# Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence Publications (50)

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## Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence Publications

We study the extent to which we can infer users' geographical locations from social media. Location inference from social media can benefit many applications, such as disaster management, targeted advertising, and news content tailoring. In recent years, a number of algorithms have been proposed for identifying user locations on social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook from message contents, friend networks, and interactions between users. Read More

In recent years ontologies enjoyed a growing popularity outside specialized AI communities. System engineering is no exception to this trend, with ontologies being proposed as a basis for several tasks in complex industrial implements, including system design, monitoring and diagnosis. In this paper, we consider four different contributions to system engineering wherein ontologies are instrumental to provide enhancements over traditional ad-hoc techniques. Read More

Though the word cognitive has a wide range of meanings we define cognitive engineering as learning from brain to bolster engineering solutions. However, giving an achievable framework to the process towards this has been a difficult task. In this work we take the classic data information knowledge wisdom (DIKW) framework to set some achievable goals and sub-goals towards cognitive engineering. Read More

LTE in unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U) is a promising approach to overcome the wireless spectrum scarcity. However, to reap the benefits of LTE-U, a fair coexistence mechanism with other incumbent WiFi deployments is required. In this paper, a novel deep learning approach is proposed for modeling the resource allocation problem of LTE-U small base stations (SBSs). Read More

Devising an optimal strategy for navigation in a partially observable environment is one of the key objectives in AI. One of the problem in this context is the Canadian Traveler Problem (CTP). CTP is a navigation problem where an agent is tasked to travel from source to target in a partially observable weighted graph, whose edge might be blocked with a certain probability and observing such blockage occurs only when reaching upon one of the edges end points. Read More

The field of Distributed Constraint Optimization has gained momentum in recent years thanks to its ability to address various applications related to multi-agent cooperation. While techniques to solve Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs) are abundant and have matured substantially since the field inception, the number of DCOP realistic applications and benchmark used to asses the performance of DCOP algorithms is lagging behind. To contrast this background we (i) introduce the Smart Home Device Scheduling (SHDS) problem, which describe the problem of coordinating smart devices schedules across multiple homes as a multi-agent system, (ii) detail the physical models adopted to simulate smart sensors, smart actuators, and homes environments, and (iii) introduce a DCOP realistic benchmark for SHDS problems. Read More

This paper describes the realization of the Ontology Web Search Engine. The Ontology Web Search Engine is realizable as independent project and as a part of other projects. The main purpose of this paper is to present the Ontology Web Search Engine realization details as the part of the Semantic Web Expert System and to present the results of the Ontology Web Search Engine functioning. Read More

Limited annotated data is available for the research of estimating facial expression intensities, which makes the training of deep networks for automated expression assessment very challenging. Fortunately, fine-tuning from a data-extensive pre-trained domain such as face verification can alleviate the problem. In this paper, we propose a transferred network that fine-tunes a state-of-the-art face verification network using expression-intensity labeled data with a regression layer. Read More

The field of Distributed Constraint Optimization has gained momentum in recent years, thanks to its ability to address various applications related to multi-agent cooperation. Nevertheless, solving Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs) optimally is NP-hard. Therefore, in large-scale, complex applications, incomplete DCOP algorithms are necessary. Read More

In statistical relational learning, knowledge graph completion deals with automatically understanding the structure of large knowledge graphs---labeled directed graphs---and predicting missing relationships---labeled edges. State-of-the-art embedding models propose different trade-offs between modeling expressiveness, and time and space complexity. We reconcile both expressiveness and complexity through the use of complex-valued embeddings and explore the link between such complex-valued embeddings and unitary diagonalization. Read More

The algorithmic Markov condition states that the most likely causal direction between two random variables X and Y can be identified as that direction with the lowest Kolmogorov complexity. Due to the halting problem, however, this notion is not computable. We hence propose to do causal inference by stochastic complexity. Read More

Visual question answering (VQA) has witnessed great progress since May, 2015 as a classic problem unifying visual and textual data into a system. Many enlightening VQA works explore deep into the image and question encodings and fusing methods, of which attention is the most effective and infusive mechanism. Current attention based methods focus on adequate fusion of visual and textual features, but lack the attention to where people focus to ask questions about the image. Read More

Colorization of grayscale images has been a hot topic in computer vision. Previous research mainly focuses on producing a colored image to match the original one. However, since many colors share the same gray value, an input grayscale image could be diversely colored while maintaining its reality. Read More

