we investigate whether text from a Community Question Answering (QA) platform can be used to predict and describe real-world attributes. We experiment with predicting a wide range of 62 demographic attributes for neighbourhoods of London. We use the text from QA platform of Yahoo! Answers and compare our results to the ones obtained from Twitter microblogs. Read More


In this paper we propose a new document classification method, bridging discrepancies (so-called semantic gap) between the training set and the application sets of textual data. We demonstrate its superiority over classical text classification approaches, including traditional classifier ensembles. The method consists in combining a document categorization technique with a single classifier or a classifier ensemble (SEMCOM algorithm - Committee with Semantic Categorizer). Read More


In this study, we present an analysis regarding the performance of the state-of-art Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) on multiple Indian languages. We report baseline systems on several language pairs. The motivation of this study is to promote the development of SMT and linguistic resources for these language pairs, as the current state-of-the-art is quite bleak due to sparse data resources. Read More


We consider the task of identifying attitudes towards a given set of entities from text. Conventionally, this task is decomposed into two separate subtasks: target detection that identifies whether each entity is mentioned in the text, either explicitly or implicitly, and polarity classification that classifies the exact sentiment towards an identified entity (the target) into positive, negative, or neutral. Instead, we show that attitude identification can be solved with an end-to-end machine learning architecture, in which the two subtasks are interleaved by a deep memory network. Read More


In this work, we propose contextual language models that incorporate dialog level discourse information into language modeling. Previous works on contextual language model treat preceding utterances as a sequence of inputs, without considering dialog interactions. We design recurrent neural network (RNN) based contextual language models that specially track the interactions between speakers in a dialog. Read More


We study how collective memories are formed online. We do so by tracking entities that emerge in public discourse, that is, in online text streams such as social media and news streams, before they are incorporated into Wikipedia, which, we argue, can be viewed as an online place for collective memory. By tracking how entities emerge in public discourse, i. Read More


Many natural language understanding (NLU) tasks, such as shallow parsing (i.e., text chunking) and semantic slot filling, require the assignment of representative labels to the meaningful chunks in a sentence. Read More


Task-oriented dialogue focuses on conversational agents that participate in user-initiated dialogues on domain-specific topics. In contrast to chatbots, which simply seek to sustain open-ended meaningful discourse, existing task-oriented agents usually explicitly model user intent and belief states. This paper examines bypassing such an explicit representation by depending on a latent neural embedding of state and learning selective attention to dialogue history together with copying to incorporate relevant prior context. Read More


We describe DyNet, a toolkit for implementing neural network models based on dynamic declaration of network structure. In the static declaration strategy that is used in toolkits like Theano, CNTK, and TensorFlow, the user first defines a computation graph (a symbolic representation of the computation), and then examples are fed into an engine that executes this computation and computes its derivatives. In DyNet's dynamic declaration strategy, computation graph construction is mostly transparent, being implicitly constructed by executing procedural code that computes the network outputs, and the user is free to use different network structures for each input. Read More


This paper describes QCRI's machine translation systems for the IWSLT 2016 evaluation campaign. We participated in the Arabic->English and English->Arabic tracks. We built both Phrase-based and Neural machine translation models, in an effort to probe whether the newly emerged NMT framework surpasses the traditional phrase-based systems in Arabic-English language pairs. Read More


This paper is focused on automatic multi-label document classification of Czech text documents. The current approaches usually use some pre-processing which can have negative impact (loss of information, additional implementation work, etc). Therefore, we would like to omit it and use deep neural networks that learn from simple features. Read More


End-to-end (E2E) systems have achieved competitive results compared to conventional hybrid hidden Markov model (HMM)-deep neural network based automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. Such E2E systems are attractive due to the lack of dependence on alignments between input acoustic and output grapheme or HMM state sequence during training. This paper explores the design of an ASR-free end-to-end system for text query-based keyword search (KWS) from speech trained with minimal supervision. Read More


