Astrophysics Publications (50)

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Astrophysics Publications

We present a detailed systematics for comparing warped brane inflation with the observations, incorporating the effects of both moduli stabilization and ultraviolet bulk physics. We explicitly construct an example of the inflaton potential governing the motion of a mobile D3 brane in the entire warped deformed conifold. This allows us to precisely identify the corresponding scales of the cosmic microwave background. Read More


The new generation of 8 to 10m class telescope is providing us with high-quality spectral information on the rest-frame ultraviolet region of star-forming galaxies at cosmological distances. The data can be used to address questions such as, e.g. Read More


2008Dec
Affiliations: 1Yale, 2Yale, 3Yale, 4Yale, 5Rice, 6INAF-Osservatorio di Brera, 7Yale, 8Yale, 9Yale, 10Yale
Category: Astrophysics

The blazar 3C 454.3 was revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to be in an exceptionally high flux state in July 2008. Accordingly, we performed a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign on this blazar using IR and optical observations from the SMARTS telescopes, optical, UV and X-ray data from the Swift satellite, and public-release gamma-ray data from Fermi. Read More


2008Dec
Affiliations: 1Johns Hopkins University, 2Johns Hopkins University, 3Space Telescope Science Institute, 4Space Telescope Science Institute, 5Space Telescope Science Institute, 6University of Massachusetts
Category: Astrophysics

We investigate the biases and uncertainties in estimates of physical parameters of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), such as stellar mass, mean stellar population age, and star formation rate (SFR), obtained from broad-band photometry. By combining LCDM hierarchical structure formation theory, semi-analytic treatments of baryonic physics, and stellar population synthesis models, we construct model galaxy catalogs from which we select LBGs at redshifts z ~ 3.4, 4. Read More


We investigate the effects of neutrino heating and alpha-particle recombination on the hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. Our focus is on the non-linear dynamics of the shock wave that forms in the collapse, and the assembly of positive energy material below it. To this end, we perform time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations with FLASH2. Read More


Application of concepts like black hole and event horizon in cosmological context are not trivial, as has been shown in the last decade. We introduce special solutions of the LTB family representing collapsing over-dense regions extending to an expanding closed, open, or flat FRW model asymptotically. We study the dynamics of the collapsing region, and its density profile. Read More


Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmic rays from distant sources. Read More


The association of an electromagnetic signal with the merger of a pair of supermassive black holes would have many important implications. For example, it would provide new information about gas and magnetic field interactions in dynamical spacetimes as well as a combination of redshift and luminosity distance that would enable precise cosmological tests. A proposal first made by Bode & Phinney (2007) is that because radiation of gravitational waves during the final inspiral and merger of the holes is abrupt and decreases the mass of the central object by a few percent, there will be waves in the disk that can steepen into shocks and thus increase the disk luminosity in a characteristic way. Read More


We propose that a nearby gamma-ray burst (GRB) or GRB-like (old, single and short-lived) pulsar/supernova remnant/microquasar about 10^{5-6} years ago may be responsible for the excesses of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons recently observed by the PAMELA, ATIC/PPB-BETS, Fermi and HESS experiments. We can reproduce the smooth Fermi/HESS spectra as well as the spiky ATIC/PPB-BETS spectra. The spectra have a sharp cutoff that is similar to the dark matter predictions, sometimes together with a line (not similar), since higher energy cosmic-rays cool faster where the cutoff/line energy marks the source age. Read More


We study the impact of catastrophic errors occurring in the photometric redshifts of galaxies on cosmological parameter estimates with cosmic shear tomography. We consider a fiducial survey with 9-filter set and perform photo-z measurement simulations. It is found that a fraction of 1% galaxies at z_{spec}~0. Read More


Our ability to determine stellar ages from measurements of stellar rotation, hinges on how well we can measure the dependence of rotation on age for stars of different masses. Rotation periods for stars in open clusters are essential to determine the relations between stellar age, rotation, and mass (color). Until recently, ambiguities in vsini data and lack of cluster membership information, prevented a clear empirical definition of the dependence of rotation on color. Read More