Binary Knapsack Problem (BKP) is to select a subset of an element (item) set with the highest value while keeping the total weight within the capacity of the knapsack. This paper presents an integer programming model for a variation of BKP where the value of each element may depend on selecting or ignoring other elements. Strengths of such Value-Related Dependencies are assumed to be imprecise and hard to specify. Read More

In order to obtain reliable accuracy estimates for automatic MOOC dropout predictors, it is important to train and test them in a manner consistent with how they will be used in practice. Yet most prior research on MOOC dropout prediction has measured test accuracy on the same course used for training the classifier, which can lead to overly optimistic accuracy estimates. In order to understand better how accuracy is affected by the training+testing regime, we compared the accuracy of a standard dropout prediction architecture (clickstream features + logistic regression) across 4 different training paradigms. Read More

We present a novel algorithm that synthesizes imperative programs for introductory programming courses. Given a set of input-output examples and a partial program, our algorithm generates a complete program that is consistent with every example. Our key idea is to combine enumerative program synthesis and static analysis, which aggressively prunes out a large search space while guaranteeing to find, if any, a correct solution. Read More

Mobile robots are increasingly being employed for performing complex tasks in dynamic environments. Reinforcement learning (RL) methods are recognized to be promising for specifying such tasks in a relatively simple manner. However, the strong dependency between the learning method and the task to learn is a well-known problem that restricts practical implementations of RL in robotics, often requiring major modifications of parameters and adding other techniques for each particular task. Read More

Arising naturally in many fields, optimal stopping problems consider the question of deciding when to stop an observation-generating process. We examine the problem of simultaneously learning and planning in such domains, when data is collected directly from the environment. We propose GFSE, a simple and flexible model-free policy search method that reuses data for sample efficiency by leveraging problem structure. Read More

There has been a recent explosion in the capabilities of game-playing artificial intelligence. Many classes of RL tasks, from Atari games to motor control to board games, are now solvable by fairly generic algorithms, based on deep learning, that learn to play from experience with minimal knowledge of the specific domain of interest. In this work, we will investigate the performance of these methods on Super Smash Bros. Read More

Generative model has been one of the most common approaches for solving the Dialog State Tracking Problem with the capabilities to model the dialog hypotheses in an explicit manner. The most important task in such Bayesian networks models is constructing the most reliable user models by learning and reflecting the training data into the probability distribution of user actions conditional on networks states. This paper provides an overall picture of the learning process in a Bayesian framework with an emphasize on the state-of-the-art theoretical analyses of the Expectation Maximization learning algorithm. Read More

Reinforcement Learning algorithms can learn complex behavioral patterns for sequential decision making tasks wherein an agent interacts with an environment and acquires feedback in the form of rewards sampled from it. Traditionally, such algorithms make decisions, i.e. Read More

**Authors:**Patrick Ferdinand Christ, Florian Ettlinger, Felix Grün, Mohamed Ezzeldin A. Elshaera, Jana Lipkova, Sebastian Schlecht, Freba Ahmaddy, Sunil Tatavarty, Marc Bickel, Patrick Bilic, Markus Rempfler, Felix Hofmann, Melvin D Anastasi, Seyed-Ahmad Ahmadi, Georgios Kaissis, Julian Holch, Wieland Sommer, Rickmer Braren, Volker Heinemann, Bjoern Menze

Automatic segmentation of the liver and hepatic lesions is an important step towards deriving quantitative biomarkers for accurate clinical diagnosis and computer-aided decision support systems. This paper presents a method to automatically segment liver and lesions in CT and MRI abdomen images using cascaded fully convolutional neural networks (CFCNs) enabling the segmentation of a large-scale medical trial or quantitative image analysis. We train and cascade two FCNs for a combined segmentation of the liver and its lesions. Read More

Based on a set of subjects and a collection of descriptors obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, we use redescription mining to find rules revealing associations between these determinants which provides insights about the Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied a four-step redescription mining algorithm (CLUS-RM), which has been extended to engender constraint-based redescription mining (CBRM) and enables several modes of targeted exploration of specific, user-defined associations. To a large extent we confirmed known findings, previously reported in the literature. Read More

Traditionally, multi-layer neural networks use dot product between the output vector of previous layer and the incoming weight vector as the input to activation function. The result of dot product is unbounded, thus increases the risk of large variance. Large variance of neuron makes the model sensitive to the change of input distribution, thus results in poor generalization, and aggravates the internal covariate shift which slows down the training. Read More

Distributed optimization algorithms are widely used in many industrial machine learning applications. However choosing the appropriate algorithm and cluster size is often difficult for users as the performance and convergence rate of optimization algorithms vary with the size of the cluster. In this paper we make the case for an ML-optimizer that can select the appropriate algorithm and cluster size to use for a given problem. Read More