The increase in the use of microblogging came along with the rapid growth on short linguistic data. On the other hand deep learning is considered to be the new frontier to extract meaningful information out of large amount of raw data in an automated manner. In this study, we engaged these two emerging fields to come up with a robust language identifier on demand, namely Language Identification Engine (LIDE). Read More


In this paper, we propose an efficient transfer leaning methods for training a personalized language model using a recurrent neural network with long short-term memory architecture. With our proposed fast transfer learning schemes, a general language model is updated to a personalized language model with a small amount of user data and a limited computing resource. These methods are especially useful for a mobile device environment while the data is prevented from transferring out of the device for privacy purposes. Read More


We study large-scale kernel methods for acoustic modeling in speech recognition and compare their performance to deep neural networks (DNNs). We perform experiments on four speech recognition datasets, including the TIMIT and Broadcast News benchmark tasks, and compare these two types of models on frame-level performance metrics (accuracy, cross-entropy), as well as on recognition metrics (word/character error rate). In order to scale kernel methods to these large datasets, we use the random Fourier feature method of Rahimi and Recht (2007). Read More


Financial institutions have to screen their transactions to ensure that they are not affiliated with terrorism entities. Developing appropriate solutions to detect such affiliations precisely while avoiding any kind of interruption to large amount of legitimate transactions is essential. In this paper, we present building blocks of a scalable solution that may help financial institutions to build their own software to extract terrorism entities out of both structured and unstructured financial messages in real time and with approximate similarity matching approach. Read More


We consider entity-level sentiment analysis in Arabic, a morphologically rich language with increasing resources. We present a system that is applied to complex posts written in response to Arabic newspaper articles. Our goal is to identify important entity "targets" within the post along with the polarity expressed about each target. Read More


In language identification, a common first step in natural language processing, we want to automatically determine the language of some input text. Monolingual language identification assumes that the given document is written in one language. In multilingual language identification, the document is usually in two or three languages and we just want their names. Read More


We consider the task of predicting how literary a text is, with a gold standard from human ratings. Aside from a standard bigram baseline, we apply rich syntactic tree fragments, mined from the training set, and a series of hand-picked features. Our model is the first to distinguish degrees of highly and less literary novels using a variety of lexical and syntactic features, and explains 76. Read More


There are large amounts of insight and social discovery potential in mining crowd-sourced comments left on popular news forums like Reddit.com, Tumblr.com, Facebook. Read More


Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) models trained without stopword removal often produce topics with high posterior probabilities on uninformative words, obscuring the underlying corpus content. Even when canonical stopwords are manually removed, uninformative words common in that corpus will still dominate the most probable words in a topic. We propose a simple strategy for automatically promoting terms with domain relevance and demoting these domain-specific stop words. Read More


In this paper, we compare two simple domain adaptation methods for neural machine translation (NMT): (1) We append an artificial token to the source sentences of two parallel corpora (different domains and one of them is resource scarce) to indicate the domain and then mix them to learn a multi domain NMT model; (2) We learn a NMT model on the resource rich domain corpus and then fine tune it using the resource poor domain corpus. We empirically verify fine tuning works better than the artificial token mechanism when the low resource domain corpus is of relatively poor quality (acquired via automatic extraction) but in the case of a high quality (manually created) low resource domain corpus both methods are equally viable. Read More


Building general-purpose conversation agents is a very challenging task, but necessary on the road toward intelligent agents that can interact with humans in natural language. Neural conversation models -- purely data-driven systems trained end-to-end on dialogue corpora -- have shown great promise recently, yet they often produce short and generic responses. This work presents new training and decoding methods that improve the quality, coherence, and diversity of long responses generated using sequence-to-sequence models. Read More


We propose UDP, the first training-free parser for Universal Dependencies (UD). Our algorithm is based on PageRank and a small set of head attachment rules. It features two-step decoding to guarantee that function words are attached as leaf nodes. Read More


We report our effort to identify the sensitive information, subset of data items listed by HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability), from medical text using the recent advances in natural language processing and machine learning techniques. We represent the words with high dimensional continuous vectors learned by a variant of Word2Vec called Continous Bag Of Words (CBOW). We feed the word vectors into a simple neural network with a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) architecture. Read More