We perform evolutionary calculations of binary stars to find progenitors of system with parameters similar to the eclipsing binary system V228. We show that a V228 binary system may be formed starting with an initial binary system which has a low main sequence star as an accretor. The initial parameters for the evolutionary model are as follow: $M_{1,i} = 0. Read More


The super-storm of November 20, 2003 was associated with a high speed coronal mass ejection which originated in the NOAA AR 10501 on November 18. This coronal mass ejection had severe terrestrial consequences leading to a geomagnetic storm with DST index of -472 nT, the strongest of the current solar cycle. In this paper, we attempt to understand the factors that led to the coronal mass ejection on November 18. Read More


We recalibrate a standard solar model seismologically to estimate the main-sequence age of the Sun. Our procedure differs from what we have done in the past by removing from the observed frequencies the effect of hydrogen ionization and the superadiabatic convective boundary layer. Our preliminary result is $t_\odot=4. Read More


We discuss bulk viscosity due to non-leptonic processes involving hyperons and Bose-Einstein condensate of negatively charged kaons in neutron stars. It is noted that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient is a few order of magnitude larger than that of the case with the condensate. Further it is found that the hyperon bulk viscosity is suppressed in a superconducting phase. Read More


Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and its relativistic version - TeVeS offer us an alternative perspective to understand the universe without the demand of the elusive cold dark matter. This MONDian paradigm is not only competitive with the conventional CDM in a large range of scales, but also even more successful in the galactic scale. Recently, by studying 6 lensing systems, Ferreras et al. Read More


Europa is believed to have formed near the very end of Jupiter's own accretion, within a circumplanetary disk of gas and solid particles. We review the formation of the Galilean satellites in the context of current constraints and understanding of giant planet formation, focusing on recent models of satellite growth within a circumjovian accretion disk produced during the final stages of gas inflow to Jupiter. In such a disk, the Galilean satellites would have accreted slowly, in more than 10^5 yr, and in a low pressure, low gas density environment. Read More


2008Dec
Affiliations: 1Rochester Institute of Technology, 2Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 3Space Science Institute, 4Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 5Rochester Institute of Technology, 6Rochester Institute of Technology, 7Space Telescope Science Institute, 8University of Sheffield
Category: Astrophysics

The findings of a nine orbit calibration plan carried out during HST Cycle 15, to fully determine the NICMOS camera 2 (2.0 micron) polarization calibration to high accuracy, are reported. Recently Ueta et al. Read More


We present the general properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and discuss the origin and structure of jets that are associated to a fraction of these objects. We then we address the problems of particle acceleration at highly relativistic energies and set limits on the luminosity of AGN jets for being origin of UHECRs. Read More


Radio interferometry probes astrophysical signals through incomplete and noisy Fourier measurements. The theory of compressed sensing demonstrates that such measurements may actually suffice for accurate reconstruction of sparse or compressible signals. We propose new generic imaging techniques based on convex optimization for global minimization problems defined in this context. Read More


The CHASE project started in 2007 with the aim of providing young southern supernovae (SNe) to the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) and Millennium Center for Supernova Studies (MCSS) follow-up programs. So far CHASE has discovered 33 SNe with an average of more than 2.5 SNe per month in 2008. Read More


2008Dec
Authors: Rainer Beck1
Affiliations: 1MPI fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany
Category: Astrophysics

Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of interstellar magnetic fields. The total intensity traces the strength and distribution of total magnetic fields. Total fields in gas-rich spiral arms and bars of nearby galaxies have strengths of 20-30 $\mu$Gauss, due to the amplification of turbulent fields, and are dynamically important. Read More


Brane inflationary universe model in the context of intermediate inflation is studied. General conditions for this model to be realizable are discussed. In the high-energy limit we describe in great details the characteristic of this model. Read More


The universe content is considered as a non-perfect fluid with bulk viscosity and can be described by a general equation of state (endowed some deviation from the conventionally assumed cosmic perfect fluid model). An explicitly bulk viscosity dark energy model is proposed to confront consistently with the current observational data sets by statistical analysis and is shown consistent with (not deviated away much from) the concordant $\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model by comparing the decelerating parameter. Also we compare our relatively simple viscosity dark energy model with a more complicated one by contrast with the concordant $\Lambda$CDM model and find our model improves for the viscosity dark energy model building. Read More