Distributed training of deep learning models on large-scale training data is typically conducted with asynchronous stochastic optimization to maximize the rate of updates, at the cost of additional noise introduced from asynchrony. In contrast, the synchronous approach is often thought to be impractical due to idle time wasted on waiting for straggling workers. We revisit these conventional beliefs in this paper, and examine the weaknesses of both approaches. Read More

This paper reconsiders the problem of the absent-minded driver who must choose between alternatives with different payoff with imperfect recall and varying degrees of knowledge of the system. The classical absent-minded driver problem represents the case with limited information and it has bearing on the general area of communication and learning, social choice, mechanism design, auctions, theories of knowledge, belief, and rational agency. Within the framework of extensive games, this problem has applications to many artificial intelligence scenarios. Read More

Vertex Separation Minimization Problem (VSMP) consists of finding a layout of a graph G = (V,E) which minimizes the maximum vertex cut or separation of a layout. It is an NP-complete problem in general for which metaheuristic techniques can be applied to find near optimal solution. VSMP has applications in VLSI design, graph drawing and computer language compiler design. Read More

In this work we study the quantitative relation between the recursive teaching dimension (RTD) and the VC dimension (VCD) of concept classes of finite sizes. The RTD of a concept class $\mathcal C \subseteq \{0, 1\}^n$, introduced by Zilles et al. (2011), is a combinatorial complexity measure characterized by the worst-case number of examples necessary to identify a concept in $\mathcal C$ according to the recursive teaching model. Read More

Multi-agent path finding (MAPF) is well-studied in artificial intelligence, robotics, theoretical computer science and operations research. We discuss issues that arise when generalizing MAPF methods to real-world scenarios and four research directions that address them. We emphasize the importance of addressing these issues as opposed to developing faster methods for the standard formulation of the MAPF problem. Read More

The beyond worst-case synthesis problem was introduced recently by Bruy\`ere et al. [BFRR14]: it aims at building system controllers that provide strict worst-case performance guarantees against an antagonistic environment while ensuring higher expected performance against a stochastic model of the environment. Our work extends the framework of [BFRR14] and follow-up papers, which focused on quantitative objectives, by addressing the case of $\omega$-regular conditions encoded as parity objectives, a natural way to represent functional requirements of systems. Read More

With the range and sensitivity of algorithmic decisions expanding at a break-neck speed, it is imperative that we aggressively investigate whether programs are biased. We propose a novel probabilistic program analysis technique and apply it to quantifying bias in decision-making programs. Specifically, we (i) present a sound and complete automated verification technique for proving quantitative properties of probabilistic programs; (ii) show that certain notions of bias, recently proposed in the fairness literature, can be phrased as quantitative correctness properties; and (iii) present FairSquare, the first verification tool for quantifying program bias, and evaluate it on a range of decision-making programs. Read More

Being an unsupervised machine learning and data mining technique, biclustering and its multimodal extensions are becoming popular tools for analysing object-attribute data in different domains. Apart from conventional clustering techniques, biclustering is searching for homogeneous groups of objects while keeping their common description, e.g. Read More

People can refer to quantities in a visual scene by using either exact cardinals (e.g. one, two, three) or natural language quantifiers (e. Read More

We propose a direct estimation method for R\'{e}nyi and f-divergence measures based on a new graph theoretical interpretation. Suppose that we are given two sample sets $X$ and $Y$, respectively with $N$ and $M$ samples, where $\eta:=M/N$ is a constant value. Considering the $k$-nearest neighbor ($k$-NN) graph of $Y$ in the joint data set $(X,Y)$, we show that the average powered ratio of the number of $X$ points to the number of $Y$ points among all $k$-NN points is proportional to R\'{e}nyi divergence of $X$ and $Y$ densities. Read More

In this article we consider the basic ideas, approaches and results of developing of mathematical knowledge management technologies based on ontologies. These solutions form the basis of a specialized digital ecosystem OntoMath which consists of the ontology of the logical structure of mathematical documents Mocassin and ontology of mathematical knowledge OntoMathPRO, tools of text analysis, recommender system and other applications to manage mathematical knowledge. The studies are in according to the ideas of creating a distributed system of interconnected repositories of digitized versions of mathematical documents and project to create a World Digital Mathematical Library. Read More

Bipartite data is common in data engineering and brings unique challenges, particularly when it comes to clustering tasks that impose on strong structural assumptions. This work presents an unsupervised method for assessing similarity in bipartite data. Similar to some co-clustering methods, the method is based on regular equivalence in graphs. Read More