Currently successful methods for video description are based on encoder-decoder sentence generation using recur-rent neural networks (RNNs). Recent work has shown the advantage of integrating temporal and/or spatial attention mechanisms into these models, in which the decoder net-work predicts each word in the description by selectively giving more weight to encoded features from specific time frames (temporal attention) or to features from specific spatial regions (spatial attention). In this paper, we propose to expand the attention model to selectively attend not just to specific times or spatial regions, but to specific modalities of input such as image features, motion features, and audio features. Read More


In this report, we propose a new application for twitter data called \textit{job detection}. We identify people's job category based on their tweets. As a preliminary work, we limited our task to identify only IT workers from other job holders. Read More


Open-domain human-computer conversation has been attracting increasing attention over the past few years. However, there does not exist a standard automatic evaluation metric for open-domain dialog systems; researchers usually resort to human annotation for model evaluation, which is time- and labor-intensive. In this paper, we propose RUBER, a Referenced metric and Unreferenced metric Blended Evaluation Routine, which evaluates a reply by taking into consideration both a groundtruth reply and a query (previous user utterance). Read More


As microblogging services like Twitter are becoming more and more influential in today's globalised world, its facets like sentiment analysis are being extensively studied. We are no longer constrained by our own opinion. Others opinions and sentiments play a huge role in shaping our perspective. Read More


Weighted finite automata and transducers (including hidden Markov models and conditional random fields) are widely used in natural language processing (NLP) to perform tasks such as morphological analysis, part-of-speech tagging, chunking, named entity recognition, speech recognition, and others. Parallelizing finite state algorithms on graphics processing units (GPUs) would benefit many areas of NLP. Although researchers have implemented GPU versions of basic graph algorithms, limited previous work, to our knowledge, has been done on GPU algorithms for weighted finite automata. Read More


Distinguishing between antonyms and synonyms is a key task to achieve high performance in NLP systems. While they are notoriously difficult to distinguish by distributional co-occurrence models, pattern-based methods have proven effective to differentiate between the relations. In this paper, we present a novel neural network model AntSynNET that exploits lexico-syntactic patterns from syntactic parse trees. Read More


Discourse parsing is an integral part of understanding information flow and argumentative structure in documents. Most previous research has focused on inducing and evaluating models from the English RST Discourse Treebank. However, discourse treebanks for other languages exist, including Spanish, German, Basque, Dutch and Brazilian Portuguese. Read More


The first step of processing a question in Question Answering(QA) Systems is to carry out a detailed analysis of the question for the purpose of determining what it is asking for and how to perfectly approach answering it. Our Question analysis uses several techniques to analyze any question given in natural language: a Stanford POS Tagger & parser for Arabic language, a named entity recognizer, tokenizer,Stop-word removal, Question expansion, Question classification and Question focus extraction components. We employ numerous detection rules and trained classifier using features from this analysis to detect important elements of the question, including: 1) the portion of the question that is a referring to the answer (the focus); 2) different terms in the question that identify what type of entity is being asked for (the lexical answer types); 3) Question expansion ; 4) a process of classifying the question into one or more of several and different types; and We describe how these elements are identified and evaluate the effect of accurate detection on our question-answering system using the Mean Reciprocal Rank(MRR) accuracy measure. Read More


We aim to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the newly introduced neural machine translation paradigm. To that end, we conduct a multifaceted evaluation in which we compare outputs produced by state-of-the-art neural machine translation and phrase-based machine translation systems for 9 language directions across a number of dimensions. Specifically, we measure the similarity of the outputs, their fluency and amount of reordering, the effect of sentence length and performance across different error categories. Read More


Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key NLP task, which is all the more challenging on Web and user-generated content with their diverse and continuously changing language. This paper aims to quantify how this diversity impacts state-of-the-art NER methods, by measuring named entity (NE) and context variability, feature sparsity, and their effects on precision and recall. In particular, our findings indicate that NER approaches struggle to generalise in diverse genres with limited training data. Read More