To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay). Read More


A method is presented for finding anisotropic distribution functions for stellar systems with known, spherically symmetric, densities, which depends only on the two classical integrals of the energy and the magnitude of the angular momentum. It requires the density to be expressed as a sum of products of functions of the potential and of the radial coordinate. The solution corresponding to this type of density is in turn a sum of products of functions of the energy and of the magnitude of the angular momentum. Read More


A new approach to extraction of quantum vacuum energy, in the context of the accelerated expansion, is proposed, and it is shown that experimentally realistic orders of values can be derived. The idea has been implemented in the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker geometry in the language of the effective action in the relativistic formalism of Schwinger's proper time and Seeley-DeWitt's heat kernel expansion. Read More


Like other starburst galaxies, M82 hosts compact, massive young star clusters that are interesting both in their own right and as benchmarks for population synthesis models. Can spectral synthesis models at resolutions around 1000 adequately reproduce the near-IR spectral features and the energy distribution of these clusters between 0.8 and 2. Read More


We have mapped the central region of the HH 111 protostellar system in 1.33 mm continuum, C18O(J=2-1), 13CO (J=2-1), and SO (N_J=5_6-4_5) emission at ~3" resolution with the Submillimeter Array. There are two sources, VLA 1 (=IRAS 05491+0247) and VLA 2, with the VLA 1 source driving the HH 111 jet. Read More


2008Dec
Affiliations: 1Columbia University
Category: Astrophysics

Magnetospheres of neutron stars are anchored in the rigid crust and can be twisted by sudden crustal motions ("starquakes"). The twisted magnetosphere does not remain static and gradually untwists, dissipating magnetic energy and producing radiation. The equation describing this evolution is derived, and its solutions are presented. Read More


SDSSJ212531.92-010745.9 is the first known PG1159 star in a close binary with a late main sequence companion allowing a dynamical mass determination. Read More


Pulsating subdwarf B stars oscillate in short-period $p$-modes or long-period $g$-modes. HS 0702 + 6043 is one of currently three objects known to show characteristics of both types and hence is classified as hybrid pulsator. We briefly present our analysis of the $g$-mode domain of this star, but focus on first results from long-term photometric monitoring in particular of the $p$-mode oscillations. Read More


We present time resolved echelle spectra of the planet-hosting subdwarf B pulsator HS 2201 + 2610 and report on our efforts to extract pulsational radial velocity measurements from this data. Read More


In a large coordinated attempt to further our understanding of the $p$-mode pulsating sdB star PG1605+072, the Multi-Site Spectroscopic Telescope (MSST) collaboration has obtained simultaneous time-resolved spectroscopic and photometric observations. The photometry was extended by additional WET data which increased the time base. This contribution outlines the analysis of the MSST photometric light curve, including the four-colour BUSCA data from which chromatic amplitudes have been derived, as well as supplementary FUV spectra and light curves from two different epochs. Read More


We present a new multi-fluid, grid MHD code PIERNIK, which is based on the Relaxing TVD scheme (Jin & Xin, 1995). The original scheme (see Trac & Pen (2003) and Pen et al. (2003)) has been extended by an addition of dynamically independent, but interacting fluids: dust and a diffusive cosmic ray gas, described within the fluid approximation, with an option to add other fluids in an easy way. Read More


A new line of research on Dark Stars is reviewed, which suggests that the first stars to exist in the universe were powered by dark matter heating rather than by fusion. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, which may be there own antipartmers, collect inside the first stars and annihilate to produce a heat source that can power the stars. A new stellar phase results, a Dark Star, powered by dark matter annihilation as long as there is dark matter fuel. Read More


Rotating black holes in the brany universe of the Randall-Sundrum type are described by the Kerr geometry with a tidal charge b representing the interaction of the brany black hole and the bulk spacetime. For b<0 rotating black holes with dimensionless spin a>1 are allowed. We investigate the role of the tidal charge b in the orbital resonance model of QPOs in black hole systems. Read More