Sparse iterative methods, in particular first-order methods, are known to be among the most effective in solving large-scale two-player zero-sum extensive-form games. The convergence rates of these methods depend heavily on the properties of the distance-generating function that they are based on. We investigate the acceleration of first-order methods for solving extensive-form games through better design of the dilated entropy function---a class of distance-generating functions related to the domains associated with the extensive-form games. Read More

Bayesian online learning algorithms for Sum-Product Networks (SPNs) need to compute moments of model parameters under the one-step update posterior distribution. The best existing method for computing such moments scales quadratically in the size of the SPN, although it scales linearly for trees. We propose a linear-time algorithm that works even when the SPN is a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Read More

This article presents the prediction difference analysis method for visualizing the response of a deep neural network to a specific input. When classifying images, the method highlights areas in a given input image that provide evidence for or against a certain class. It overcomes several shortcoming of previous methods and provides great additional insight into the decision making process of classifiers. Read More

The Minimum Weight Dominating Set (MWDS) problem is an important generalization of the Minimum Dominating Set (MDS) problem with extensive applications. This paper proposes a new local search algorithm for the MWDS problem, which is based on two new ideas. The first idea is a heuristic called two-level configuration checking (CC2), which is a new variant of a recent powerful configuration checking strategy (CC) for effectively avoiding the recent search paths. Read More

The research was proposed to exploit and extend the relational and contextual nature of the information assets of the Catasto Gregoriano, kept at the Archivio di Stato in Rome. Developed within the MODEUS project (Making Open Data Effectively Usable), this study originates from the following key ideas of MODEUS: to require Open Data to be expressed in terms of an ontology, and to include such an ontology as a documentation of the data themselves. Thus, Open Data are naturally linked by means of the ontology, which meets the requirements of the Linked Open Data vision. Read More

This paper investigates the validity of Kleinberg's axioms for clustering functions with respect to the quite popular clustering algorithm called $k$-means. While Kleinberg's axioms have been discussed heavily in the past, we concentrate here on the case predominantly relevant for $k$-means algorithm, that is behavior embedded in Euclidean space. We point at some contradictions and counter intuitiveness aspects of this axiomatic set within $\mathbb{R}^m$ that were evidently not discussed so far. Read More

Because of several technological limitations of traditional silicon based computing, for past few years a paradigm shift, from silicon to carbon, is occurring in computational world. DNA computing has been considered to be quite promising in solving computational and reasoning problems by using DNA strands. Resolution, an important aspect of automated theorem proving and mathematical logic, is a rule of inference which leads to proof by contradiction technique for sentences in propositional logic and first-order logic. Read More

Neural language models predict the next token using a latent representation of the immediate token history. Recently, various methods for augmenting neural language models with an attention mechanism over a differentiable memory have been proposed. For predicting the next token, these models query information from a memory of the recent history which can facilitate learning mid- and long-range dependencies. Read More

In this paper we propose a multi-convex framework for multi-task learning that improves predictions by learning relationships both between tasks and between features. Our framework is a generalization of related methods in multi-task learning, that either learn task relationships, or feature relationships, but not both. We start with a hierarchical Bayesian model, and use the empirical Bayes method to transform the underlying inference problem into a multi-convex optimization problem. Read More

In this article, we introduce a new conception of a family of esport games called Samu Entropy to try to improve dataflow program graphs like the ones that are based on Google's TensorFlow. Currently, the Samu Entropy project specifies only requirements for new esport games to be developed with particular attention to the investigation of the relationship between esport and artificial intelligence. It is quite obvious that there is a very close and natural relationship between esport games and artificial intelligence. Read More

Reason and inference require process as well as memory skills by humans. Neural networks are able to process tasks like image recognition (better than humans) but in memory aspects are still limited (by attention mechanism, size). Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and it's modified version LSTM are able to solve small memory contexts, but as context becomes larger than a threshold, it is difficult to use them. Read More

We develop T-SKIRT: a temporal, structured-knowledge, IRT-based method for predicting student responses online. By explicitly accounting for student learning and employing a structured, multidimensional representation of student proficiencies, the model outperforms standard IRT-based methods on an online response prediction task when applied to real responses collected from students interacting with diverse pools of educational content. Read More

This paper describes the details of Sighthound's fully automated age, gender and emotion recognition system. The backbone of our system consists of several deep convolutional neural networks that are not only computationally inexpensive, but also provide state-of-the-art results on several competitive benchmarks. To power our novel deep networks, we collected large labeled datasets through a semi-supervised pipeline to reduce the annotation effort/time. Read More