In this work, we propose a novel decoding approach for neural machine translation (NMT) based on continuous optimisation. The resulting optimisation problem can then be tackled using a whole range of continuous optimisation algorithms which have been developed and used in the literature mainly for training. Our approach is general and can be applied to other sequence-to-sequence neural models as well. Read More


We describe an open-source toolkit for neural machine translation (NMT). The toolkit prioritizes efficiency, modularity, and extensibility with the goal of supporting NMT research into model architectures, feature representations, and source modalities, while maintaining competitive performance and reasonable training requirements. The toolkit consists of modeling and translation support, as well as detailed pedagogical documentation about the underlying techniques. Read More


We outline a bidirectional translation system that converts sentences from American Sign Language (ASL) to English, and vice versa. To perform machine translation between ASL and English, we utilize a generative approach. Specifically, we employ an adjustment to the IBM word-alignment model 1 (IBM WAM1), where we define language models for English and ASL, as well as a translation model, and attempt to generate a translation that maximizes the posterior distribution defined by these models. Read More


Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are effective models for reducing spectral variations and modeling spectral correlations in acoustic features for automatic speech recognition (ASR). Hybrid speech recognition systems incorporating CNNs with Hidden Markov Models/Gaussian Mixture Models (HMMs/GMMs) have achieved the state-of-the-art in various benchmarks. Meanwhile, Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), which is proposed for labeling unsegmented sequences, makes it feasible to train an end-to-end speech recognition system instead of hybrid settings. Read More


We introduce a simple and accurate neural model for dependency-based semantic role labeling. Our model predicts predicate-argument dependencies relying on states of a bidirectional LSTM encoder. The semantic role labeler achieves respectable performance on English even without any kind of syntactic information and only using local inference. Read More


In this paper, we implicitly incorporate morpheme information into word embedding. Based on the strategy we utilize the morpheme information, three models are proposed. To test the performances of our models, we conduct the word similarity and syntactic analogy. Read More


Multi-task learning (MTL) involves the simultaneous training of two or more related tasks over shared representations. In this work, we apply MTL to audio-visual automatic speech recognition(AV-ASR). Our primary task is to learn a mapping between audio-visual fused features and frame labels obtained from acoustic GMM/HMM model. Read More


Cognitive computing systems require human labeled data for evaluation, and often for training. The standard practice used in gathering this data minimizes disagreement between annotators, and we have found this results in data that fails to account for the ambiguity inherent in language. We have proposed the CrowdTruth method for collecting ground truth through crowdsourcing, that reconsiders the role of people in machine learning based on the observation that disagreement between annotators provides a useful signal for phenomena such as ambiguity in the text. Read More


One of the main problems that emerges in the classic approach to semantics is the difficulty in acquisition and maintenance of ontologies and semantic annotations. On the other hand, the Internet explosion and the massive diffusion of mobile smart devices lead to the creation of a worldwide system, which information is daily checked and fueled by the contribution of millions of users who interacts in a collaborative way. Search engines, continually exploring the Web, are a natural source of information on which to base a modern approach to semantic annotation. Read More


This work studies comparatively two typical sentence matching tasks: textual entailment (TE) and answer selection (AS), observing that weaker phrase alignments are more critical in TE, while stronger phrase alignments deserve more attention in AS. The key to reach this observation lies in phrase detection, phrase representation, phrase alignment, and more importantly how to connect those aligned phrases of different matching degrees with the final classifier. Prior work (i) has limitations in phrase generation and representation, or (ii) conducts alignment at word and phrase levels by handcrafted features or (iii) utilizes a single framework of alignment without considering the characteristics of specific tasks, which limits the framework's effectiveness across tasks. Read More


In this paper, we focus on the personalized response generation for conversational systems. Based on the sequence to sequence learning, especially the encoder-decoder framework, we propose a two-phase approach, namely initialization then adaptation, to model the responding style of human and then generate personalized responses. For evaluation, we propose a novel human aided method to evaluate the performance of the personalized response generation models by online real-time conversation and offline human judgement. Read More