The properties of quintessence are examined through the study of the variation of the electromagnetic coupling. We consider two simple quintessence models with a modified exponential potential and study the parameter space constraints derived from the existing observational bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant and the most recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations. Read More


We report the results of 3D spectroscopic observations of Mrk 493 (NLS1 galaxy) with the integral-field spectrograph MPFS of the SAO RAS 6-m telescope. The difference in the slope of the optical continuum emission intensity across the nucleus part and an extensive continuum emission region} is detected. The emission in lines (H$\alpha$, H$\beta$, [OIII], etc. Read More


Collapsars are fast-spinning, massive stars, whose core collapse liberates an energy, that can be channeled in the form of ultrarelativistic jets. These jets transport the energy from the collapsed core to large distances, where it is dissipated in the form of long-duration gamma-ray bursts. In this paper we study the dynamics of ultrarelativistic jets produced in collapsars. Read More


2008Dec
Authors: S. I. Blinnikov1
Affiliations: 1ITEP, Moscow and RESCEU, Tokyo; currently at IPMU, Tokyo
Category: Astrophysics

The extremely luminous supernova SN2006gy is explained in the same way as other SNIIn events: light is produced by a radiative shock propagating in a dense circumstellar envelope formed by a previous weak explosion. The problems in the theory and observations of multiple-explosion SNe IIn are briefly reviewed. Read More


In a novel approach to studying viscous accretion flows, viscosity has been introduced as a perturbative effect, involving a first-order correction in the $\alpha$-viscosity parameter. This method reduces the problem of solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation (Navier-Stokes equation) to that of an effective first-order equation. Viscosity breaks down the invariance of the equilibrium conditions for stationary inflow and outflow solutions, and distinguishes accretion from wind. Read More


Observations of the southern Cepheid l Car to yield the mean angular diameter and angular pulsation amplitude have been made with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) at a wavelength of 696 nm. The resulting mean limb-darkened angular diameter is 2.990+-0. Read More


We present a systematic temporal and spectral study of all Swift-XRT observations of GRB afterglows discovered between 2005 January and 2007 December. After constructing and fitting all light curves and spectra to power-law models, we classify the components of each afterglow in terms of the canonical X-ray afterglow and test them against the closure relations of the forward shock models for a variety of parameter combinations. The closure relations are used to identify potential jet breaks with characteristics including the uniform jet model with and without lateral spreading and energy injection, and a power-law structured jet model, all with a range of parameters. Read More


Within the context of standard cosmology, an accelerating universe requires the presence of a third `dark' component of energy, beyond matter and radiation. The available data, however, are still deemed insufficient to distinguish between an evolving dark energy component and the simplest model of a time-independent cosmological constant. In this paper, we examine the cosmological expansion in terms of observer-dependent coordinates, in addition to the more conventional co-moving coordinates. Read More


AIMS: For six neutron-star atoll sources (4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-53, 4U 0614+09, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1735-44) we investigate the relationship between the observed fractional rms amplitudes of the twin kHz QPOs. We discuss whether this displays features that could have a physical meaning in terms of the proposed QPO models. METHOD: We consider the difference in rms amplitude between the upper and lower kHz QPOs, as a function of the frequency ratio R. Read More


A new semianalytical model that explains the formation and sizes of the 'great walls' - the largest structures observed in the universe is suggested. Although the basis of the model is the Zel'dovich approximation it has been used in a new way very different from the previous studies. Instead of traditional approach that evaluates the nonlinear density field it has been utilized for identification of the regions in Lagrangian space that after the mapping to real or redshift space (depending on the kind of structure is studied) end up in the regions where shell-crossing occurs. Read More


There is no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis, and so it is useful to consider how constraints to thermally-produced axions change in non-standard thermal histories. In the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins at temperatures as low as 1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Axion abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are significantly loosened. Read More


Most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite show an early rapid decay phase (RDP) in their X-ray lightcurve, which is usually a smooth continuation of the prompt gamma-ray emission, strongly suggesting that it is its tail. However, the mechanism behind it is still not clear. The most popular model for this RDP is High Latitude Emission (HLE). Read More